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Encyclopedia > Kingdom of Gwynedd
History of Wales
Chronological Eras
Prehistoric Wales
Roman Wales
Early Middle Ages
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Brycheiniog
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Medieval kingdoms of Wales.
Medieval kingdoms of Wales.

Gwynedd (pr. /'gwɪnɛð/) was one of the kingdoms or principalities of medieval Wales. Traditionally covering an area between the rivers Dyfi and Dee in the north-west of the country around Snowdonia (Welsh: Eryri) and including the island of Anglesey (Welsh: Ynys Mon), its rulers—such as Maelgwn Hir, Owain Gwynedd, Llywelyn the Great and Llywelyn the Last—usually held ascendancy over their rivals. The region's geography made it difficult for English kings to impose their will on the local rulers. In honour of the kingdom's founder, its royal family is sometimes called the House of Cunedda. The senior branch of this dynasty, from Anarawd ap Rhodri onwards, are designated as the House of Aberffraw, which was a title and not the place where they necessarily resided. In the early thirteenth century Llywelyn Fawr developed the mainland of Gwynedd between Bangor and the River Conwy into the centre of his administration, with the royal home located at Garth Celyn overlooking the eastern approaches to the Menai Strait. Bangor was the Cathedral City and Conwy was the home of the Cistercian Monastery with links to its European mother Houses. Llanfaes, opposite Garth Celyn, was a busting port and market town. The Deryni novels are a series of historical fantasy books written by American-born author Katherine Kurtz. ... Gwynedd is the name of the fictional kingdom that is the setting of Katherine Kurtzs fantasy Deryni novels, as contrasted with the modern Welsh county of Gwynedd or the real-life kingdom of Gwynedd after which both are named. ... Caerphilly Castle. ... Prehistoric Wales in terms of human settlements covers the period from about 225,000 years ago, the date attributed to the earliest human remains found in what is now Wales, to the year 48 when the Roman army began a campaign against one of the Welsh tribes. ... Up to and during the Roman occupation of Britain, Wales was not a separate country; all the native inhabitants of Roman Britain spoke Brythonic languages (a sub-family of the Celtic languages) and were regarded as Britons (or Brythons). ... The history of Wales in the early Middle Ages is sketchy, as there is very little written history from the period. ... The Norman invasion of Wales began shortly after the Norman invasion of England. ... Wales in the Late Middle Ages covers the period from the death of Llywelyn ap Gruffydd in late 1282 to the incorporation of Wales into England by the Laws in Wales Acts 1535-1542. ... Brecknockshire, also known as Breconshire or, in Welsh, as Sir Frycheiniog is an inland traditional county of Wales, bounded to the north by Radnorshire, to the east by Herefordshire and Monmouthshire, to the south by Monmouthshire and Glamorganshire, and west by Carmarthenshire and Cardiganshire. ... For other uses please see Ceredigion (disambiguation) Ceredigion is a county and principal area in mid Wales. ... Deheubarth was a south-western kingdom or principality of medieval Wales. ... The Kingdom of Dyfed was a sub-Roman and early medieval kingdom in south-west Wales. ... Ergyng was a Welsh kingdom of the sub-Roman and early medieval period. ... Mediaeval kingdoms of Wales. ... Glywysing was a post-Roman and early medieval kingdom of mid-South Wales. ... Medieval kingdoms of Wales. ... Seisyllwg was a kingdom of medieval Wales. ... Welsh colonization of the Americas began in the 19th century. ... The term Welsh literature may be used to refer to any literature originating from Wales or by Welsh writers. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the country. ... The River Dyfi (Afon Dyfi in Welsh) (also known in English as the River Dovey) is a river in mid Wales. ... For other Rivers Dee in the UK, see River Dee. ... Tryfans north ridge (seen on the left in this picture) in Snowdonia. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Anglesey (historically Anglesea; Welsh: , pronounced (IPA)) is a predominantly Welsh-speaking island off the northwest coast of Wales. ... Maelgwn ap Cadwallon (480-547, reigned from 520s?) (Latin: Maglocunus; English: Malcolm), also known as Maelgwn Gwynedd, Maelgwn Hir (the Tall) and Maelgwn I, was king of Gwynedd, and a character from Celtic mythology. ... Owain Gwynedd (in English, Owen) (c. ... Llywelyn ap Iorwerth ( 1173–April 11, 1240) was a Prince of Gwynedd and eventually ruler of much of Wales. ... Arms used by Llywelyn ap Gruffydd Llywelyn ap Gruffydd or Llywelyn Ein Llyw Olaf (c. ... England is the largest and most populous of the constituent countries of the United Kingdom. ... Cunedda ap Edern (AD 386-460; reigned from the 440s or 450s) (Latin: Cunetacius; English: Kenneth), also known as as Cunedda Wledig (the Imperator), was an important early Welsh leader, and the progenitor of the royal dynasty of Gwynedd. ... Anarawd ap Rhodri (died 916) was a King of Gwynedd. ... Aberffraw is a small village on the south west coast of Anglesey (Welsh: ), by the west bank of the River Ffraw, at grid reference SH354693. ... , Bangor, in north Wales, is one of the smallest cities in the United Kingdom. ... The River Conwy, or, in Welsh Afon Conwy , is a river in North Wales. ... Garth Celyn, Aber Garth Celyn, now Abergwyngregyn, Gwynedd, the home in the thirteenth century of Llywelyn Fawr, Dafydd ap Llywelyn and LLywelyn ap Gruffudd, Tywysog Cymru Aber Garth Celyn, now known as Abergwyngregyn or Aber, is a settlement of great antiquity and on the north coast of Gwynedd. ... This article is about the town. ... The Order of Cistercians (OCist) (Latin Cistercenses), otherwise Gimey or White Monks (from the colour of the habit, over which is worn a black scapular or apron) are a Catholic order of monks. ...


Gwynedd covered part of the territory of the Ordovices, but tradition traced the kingdom's foundation to Cunedda, who migrated with his sons and followers from what is now southern Scotland. The name Gwynedd is probably derived from Brythonic *Ueneda and is akin to Goidelic (ancestor of Irish) Fenia (which gives fiana, "war-band" in Old Irish - e.g. Finn and his warriors). Thus the probable meaning is "Land of the Hosts" or "Land of the Warrior Bands"[1]. The territory was called Venedotia in Latin[2]. It is sometimes suggested that Gwynedd is a mutated form of Cunedda, thus the Kingdom of Cunedda, but there is no etymological basis for this. Whatever the exact etymology of the name, a gravestone from the late 5th century now in Penmachno church seems to be the earliest record of the name. It is in memory of a man named Cantiorix and the Latin inscription is: "Cantiorix hic iacit/Venedotis cives fuit/consobrinos Magli magistrati", ("Cantiorix lies here. He was a citizen of Gwynedd and a cousin of Maglos the magistrate"). The references to "citizen" and "magistrate" suggest that Roman institutions may have survived in Gwynedd for a while after the legions departed. The Ordovices were one of the Celtic tribes living in the British Islands, before the Roman invasion of Britain. ... Cunedda ap Edern (AD 386-460; reigned from the 440s or 450s) (Latin: Cunetacius; English: Kenneth), also known as as Cunedda Wledig (the Imperator), was an important early Welsh leader, and the progenitor of the royal dynasty of Gwynedd. ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Entomology, the scientific study of insects. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Penmachno is a village in the isolated upland valley of Cwm Penmachno, 4 miles south of Betws-y-Coed in the county of Conwy, north Wales. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


The heart of Gwynedd was originally at Deganwy, where Maelgwn Gwynedd (died 547) had his stronghold, but later moved to Aberffraw on Anglesey. The ruler of Gwynedd was often described as "Prince of Aberffraw" or "Lord of Aberffraw". Deganwy is a small town in the county borough of Conwy. ... Maelgwn ap Cadwallon (480-547, reigned from 520s?) (Latin: Maglocunus; English: Malcolm), also known as Maelgwn Gwynedd and Maelgwn Hir (the Tall), was king of Gwynedd, and a character from Celtic mythology. ... Events Ida founds the kingdom of Bernicia at Bamburgh (traditional date). ... Aberffraw is a small village on the south west coast of Anglesey (Welsh: ), by the west bank of the River Ffraw, at grid reference SH354693. ... Anglesey (historically Anglesea; Welsh: , pronounced (IPA)) is a predominantly Welsh-speaking island off the northwest coast of Wales. ...

Contents

History

Gravestone of Cadfan ap Iago, King of Gwynedd c615-625
Gravestone of Cadfan ap Iago, King of Gwynedd c615-625

Among the more powerful of the early kings of Gwynedd were Cadwallon ap Cadfan who invaded Northumbria and briefly controlled it, and Rhodri the Great (844 - 878) who was able to add Powys and part of southern Wales to his realm, becoming the first ruler to control the greater part of Wales. Rhodri's eldest son Anarawd ap Rhodri would establish the princely house of Aberffraw, that would come to rule Gwynedd until the 13th century. Hywel Dda of Deheubarth was able to annex Gwynedd to his own kingdom between 942 and 950, but the previous dynasty regained power on his death. The coastal areas, particularly Anglesey, were now coming under increasing attack by Viking raiders, particularly Danish raids in the period between 950 and 1000. Godfrey Haroldson is said to have carried off two thousand captives from Anglesey on 987, and the king of Gwynedd, Maredudd ab Owain is reported to have redeemed many of his subjects from slavery by paying the Danes a large ransom. Image File history File links Cadfan. ... Image File history File links Cadfan. ... Cadfan ap Iago ( 580–625; reigned from 615) (Latin: Catamanus; English: Gideon) was a King of Gwynedd. ... Cadwallon ap Cadfan (c. ... Section from Shepherds map of the British Isles about 802 AD showing the kingdom of Northumbria Northumbria is primarily the name of a petty kingdom of Angles which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, from two smaller kingdoms of Bernicia and Diera, and... Rhodri the Great a. ... Events Succession of Pope Sergius II (844 - 847). ... Events The Danes force king Alfred the Great of Wessex to retreat to a fort in Athelney, Somerset. ... Medieval kingdoms of Wales. ... Anarawd ap Rhodri (died 916) was a King of Gwynedd. ... Aberffraw is a small village on the south west coast of Anglesey (Welsh: ), by the west bank of the River Ffraw, at grid reference SH354693. ... Howell the Good (880?–950; Welsh: Hywel Dda or Hywel ap Cadell) is listed amongst the kings of Gwynedd. ... Events Kaminarimon, the eight-pillared gate to Japans Kinryuzan Sensouji Temple is erected. ... Events World Population: 250 Million. ... Maredudd ab Owain (died 999) was a Prince of Gwynedd and of Deheubarth. ...


Gruffudd ap Llywelyn, originally king of Gwynedd, was able to make himself king of most of Wales by 1055 and also held parts of England near the border after several victories over English armies. However in 1063 he was defeated by Harold Godwinson and killed by his own men. Bleddyn ap Cynfyn and his brother Rhiwallon came to terms with Harold and took over the rule of Gwynedd and Powys. See also Gruffydd ap Llywelyn Fawr Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (c. ... Events January 11 - Theodora becomes Reigning Empress of the Eastern Roman Empire. ... Events Anselm of Canterbury becomes prior at Le Bec Sancho I becomes ruler of Aragon Bishopric of Olomouc is founded Births Deaths April 30 - Emperor Renzong (b. ... Harold II of England (Harold Godwinson); c. ... Bleddyn ap Cynfyn (died 1075) was a Prince of Gwynedd and of Powys. ...


Shortly after the Norman conquest of England in 1066 the Normans began to exert pressure on the eastern border of Gwynedd. They were helped by internal strife, for following the killing of Bleddyn ap Cynfyn in Deheubarth in 1075, his cousin Trahaearn ap Caradog seized the throne but then was immediately challenged by Gruffydd ap Cynan who had been in exile in Ireland. Gruffydd briefly gained control of Gwynedd, but was then forced to flee back to Ireland. Trahaearn ruled until 1081, when Gruffydd launched another invasion. Trahaearn was defeated and killed at the Battle of Mynydd Carn and Gruffydd again ruled Gwynedd briefly. However he was then lured to a meeting with the Earl of Chester, seized and kept a prisoner at Chester for many years. By around 1086 the Norman Robert of Rhuddlan had gained control of most of Gwynedd, but eventually Gruffydd ap Cynan was able to escape and helped lead a Welsh revolt in 1094 which won back many of the occupied territories. Gruffydd ap Cynan was again forced to flee to Ireland in 1098 when the Earl of Chester and the Earl of Shrewsbury invaded Gwynedd and took possession of Anglesey. However the Norman forces were then attacked near the eastern end of the Menai Straits by a fleet led by King Magnus Barefoot of Norway, and the Earl of Shrewsbury was killed. The Normans evacuated Anglesey, and Gruffydd was able to return once more after coming to an agreement with the Earl of Chester. Gruffydd ruled until his death in 1137, and though he himself had become to old to lead the forces of Gwynedd by about 1120, his sons Cadwallon, Owain Gwynedd and Cadwaladr ap Gruffydd were able to extend Gwynedd's borders eastwards at the expense both of the Normans and of Powys. In 1136 they defeated the Normans at the Battle of Crug Mawr near Cardigan, and Ceredigion, traditionally a part of Deheubarth, was annexed to Gwynedd. Norman conquests in red. ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned September 20 - Battle of Fulford September 25 - Battle of Stamford Bridge September 29 - William of Normandy lands in England at Pevensey. ... Deheubarth was a south-western kingdom or principality of medieval Wales. ... Trahaearn ap Caradog (morto nel 1081) regnò sul Gwynedd dal 1075 al 1081. ... Gruffydd ap Cynan (c. ... Combatants Gruffydd ap Cynan, Rhys ap Tewdwr Trahaearn ap Caradog, Caradog ap Gruffydd Commanders Strength Casualties Unknown, said to be light Unknown, Trahaearn, Caradog and other notables killed {{{notes}}} The Battle of Mynydd Carn took place in 1081, as part of a dynastic struggle for control of the Welsh kingdoms... Events Domesday Book is completed in England Emperor Shirakawa of Japan starts his cloistered rule Imam Ali Mosque is rebuilt by the Seljuk Malik Shah I after being destroyed by fire. ... Robert of Rhuddlan (died 3 July 1088) was a Norman adventurer who became lord of much of north-east Wales and for a period lord of all North Wales. ... // May - El Cid completes his conquest of Valencia, Spain, and begins his rule of Valencia. ... The Menai Strait (in Welsh Afon Menai, the River Menai) is a narrow stretch of shallow tidal water about 14 miles (23 km) long, which separates the island of Anglesey from the mainland of Wales. ... Magnus Barefoot (1073-1103), son of Olav Kyrre, was king of Norway from 1093 until 1103. ... // Groups BL1137 is the (now defunct) Unix group at Bell Labs in Murray Hill, NJ where Unix and C were invented. ... Owain Gwynedd (in English, Owen) (c. ... Cadwaladr ap Gruffydd (died 1172) was the third son of Gruffydd ap Cynan, King of Gwynedd and younger brother of Owain Gwynedd. ... Medieval kingdoms of Wales. ... Combatants Welsh forces from Gwynedd and Deheubarth Norman forces from all the South Wales lordships Commanders Owain Gwynedd Robert Fitz Martin (???) Strength Several thousand Several thousand Casualties Said to be light Heavy {{{notes}}} The Battle of Crug Mawr took place in September or October 1136, as part of a struggle... Cardigan (Welsh: Aberteifi) is the traditional county town of Cardiganshire (Ceredigion) in west Wales. ... For other uses please see Ceredigion (disambiguation) Ceredigion is a county and principal area in mid Wales. ...

The arms of the royal Aberffraw dynasty, historic rulers of Gwynedd
Banner of the Kings of Gwynedd
Banner of the Personal Arms of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd

On Gruffydd's death his son Owain Gwynedd took over the throne and continued to build up the kingdom's power and extend its boundaries. Although both Deheubarth and Powys were led by very able rulers in Owain's time, Gwynedd was the dominant force in Wales and Owain was the undisputed leader of the coalition of all the Welsh rulers who opposed King Henry II of England's invasion in 1165. The invasion failed, and Owain's position was not threatened for the remainder of his reign. On Owain's death in 1170 war broke out between his sons. His designated heir, Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd was killed in battle the same year, and the kingdom was split between three of Owain's other sons. For a while Gwynedd lost its position as the most powerful of the Welsh kingdoms to Deheubarth under Rhys ap Gruffydd. Image File history File links Arms_Llywelyn. ... Image File history File links Arms_Llywelyn. ... Aberffraw is a small village on the south west coast of Anglesey (Welsh: ), by the west bank of the River Ffraw, at grid reference SH354693. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Owain Gwynedd (in English, Owen) (c. ... Henry II of England 5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd (died 1170) was the illegitimate son of Owain Gwynedd prince of Gwynedd and an Irishwoman named Pyfog. ... Deheubarth was a south-western kingdom or principality of medieval Wales. ... Rhys ap Gruffydd (1132–28 April 1197) was the ruler of the kingdom of Deheubarth (South Wales) from 1155 until his death. ...


By 1188 one of Owain Gwynedd's grandsons Llywelyn ab Iorwerth had begun to challenge his uncles, and by the end of the 12th century had gained control of Gwynedd. Llywelyn, later known as Llywelyn the Great, went on to become ruler of most of Wales. On his death in 1240, the rule of Gwynedd passed to his son Dafydd ap Llywelyn, but Dafydd died without an heir in 1246 and the kingdom was split between the sons of another son of Llywelyn the Great, Gruffudd ap Llywelyn. One of these, Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, eventually defeated his brothers and became ruler of all Gwynedd, later extending his rule to other parts of Wales. Llywelyn ap Iorwerth ( 1173–April 11, 1240) was a Prince of Gwynedd and eventually ruler of much of Wales. ... Dafydd ap Llywelyn (c. ... In the period before the Norman Conquest of Wales, several native princes had the name Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (Griffith son of Llywelyn). Two of these were of major importance in the history of Wales. ... Arms used by Llywelyn ap Gruffydd Llywelyn ap Gruffydd or Llywelyn Ein Llyw Olaf (c. ...


From 1200 until 1283 the home and headquarters of the Princes was Garth Celyn, Aber Garth Celyn, now known as Pen y Bryn,Abergwyngregyn or Aber in its shortened form adopted by the Crown of England after the conquest. Garth Celyn is situated on a ledge of land to the east of the river, at the foot of Maes y Gaer, a pre-Roman hillfort. It has widesweeping views over the Menai Strait to Anglesey, and the medieval port of Llanfaes. Joan, Lady of Wales, died at Garth Celyn in 1237; Dafydd ap Llywelyn in 1246; Eleanor de Montfort, Lady of Wales, wife of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, Tywysog Cymru, on 19th June 1282, giving birth to a daughter, Gwenllian. In November 1282 the Archbishop of Canterbury came to Garth Celyn to mediate between Llywelyn ap Gruffudd and Edward Longshanks. Tywysog Llywelyn was offered a bribe; One thousand pounds a year and an estate in England, if he would surrender his nation to Edward. From Garth Celyn Llywelyn wrote a dignified and emotional response setting out his total rejection of the offer. Within a month, Llywelyn, on 11 December 1282, was lured into a trap and executed. The letters preserved in the Lambeth Palace Archives provide a clear picture of the events. In June 1283 Dafydd ap Gruffudd was capured at Bera Mountain, in the uplands above Gath Celyn. Recorded as being 'severely injured' in his capture, he was taken to Edward that day, then moved to Shrewsbury where in October he was hanged, drawn and quartered. The royal children were locked away and never released: the boys in Bristol Castle; the girls in priories in Lincolnshire. Garth Celyn, Aber Garth Celyn, now Abergwyngregyn, Gwynedd, the home in the thirteenth century of Llywelyn Fawr, Dafydd ap Llywelyn and LLywelyn ap Gruffudd, Tywysog Cymru Aber Garth Celyn, now known as Abergwyngregyn or Aber, is a settlement of great antiquity and on the north coast of Gwynedd. ... Pen y Bryn is the demesne messuage of the old royal manor of Garth Celyn in Abergwyngregyn in the North Welsh county of Gwynedd. ... Abergwyngregyn is a village in Gwynedd, North Wales adjacent to the A55 five miles east of Bangor. ... Garth Celyn, Aber Garth Celyn, now Abergwyngregyn, Gwynedd, the home in the thirteenth century of Llywelyn Fawr, Dafydd ap Llywelyn and LLywelyn ap Gruffudd, Tywysog Cymru Aber Garth Celyn, now known as Abergwyngregyn or Aber, is a settlement of great antiquity and on the north coast of Gwynedd. ... Garth Celyn, Aber Garth Celyn, now Abergwyngregyn, Gwynedd, the home in the thirteenth century of Llywelyn Fawr, Dafydd ap Llywelyn and LLywelyn ap Gruffudd, Tywysog Cymru Aber Garth Celyn, now known as Abergwyngregyn or Aber, is a settlement of great antiquity and on the north coast of Gwynedd. ...


Administration

The extent of the kingdom varied with the strength of the current ruler. Gwynedd was traditionally divided into "Gwynedd Uwch Conwy", "Gwynedd Is Conwy" (with the River Conwy forming the dividing line between the two) and "Môn". The kingdom was administered under Welsh custom through thirteen Cantrefi each containing, in theory, one hundred settlements or Trefi. Most cantrefs were also divided into cymydau (English Commote). The River Conwy, or, in Welsh Afon Conwy , is a river in North Wales. ... A “commote” or “commot” was a secular division of land in Medieval Wales. ... A “commote” or “commot” was a secular division of land in Medieval Wales. ...


Ynys Môn

  • Aberffraw
  • Cemais
  • Rhosyr

Gwynedd-Uwch-Conwy

  • Arfon
  • Eifionydd
  • Arllechwedd
  • Llŷn
  • Ardudwy
  • Meirionnydd

Perfeddwlad (also known as Gwynedd-Is-Conwy) The ancient Welsh cantref of Arfon in north-west Wales was part of the kingdom of Gwynedd for much of its history until it was included in the new county of Caernarfonshire, together with Llŷn and Arllechwedd under the terms of the Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284. ... Eifionydd is an area in north-west Wales covering the south-eastern part of the Lleyn peninsula from Porthmadog to just east of Pwllheli. ... The ancient Welsh cantref of Arllechwedd in north-west Wales was part of the kingdom of Gwynedd for much of its history until it was included in the new county of Caernarfonshire, together with Arfon and Llŷn under the terms of the Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284. ... The ancient Welsh cantref of Llŷn in north-west Wales was part of the kingdom of Gwynedd for much of its history until it was included in the new county of Caernarfonshire, together with Arfon and Arllechwedd under the terms of the Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284. ... Perfeddwlad, meaning middle country in Welsh, was a name adopted during the twelfth century for the territories in north-east Wales lying between the rivers Conwy and Dee, and comprised the cantrefi of Rhôs, Rhufoniog, Dyffryn Clwyd and Tegeingl. ...

Rhôs was a small kingdom in northern Wales during the 5th and 6th Centuries AD. In the 6th century a man called Cynlas Goch ruled the kingdom of Rhôs. ... Rhufoniog was a small sub-kingdom of the Kingdom of Gwynedd and later a cantref in medieval Wales. ...

End of Independence

Following the death of Llywelyn ap Gruffydd in 1282, and the execution of his brother Dafydd ap Gruffydd the following year, eight centuries of independent rule by the house of Gwynedd came to an end, and the kingdom, which had long been one of the final holdouts to total English domination of Wales, was annexed to England. Under the terms of the Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284 the realm was broken up and re-organised into the English county model which created the traditional counties of Anglesey, Carnarvonshire, Merionethshire, Denbighshire and Flintshire. This administrative model would last until the re-organisation of 1974. Arms used by Llywelyn ap Gruffydd Llywelyn ap Gruffudd or Gruffydd (c. ... Dafydd ap Gruffydd (c. ... The Statute of Rhuddlan was enacted on 3 March 1284 after the conquest of Wales by the English king Edward I. The Statute of Rhuddlan was issued from Rhuddlan Castle in North Wales, which was built as one of the iron ring of fortresses by Edward I, in his late... Anglesey (historically Anglesea; Welsh: , pronounced (IPA)) is a predominantly Welsh-speaking island off the northwest coast of Wales. ... Caernarfonshire, also known as Carnarvonshire or, in Welsh, as Sir Gaernarfon, is a maritime traditional county of Wales. ... Merionethshire (Meirionnydd in Welsh) is a traditional county of Wales. ... Denbighshire (Welsh: Sir Ddinbych) is a county in North Wales. ... Flintshire (Welsh: ) is a principal area and county in north-east Wales. ...


There were many Gwynedd based rebellions after 1284 with varying degrees of success with most being led by members of the old royal house. In particular the rebellions of Prince Madoc in 1294, Owain Lawgoch (the great-nephew of Llywelyn ap Gruffydd) between 1372-1378, and Owain Glyndŵr in 1400 are most notable. Because of this the old royal house was purged and any surviving members went in to hiding. Madoc ap Llywelyn or Prince Madoc was from a junior branch of the House of Cunedda and a distant relation of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd (King Llywelyn III of Gwynedd) the last recognised native Prince of Wales. ... Owain Lawgoch, (English: Owain of the Red Hand, French: Yvain de Galles), full name Owain ap Thomas ap Rhodri (c. ... Seal of Owain Glyndŵr The Arms of Powys and Deheubarth quartered, adopted by Owain Glyndŵr: Or and Gules, four Lions counterchanged Owain Glyndŵr (Pronounced IPA: ), or Owain Glyn Dŵr, anglicised by Shakespeare into Owen Glendower (c. ...


The Wynn family of Gwydir proved their royal ancestry, some say by manipulating ancient pedigrees in order to consolidate their legitimacy, in the 16th Century and Sir John Wynn, 1st Baronet and his descendants was recognised across north Wales as the de jure Princes of Gwynedd until the male line died out, probably in the late 18th Century. Another claim could come from any surviving male descendants of Dafydd Goch the acknowledged bastard son of Dafydd ap Gruffudd who avoided detection during the royal purges and continued the line. Painting of Sir John Wynn by R. Vaughan Sir John Wynn (1553-March 1, 1627), Welsh baronet, member of parliament and antiquary, was the son of Morys Wynn ap John and directly descended from the princes of Gwynedd through Rhodri ab Owain son of Owain Gwynedd. ... Dafydd Penmachno Goch or Dafydd ap Dafydd ap Gruffudd is said in some geneological sources to be the illegitimate and only surviving son of Dafydd III the last free Welsh Prince of Wales (December 1282 - June 1283). ... Look up bastard in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Dafydd ap Gruffydd (c. ...


Kings of Gwynedd

Cunedda ap Edern (AD 386-460; reigned from the 440s or 450s) (Latin: Cunetacius; English: Kenneth), also known as as Cunedda Wledig (the Imperator), was an important early Welsh leader, and the progenitor of the royal dynasty of Gwynedd. ... Events August 25 - Marcian proclaimed Eastern Roman Emperor by Aspar and Pulcheria. ... Events March 27 night - Swabians invade the Gallic city of Lugo. ... Einion ap Cunedda (420 - 500; reigned from the 470s) (Latin: Engenius; English: Enoch), also known as Einion Yrth (the Impetuous) was a king of Gwynedd. ... Events Euric, king of the Visigoths, defeats an attempted invasion of Gaul by the Celtic magnate Riothamus. ... Events Odoacer defeats an attempt by Julius Nepos to recapture Italy, and has Julius killed; Odoacer also captured Dalmatia. ... Cadwallon ap Einion (460-534; reigned from 500), also known as Cadwallon Lawhir (Long Hand), was a king of Gwynedd. ... Events Possible date for the Battle of Mons Badonicus: Romano-British and Celts defeat an Anglo-Saxon army that may have been led by the bretwalda Aelle of Sussex (approximate date; suggested dates range from 490 to 510) Note: This battle may have influenced the legend of King Arthur. ... Events January 1 - Decimus Theodorius Paulinus appointed consul, the last to hold this office in the West. ... Maelgwn ap Cadwallon (480-547, reigned from 520s?) (Latin: Maglocunus; English: Malcolm), also known as Maelgwn Gwynedd, Maelgwn Hir (the Tall) and Maelgwn I, was king of Gwynedd, and a character from Celtic mythology. ... Events February 20 - Epiphanius elected Patriarch of Constantinople. ... Events Ida founds the kingdom of Bernicia at Bamburgh (traditional date). ... Rhun ap Maelgwn (492-586, reigned from 549) (Latin: Rugenus, English: Run), also known as Rhun Hir (the Tall) was a king of Gwynedd. ... Events Ida founds the kingdom of Bernicia at Bamburgh (traditional date). ... Ethelbert becomes king of Kent. ... Beli ap Rhun ( 517-599, reigned from 586) was king of Gwynedd. ... Ethelbert becomes king of Kent. ... Events The Chinese win the war at Ordos. ... Iago ap Beli ( 560-613; reigned from 599) (Latin: Iacobus; English: James) was King of Gwynedd. ... Events The Chinese win the war at Ordos. ... Events Clotaire II reunites the Frankish kingdoms by ordering the murder of Sigebert II. Saint Columbanus founds the monastery of Bobbio in northern Italy. ... Cadfan ap Iago ( 580–625; reigned from 615) (Latin: Catamanus; English: Gideon) was a King of Gwynedd. ... Events Clotaire II reunites the Frankish kingdoms by ordering the murder of Sigebert II. Saint Columbanus founds the monastery of Bobbio in northern Italy. ... Events October 27 - Pope Boniface V succeeded by Pope Honorius I. Births Adamnan, abbot of Iona Empress Wu Zetian of China Deaths Pope Boniface V Category: 625 ... Cadwallon ap Cadfan (c. ... Events October 27 - Pope Boniface V succeeded by Pope Honorius I. Births Adamnan, abbot of Iona Empress Wu Zetian of China Deaths Pope Boniface V Category: 625 ... Events The Arabs invade Palestine. ... Cadafael ap Cynfeddw (reigned 634– 655), also known as Cadafael Cadomedd (Battle-Shirker), was a king of Gwynedd. ... Events The Arabs invade Palestine. ... Events November 15 - Northumbrian king Oswiu defeats the pagan Mercian king Penda in the Battle of Winwaed Empress Saimei ascends to the throne of Japan. ... Cadwaladr ap Cadwallon ( 633–682, reigned from 655) (Latin: Catuvelladurus; English: Cadwallader), also known as Cadwaladr Fendigaid (the Blessed) was a king of Gwynedd. ... Events November 15 - Northumbrian king Oswiu defeats the pagan Mercian king Penda in the Battle of Winwaed Empress Saimei ascends to the throne of Japan. ... // Events Leo II elected pope. ... Idwal ap Cadwaladr (650-720; reigned from 682) (Latin: Ituvellus; English: Judwald), also known as Idwal Iwrch (Roebuck), was a king of Gwynedd. ... // Events Leo II elected pope. ... Events Umayyad caliph Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz succeeded by Yazid II ibn Abd al-Malik The Nihonshoki (日本書紀), one of the oldest history books in Japan, is completed Births Bertrada, wife of Pippin III (d. ... Rhodri ap Idwal (690-754; reigned from 720) (Latin: Rodericus; English: Roderick), also known as Rhodri Molwynog (the Bald and Gray), was a king of Gwynedd. ... Events Umayyad caliph Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz succeeded by Yazid II ibn Abd al-Malik The Nihonshoki (日本書紀), one of the oldest history books in Japan, is completed Births Bertrada, wife of Pippin III (d. ... Events Pope Stephen III crowns Pepin the short King of the Franks at St. ... Caradog ap Meirion (730–798; reigned from 754) (Latin: Caratacus; English: Caractacus) was a king of Gwynedd. ... Events Pope Stephen III crowns Pepin the short King of the Franks at St. ... Events Coenwulf of Mercia invades Kent, deposes and imprisons king Eadbert Praen and makes his own brother Cuthred king. ... Cynan Dindaethwy ap Rhodri - Cynan Dindaethwy - was King of Gwynedd (798–816) in medieval north-west Wales. ... Events Coenwulf of Mercia invades Kent, deposes and imprisons king Eadbert Praen and makes his own brother Cuthred king. ... Events Frankish king Louis the Pious crowned emperor. ... Hywel ap Rhodri Molwynog (died 825), called in some genealogies Hywel Farf-fehinog ap Caradog, was a king of Gwynedd. ... Events Louis the Pious succeeds Charlemagne as king of the Franks and Emperor. ... Events Egbert of Wessex defeats Beornwulf of Mercia at Ellandun. ... Merfyn Frych ap Gwriad (died 844) was a King of Gwynedd. ... Events Egbert of Wessex defeats Beornwulf of Mercia at Ellandun. ... Events Succession of Pope Sergius II (844 - 847). ... Rhodri the Great a. ... Events Succession of Pope Sergius II (844 - 847). ... Events The Danes force king Alfred the Great of Wessex to retreat to a fort in Athelney, Somerset. ... Anarawd ap Rhodri (died 916) was a King of Gwynedd. ... Events The Danes force king Alfred the Great of Wessex to retreat to a fort in Athelney, Somerset. ... Events City of Mahdia founded in Tunisia Mercian warrior queen Aethelflaed conquers Wales Births Deaths St. ... The House of Gwynedd is the name given to the old royal house of the Kingdom of Gwynedd. ... Idwal Foel ab Anarawd (Idwal the Bald) (died 942) was a Prince of Gwynedd. ... Events City of Mahdia founded in Tunisia Mercian warrior queen Aethelflaed conquers Wales Births Deaths St. ... Events Kaminarimon, the eight-pillared gate to Japans Kinryuzan Sensouji Temple is erected. ... Howell the Good (880?–950; Welsh: Hywel Dda or Hywel ap Cadell) is listed amongst the kings of Gwynedd. ... Events Kaminarimon, the eight-pillared gate to Japans Kinryuzan Sensouji Temple is erected. ... Events World Population: 250 Million. ... Dinefwr was a local government district in Dyfed, Wales from 1974 to 1996. ... Iago ab Idwal (ruled 950 - 979) was a King of Gwynedd and possibly Powys. ... Events World Population: 250 Million. ... Events: The Tynwald, the parliament of the Isle of Man, is founded. ... Ieuaf ab Idwal (ruled 950 - 969) was a King of part of Gwynedd and possibly part of Powys (in what we today call Wales). ... Events World Population: 250 Million. ... Events December 11 - John I becomes Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire. ... Hywel ab Ieuaf (died 985) was a King of Gwynedd. ... Events Antipope Boniface VII succeeds Pope Benedict VI. The Byzantine Empire retakes Syria including Aleppo from the Abbasids. ... Events Barcelona sacked by Al-Mansur Greenland colonized by Icelandic Viking Erik the Red (the date is according to legend but has been established as at least approximately correct – see History of Greenland) Lady Wulfruna founded the town that later became the city of Wolverhampton Births Al-Hakim bi... Cadwallon ab Ieuaf (died 986) was a King of Gwynedd. ... Events Barcelona sacked by Al-Mansur Greenland colonized by Icelandic Viking Erik the Red (the date is according to legend but has been established as at least approximately correct – see History of Greenland) Lady Wulfruna founded the town that later became the city of Wolverhampton Births Al-Hakim bi... Events March 2 - Louis V becomes King of the Franks End of the reign of Emperor Kazan of Japan Emperor Ichijo ascends to the throne of Japan Explorer Bjarni Herjólfsson becomes the first inhabitant of the Old World to sight North America Births Deaths March 2 - Lothair, King of... Maredudd ab Owain (died 999) was a Prince of Gwynedd and of Deheubarth. ... Events March 2 - Louis V becomes King of the Franks End of the reign of Emperor Kazan of Japan Emperor Ichijo ascends to the throne of Japan Explorer Bjarni Herjólfsson becomes the first inhabitant of the Old World to sight North America Births Deaths March 2 - Lothair, King of... Events Silesia is incorporated into territory ruled by Boleslaus I of Poland Pope Silvester II succeeds Pope Gregory V Sigmundur Brestisson introduces christianity in the Faroe Islands Deaths December 16 - Saint Adelaide of Italy (b. ... Dinefwr was a local government district in Dyfed, Wales from 1974 to 1996. ... Cynan ap Hywel (ruled 999 - 1005) was a Prince of Gwynedd. ... Events Silesia is incorporated into territory ruled by Boleslaus I of Poland Pope Silvester II succeeds Pope Gregory V Sigmundur Brestisson introduces christianity in the Faroe Islands Deaths December 16 - Saint Adelaide of Italy (b. ... Events Malcolm II succeeds Kenneth III as king of Scotland. ... Aeddan ap Blegywryd (died 1018) was a Prince of Gwynedd. ... Events Malcolm II succeeds Kenneth III as king of Scotland. ... // Team# 1018 Pike High School Robotics Team Team #1018 FIRST Logo Check Out Our FIRST WIKI Page Events Bulgaria becomes part of the Byzantine Empire. ... Llywelyn ap Seisyll (died 1023) was a King of Gwynedd and of Deheubarth in north-west and south-west Wales. ... // Team# 1018 Pike High School Robotics Team Team #1018 FIRST Logo Check Out Our FIRST WIKI Page Events Bulgaria becomes part of the Byzantine Empire. ... Events The Judge-Governor of Sevilla takes advantage of the disintegration of the caliphate of Córdoba and seizes power as Abbad I, thus founded the Abbadid dynasty. ... Mathrafal near Welshpool was the seat of the Kings and Princes of Powys probably from the 9th Century until its destruction in 1212 by Llywelyn ap Iorwerth of Gwynedd. ... Iago ab Idwal ap Meurig (died 1039) was a Prince of Gwynedd. ... Events The Judge-Governor of Sevilla takes advantage of the disintegration of the caliphate of Córdoba and seizes power as Abbad I, thus founded the Abbadid dynasty. ... Events June 4 - Henry III becomes King of Germany. ... In the period before the Norman Conquest of Wales, several native princes had the name Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (Griffith son of Llywelyn). Two of these were of major importance in the history of Wales. ... Events June 4 - Henry III becomes King of Germany. ... Events Anselm of Canterbury becomes prior at Le Bec Sancho I becomes ruler of Aragon Bishopric of Olomouc is founded Births Deaths April 30 - Emperor Renzong (b. ... Bleddyn ap Cynfyn (died 1075) was a Prince of Gwynedd and of Powys. ... Events Anselm of Canterbury becomes prior at Le Bec Sancho I becomes ruler of Aragon Bishopric of Olomouc is founded Births Deaths April 30 - Emperor Renzong (b. ... Events Revolt of the Earls. ... Trahaearn ap Caradog (morto nel 1081) regnò sul Gwynedd dal 1075 al 1081. ... Events Revolt of the Earls. ... Events Corfu taken from Byzantine Empire by Robert Guiscard, Italy Byzantine emperor Nicephorus III is overthrown by Alexius I Comnenus, ending the Middle Byzantine period and beginning the Comnenan dynasty Alexius I helps defend Albania from the Normans (the first recorded mention of Albania), but is defeated at the Battle... Gruffydd ap Cynan (c. ... Events Corfu taken from Byzantine Empire by Robert Guiscard, Italy Byzantine emperor Nicephorus III is overthrown by Alexius I Comnenus, ending the Middle Byzantine period and beginning the Comnenan dynasty Alexius I helps defend Albania from the Normans (the first recorded mention of Albania), but is defeated at the Battle... // Groups BL1137 is the (now defunct) Unix group at Bell Labs in Murray Hill, NJ where Unix and C were invented. ... Owain Gwynedd (in English, Owen) (c. ... // Groups BL1137 is the (now defunct) Unix group at Bell Labs in Murray Hill, NJ where Unix and C were invented. ... December 29: Assassination of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, in Canterbury cathedral City of Dublin captured by the Normans According to folklore, the Welsh prince Madoc sailed to North America and founded a colony. ...

Princes of Aberffraw & Lords of Snowdon

Maelgwn ab Owain Gwynedd was a prince of part of Gwynedd. ... December 29: Assassination of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, in Canterbury cathedral City of Dublin captured by the Normans According to folklore, the Welsh prince Madoc sailed to North America and founded a colony. ... Canonization of Saint Thomas à Becket, buried at Canterbury Castle at Abergavenny was seized by the Welsh. ... Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd (died 1203) was Prince of Gwynedd from 1170 to 1195. ... December 29: Assassination of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, in Canterbury cathedral City of Dublin captured by the Normans According to folklore, the Welsh prince Madoc sailed to North America and founded a colony. ... Events Priory of St Marys, Bushmead, founded. ... Rhodri ab Owain Gwynedd (1135(?)-1195), was prince of part of Gwynedd. ... December 29: Assassination of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, in Canterbury cathedral City of Dublin captured by the Normans According to folklore, the Welsh prince Madoc sailed to North America and founded a colony. ... Events March 16 - Massacre and mass-suicide of the Jews of York, England prompted by Crusaders and Richard Malebys kill 150-500 Jews in Cliffords Tower June 10 - Third Crusade: Frederick I Barbarossa drowned in the Saleph River while leading an army to Jerusalem. ... Llywelyn ap Iorwerth ( 1173–April 11, 1240) was a Prince of Gwynedd and eventually ruler of much of Wales. ... Events Priory of St Marys, Bushmead, founded. ... Events Batu Khan and the Golden Horde sack the Ruthenian city of Kyiv Births Pope Benedict XI Deaths April 11 - Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, also known as Llywelyn The Great Prince of Gwynedd Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile... Dafydd ap Llywelyn (c. ... Events Batu Khan and the Golden Horde sack the Ruthenian city of Kyiv Births Pope Benedict XI Deaths April 11 - Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, also known as Llywelyn The Great Prince of Gwynedd Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Saga, emperor of Japan. ... Owain ap Gruffydd, (also known as Owain Goch (Owain the Red)), (d. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Saga, emperor of Japan. ... Events Königsberg was founded Births Emperor Albert I of Germany, in July Deaths Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Categories: 1255 ... Arms used by Llywelyn ap Gruffydd Llywelyn ap Gruffydd or Llywelyn Ein Llyw Olaf (c. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Saga, emperor of Japan. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Dafydd ap Gruffydd (c. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Madoc ap Llywelyn or Prince Madoc was from a junior branch of the House of Cunedda and a distant relation of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd (King Llywelyn III of Gwynedd) the last recognised native Prince of Wales. ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... Events Mongol leader Ghazan Khan is converted to Islam, ending a line of Tantric Buddhist leaders. ... Owain Lawgoch, (English: Owain of the Red Hand, French: Yvain de Galles), full name Owain ap Thomas ap Rhodri (c. ... In this year, the city of Aachen, Germany begins adding a Roman numeral Anno Domini date to a few of its coins. ... Events March - John Wyclif tried to gain public favour by laying his theses before parliament, and then made them public in a tract. ...

Fictional reference

The Deryni novels and stories written by Katherine Kurtz take place in a fictional Gwynedd which occupies an alternative version of western Europe during the Middle Ages. The Deryni novels are a series of historical fantasy books written by American-born author Katherine Kurtz. ... Katherine (Irene) Kurtz (born 1944) is the author of numerous fantasy novels, especially the Deryni novels. ... Gwynedd is the name of the fictional kingdom that is the setting of Katherine Kurtzs fantasy Deryni novels, as contrasted with the modern Welsh county of Gwynedd or the real-life kingdom of Gwynedd after which both are named. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


Traci Harding has written a trilogy of books set in the Kingdom of Gwynedd featuring Maelgwn. Traci Harding is an Australian novelist. ... Maelgwn ap Cadwallon (480-547, reigned from 520s?) (Latin: Maglocunus; English: Malcolm), also known as Maelgwn Gwynedd, Maelgwn Hir (the Tall) and Maelgwn I, was king of Gwynedd, and a character from Celtic mythology. ...


Edith Pargeter has written two sets of historical novels set in medieval Wales, the 'Brothers of Gwynedd' saga and the 'Heaven Tree Trilogy'. Edith Mary Pargeter, BEM (September 28, 1913 in Horsehay, Shropshire, England –October 14, 1995) was a prolific author of works in many categories, especially history and historical fiction, and was also honoured for her translations of Czech classics; she is probably best known for her murder mysteries, both historical and...


Sharon Kay Penman wrote of the Aberffraw dynasty from Llywelyn the Great to his grandson Llywelyn ap Gruffudd in her trilogy Here Be Dragons, Falls the Shadow, and The Reckoning. Sharon Kay Penman (born 1945) is an American author of fiction, born in New York, but her ancestors were Anglo-Irish. ... Aberffraw is a small village on the south west coast of Anglesey (Welsh: ), by the west bank of the River Ffraw, at grid reference SH354693. ...


Hungarian author Antal Szerb's novel The Pendragon Legend is set partially in Wales, at the fictional castle of the "Earl of Gwynedd". Antal Szerb (Budapest, 1901 - Balf, 1945) was a noted Hungarian scholar and writer. ... the best novel of Szerb ...


Notes

  1. ^ Going further back etymologically the root *uen- is akin to Latin vena- and suggests "to struggle; to desire, to like" (the root of Latin venus, "love", and also venari "to hunt"). See Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru (University of Wales Dictionary), vol. I, page 1773
  2. ^ Christopher A. Snyder, The Britons, Blackwell Publishing, 2003.

Blackwell Publishing was formed in 2001 from two Oxford-based academic publishing companies, Blackwell Science and Blackwell Publishers and is the worlds leading society publisher, partnering with 665 academic and professional societies. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • John Edward Lloyd (1911) A history of Wales from the earliest times to the Edwardian conquest (Longmans, Green & Co.)
  • David Stephenson (1984) The governance of Gwynedd (University of Wales Press) ISBN 0-7083-0850-3
  • Gwynfor Evans Cymru O Hud , Abergwyngregyn
  • Y Traethodydd (1998) Tystiolaeth Garth Celyn

 
 

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