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Encyclopedia > Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
Flag

927 — 1649
1660 — 1707


Flag Coat of arms
Flag Royal Arms (1198-1340)
Motto
"Dieu et mon droit"  (French)
"God and my right"
Territory of the Kingdom of England
Capital Winchester;
London from 11th century
Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066)
Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century)
English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century)
Government Monarchy
Monarch
 - 924-939 Athelstan
 - 1702-1707 Anne
Legislature Parliament of England
 - Upper house House of Lords
 - Lower house House of Commons
History
 - Unification by Athelstan 927
 - Norman conquest 1066
 - English Interregnum 30 January 1649
 - English Restoration 1660
 - Constitutional monarchy 1688
 - Union with Scotland May 1, 1707
Currency Pound sterling

The Kingdom of England was a state located in western Europe, in the southern part of the island of Great Britain, consisting of the modern day constituent countries of England and Wales and the modern legal entity of England and Wales. A map showing the general locations of the Anglo-Saxon peoples around the year 600 Britain and Ireland around the year 802 Heptarchy (Greek: seven + realm) is a collective name applied to the kingdoms of the south and east of Great Britain during late antiquity and the early Middle Ages... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... Motto: PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1649-1658 Oliver Cromwell Legislature Rump Parliament Barebones Parliament History  - Declaration of Commonwealth May 19, 1649  - Declaration of Breda April 4, 1660 Area 130,395... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Motto: PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1649-1658 Oliver Cromwell Legislature Rump Parliament Barebones Parliament History  - Declaration of Commonwealth May 19, 1649  - Declaration of Breda April 4, 1660 Area 130,395... Image File history File links Union_flag_1606_(Kings_Colors). ... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_England. ... Image File history File links England_COA.svg‎ Source own work created in Inkscape, based on Image:EnglishcoatofarmsGFDL.png Date 2006-11-21 Author MesserWoland Permission Own work, copyleft: Multi-license with GFDL and Creative Commons CC-BY-SA-2. ... The Flag of England (5:3) The Flag of England is the St Georges Cross. ... The Coat of Arms of England The Coat of Arms of England is gules, three lions passant guardant in pale or armed & langued azure The Coat of Arms was introduced by King Richard I of England in the 1190s, apparently as a version of the arms of the Duchy of... A motto (from Italian) is a phrase or a short list of words meant formally to describe the general motivation or intention of an entity, social group, or organization. ... Dieu et mon droit (French for God and my [birth] right) has generally been used as the motto of the British monarch since it was adopted by Henry V (1413-22). ... Image File history File links Location_of_the_Kingdom_of_England1. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... Winchester Cathedral as seen from the Cathedral Close Arms of Winchester City Council Winchester is a city in southern England, and the administrative capital of the county of Hampshire, with a population of around 35,000. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... The Anglo-Norman language is the name given to the variety of Norman spoken by the Anglo-Normans, the descendants of the Normans who ruled England following the conquest by William of Normandy in 1066. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... “Kingdom” redirects here. ... This is a list of the monarchs of England, which was unified as a kingdom in a series of stages between the reigns of Alfred the Great of Wessex and his grandson Athelstan (from 878 to 927). ... For the East Anglian king christened Æthelstan, see Guthrum the Old. ... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) followed Englands only joint monarchy to become Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702 after the passing of both William and Mary. ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... The English parliament in front of the King, c. ... The House of Lords is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is also commonly referred to as the Lords. The Sovereign, the House of Commons (which is the lower house of Parliament and referred to as the Commons), and the Lords together comprise the Parliament. ... Type Lower House Speaker of the House of Commons Leader of the House of Commons Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Harriet Harman, QC, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader of the House of Commons Theresa May, PC, (Conservative) since December 6, 2005 Members 646 Political groups... For the East Anglian king christened Æthelstan, see Guthrum the Old. ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned September 20 - Battle of Fulford September 25 - Battle of Stamford Bridge September 29 - William of Normandy lands in England at Pevensey. ... The English Interregnum was the period of parliamentary and military rule in the land occupied by modern-day England and Wales after the English Civil War. ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... The Revolution of 1688, commonly known as the Glorious Revolution, was the overthrow of James II of England in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange). ... // Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ... The Acts of Union were a pair of Acts of Parliament passed in 1706 and 1707 (taking effect on 1 May 1707) by, respectively, the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “GBP” redirects here. ... A state is a political association with effective dominion over a geographic area. ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total 130... This article is about the country. ...


The chief royal residence was originally located at Winchester, in Hampshire, but London and Gloucester were accorded almost equal status - especially London, which had become the de facto capital by the beginning of the 12th century. London served as the capital of the kingdom until its merger with the Kingdom of Scotland in 1707 (see Acts of Union 1707) and continues to remain the chief city of England. The city has also served as the capital of both the Kingdom of Great Britain (1707–1801) and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1922). Today it remains the capital of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the "United Kingdom"). Winchester Cathedral as seen from the Cathedral Close Arms of Winchester City Council Winchester is a city in southern England, and the administrative capital of the county of Hampshire, with a population of around 35,000. ... Hampshire, sometimes historically Southamptonshire or Hamptonshire, (abbr. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Gloucester (pronounced ) is a city and district in the English county of Gloucestershire, close to the Welsh border. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Motto Latin: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Capital Edinburgh¹ Language(s) Gaelic, Scots Government Monarchy King/Queen  - 843-860 Kenneth I  - 1587–1625 James VI  - 1702-1714 Anne Legislature Parliament of Scotland History  - United 843  - Union of the Crowns March 24, 1603  - Act of... The Acts of Union were a pair of Acts of Parliament passed in 1706 and 1707 (taking effect on 1 May 1707) by, respectively, the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total 130... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right1 Anthem God Save the King (Queen) Territory of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Capital London Language(s) English² Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1801–1820 George III  - 1820–1830 George IV  - 1830–1837 William IV  - 1837–1901... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent...


The present monarch of the United Kingdom, Queen Elizabeth II, is the modern successor to the Kings and Queens of England. The title of Queen (and King) of England has been legally incorrect since 1707, although it is still in common use. Elizabeth can trace her descent from the Kings of Wessex from the 1st millennium. Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... This table shows the descent of Elizabeth II from Egbert, traditionally regarded as first King of England, and before that from Cerdic, founder of the House of Wessex. ... In the Gregorian calendar, the 1st millennium is the period of one thousand years that commenced with the year 1 Anno Domini. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of England

The Kingdom of England has no specific founding date. The Kingdom can trace its origins to the Heptarchy, the rule of what would later become England by seven minor Kingdoms: East Anglia, Essex, Kent, Mercia, Northumbria, Sussex, and Wessex. England is the largest and most populous of the constituent countries of the United Kingdom (the United Kingdom is a nation which was created by the bonding of the four succsessor states). ... A map showing the general locations of the Anglo-Saxon peoples around the year 600 Britain and Ireland around the year 802 Heptarchy (Greek: seven + realm) is a collective name applied to the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of the south and east of Great Britain during late antiquity and the early... Norfolk and Suffolk, the core area of East Anglia. ... The Kingdom of the East Seaxe (one of the seven traditional kingdoms of the so-called Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy) was founded around 500 AD and covered the territory currently occupied by the counties of Essex, Hertfordshire and Middlesex. ... The Kingdom of Kent was a kingdom of Jutes in southeast England, one of the seven traditional kingdoms of the so-called Anglo-Saxon heptarchy. ... The Kingdom of Mercia at its greatest extent (7th to 9th centuries) is shown in green, with the original core area (6th century) given a darker tint. ... Section from Shepherds map of the British Isles about 802 AD showing the kingdom of Northumbria Northumbria is primarily the name of a petty kingdom of Angles which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, from two smaller kingdoms of Bernicia and Diera, and... The Kingdom of Sussex, (Suth Seaxe, i. ... Wessex was one of the seven major Anglo-Saxon kingdoms (the Heptarchy) that preceded the kingdom of England. ...


The Kings of Wessex became increasingly dominant over the other kingdoms of England during the 9th century. Alfred the Great (reigned 871–899) was the first King of Wessex to style himself "King of England". His son Edward the Elder (reigned 899–924) exceeded the military achievements of his father by establishing his rule over the Danelaw. The death of his sister Ethelfleda in 918, resulted in his usurping the rule of Mercia from his niece Aelfwynn in 919. In 927 the last kingdom of early mediaeval England, Northumbria, fell to the King of Wessex Athelstan, a son of Edward the Elder. Athelstan was the first to reign over a united England. He was not the first de jure King of England, but certainly the first de facto one. This is a list of monarchs of Wessex until 924. ... Alfred (also Ælfred from the Old English: ÆlfrÄ“d //) (c. ... Edward the Elder or Eadweard I (c. ... Green: Danelaw The Danelaw (from the Old English Dena lagu, Danish: Danelagen ) is an 11th century name for an area of northern and eastern England under the administrative control of the Vikings (or Danes, or Norsemen) from the late 9th century. ... Ethelfleda (alternative spelling Aethelfled, Æthelfleda or Æthelflæd) (872/879?-918) was the eldest daughter of King Alfred the Great of Wessex and his wife Ealhswith. ... Aelfwynn was the only daughter of Earl Aethelred of Mercia and his wife and successor Ethelfleda. ... For the East Anglian king christened Æthelstan, see Guthrum the Old. ... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without...

Alfred the Great began to unite England
Alfred the Great began to unite England

England has remained in political unity ever since. However the Kingdom was subject to invasions by the Vikings of Denmark during the late 10th century. In response Ethelred II of England ordered the slaughter of all Danish people present in England during 1002. This only managed to attract the attention and hostility of Sweyn I of Denmark and Norway. Sweyn staged four full scale invasions of England during the remainder of his life. Sweyn was proclaimed King of England in opposition to Ethelred II in 1013. He died on February 2, 1014. His son Canute the Great continued the war. Ethelred II died on April 23, 1016. His son Edmund II of England was soon defeated by Canute. Canute agreed to co-rule with Edmund II but the latter died on November 30 1016, leaving England united under Danish rule. Danish rule continued until the death of Harthacanute on June 8, 1042. He was a son of Canute and Emma of Normandy, widow of Ethelred II. Harthacanute had no heirs of his own and was succeeded by his half-brother Edward the Confessor. The Kingdom of England was independent again. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (768x1024, 98 KB) Photo prise par Odejea le 25 août 2005 à Winchester. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (768x1024, 98 KB) Photo prise par Odejea le 25 août 2005 à Winchester. ... Alfred (also Ælfred from the Old English: Ælfrēd //) (c. ... The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... Ethelred II or Æþelræd Unræd (c. ... Languages Danish Religions Predominantly Lutheran; small minorities of other faiths; secular Related ethnic groups Norwegians, Swedes, Icelanders, Faroese and, to a lesser extent, English and all Germanic ethnic groups The term Dane may refer to: People with a Danish ancestral or ethnic identity, whether living in Denmark, emigrants, or the... Sweyn I, or Sweyn Forkbeard, (Danish: Svend Tveskæg, originally Tjugeskæg or Tyvskæg, Old Norse: Sveinn Tjúguskegg, Norwegian: Svein Tjugeskjegg), (??? – February 3, 1014), king of Denmark and England, a leading Viking warrior and the father of Canute the Great (Cnut I). ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 14 - Pope Benedict VIII recognizes Henry of Bavaria as King of Germany July 29 - Battle of Kleidion: Basil II inflicts not only a decisive defeat on the Bulgarian army, but his subsequent savage treatment of 15,000 prisoners reportedly causes Tsar Samuil of Bulgaria to die of shock... Canute (or Cnut) I, or Canute the Great (Old Norse: Knútr inn ríki, Danish: Knud den Store, Norwegian: Knut den mektige, Swedish: Knut den store) (ca. ... April 23 is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... George Tsul, ruler of Khazaria, is captured by a combined Byzantine-Rus force, which effectively ends Khazarias existence. ... Edmund II or Eadmund II (c. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Harthacanute (sometimes Hardicanute, Hardecanute; Danish Hardeknud, Canute the Hardy) (1018/1019–June 8, 1042) was a King of Denmark (1035–1042) and England (1035–1037, 1040–1042). ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April 18/April 19 - Emperor Michael V of the Byzantine Empire attempts to remain sole Emperor by sending his adoptive mother and co-ruler Zoe of Byzantium to a monastery. ... Queen Emma of Normandy receiving the Encomium Emmae, with her sons Harthacanute and Edward the Confessor in the background. ... A widow is a woman whose spouse has died. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Peace only lasted until the death of childless Edward on January 4/January 5, 1066 . His brother-in-law was crowned Harold II of England. His cousin William the Bastard , Duke of Normandy immediately claimed the throne for himself. William launched an invasion of England and landed in Sussex on September 28, 1066. Harold II and his army were in York following their victory in the Battle of Stamford Bridge (September 25, 1066). They had to march across England to reach their new opponents. The armies of Harold II and William finally faced each other in the Battle of Hastings (October 14, 1066). Harold fell and William remained the victor. William was then able to conquer England with little further opposition. He was not however planning to absorb the Kingdom to the Duchy of Normandy. As a Duke, William still owed allegiance to Philip I of France. The independent Kingdom of England would allow him to rule without interference. He was crowned King of England on December 25, 1066. January 4 is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned September 20 - Battle of Fulford September 25 - Battle of Stamford Bridge September 29 - William of Normandy lands in England at Pevensey. ... Name Harold Godwinson Lived c. ... William I of England (c. ... Bold textInsert non-formatted text here This statue of Rollo the Viking (founder of the fiefdom of Normandy) stands in Falaise, Calvados, birthplace of his descendant William I the Conqueror (the Duke of Normandy who became King of England). ... Sussex is a historic county in South East England corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... York is a city in North Yorkshire, England, at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss. ... Combatants Norwegians, Northumbrian rebels, Scots Anglo-Saxon England Commanders Harald Hardråde† Tostig Godwinson† Harold Godwinson Strength Uncertain, possibly 7500 men or more Unknown Casualties Unknown, reportedly very heavy Unknown The Battle of Stamford Bridge in England is often considered to mark the end of the Viking era in England. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Normans supported by: Bretons (one third of total), Aquitanians, Flemings Anglo-Saxons Commanders William of Normandy, Odo of Bayeux Harold Godwinson † Strength 7,000-8,000 7,000-8,000 Casualties Unknown, thought to be around 2,000 killed and wounded Unknown, but significantly higher than the Normans The... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Duchy of Normandy stems from the Viking invasions of France in the 8th century. ... Philip I (French: Philippe Ier) (May 23, 1052 – July 29, 1108) was King of France from 1060 to 1108. ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 6 days remaining in the year. ...

The signing of the Magna Carta in 1215 put England on course to become the world's first democracy.

The Kingdom of England and the Duchy of Normandy would remain in personal union until 1204. King John of England, a fourth-generation descendant of William I, lost the continental area of the Duchy to Philip II of France during that year. The remnants of the Duchy remained in the rule of John and his descendants. They are known as the Channel Islands. Download high resolution version (800x1120, 197 KB)John of England signs Magna Carta Image from Cassells History of England - Century Edition - published circa 1902 Scan by Tagishsimon, 23rd June 2004 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it... Download high resolution version (800x1120, 197 KB)John of England signs Magna Carta Image from Cassells History of England - Century Edition - published circa 1902 Scan by Tagishsimon, 23rd June 2004 This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it... Magna Carta Magna Carta (Latin for Great Charter, literally Great Paper), also called Magna Carta Libertatum (Great Charter of Freedoms), is an English charter originally issued in 1215. ... This article is about the King of England. ... Philip II Augustus (French: Philippe II Auguste) (August 21, 1165 – July 14, 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223. ... This article is about the British dependencies. ...


John still held both the titles and land of the Duke of Aquitaine. His grandson Edward I of England defeated Llywelyn the Last and effectively conquered Wales in 1282. He created the title Prince of Wales for his eldest son Edward II in 1301. Coat of arms of the duchy of Aquitaine. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and who tried to do the same to Scotland. ... Arms used by Llywelyn ap Gruffydd Llywelyn ap Gruffydd or Llywelyn Ein Llyw Olaf (c. ... This article is about the country. ... The Prince of Wales Feathers. This Heraldic badge of the Heir Apparent is derived from the ostrich feathers borne by Edward, the Black Prince. ... Edward II, (25 April 1284 – 21 September? 1327), of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until deposed in January, 1327. ...


Edward II was father to Edward III of England, whose claim to the throne of France resulted in the Hundred Years' War (1337–1453). The end of the war found England defeated and retaining only a single city of France: Calais. This article is about the King of England. ... The English claims to the French throne have a long and rather complex history between the 1340s and the 1800s. ... Combatants France Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany England Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainaut Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War was a conflict between France and England, lasting 116 years from 1337 to 1453. ... Calais (Kales in Dutch) is a town in northern France, located at 50°57N 1°52E. It is in the département of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ...

Fifteenth-century miniature depicting the English victory over France at the Battle of Agincourt.

The Kingdom had little time to recover before entering the Wars of the Roses (1455–1487). The "Wars" was actually a civil war over possession of the throne between the House of Lancaster and the House of York. They were actually descendants of Edward III and closely related. The end of the wars found the throne held by a female line descendant of the House of Lancaster married to the eldest daughter of the House of York. Henry VII of England and his Queen consort Elizabeth of York were the founders of the Tudor dynasty which ruled the Kingdom from 1485 to 1603. battle of agincourt, 15th century miniature This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... battle of agincourt, 15th century miniature This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Combatants Kingdom of England Kingdom of France Commanders Henry V of England Charles dAlbret Strength About 6,000 (but see Modern re-assessment). ... Lancaster York For other uses, see Wars of the Roses (disambiguation). ... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ... The House of Lancaster is a dynasty of English kings. ... The House of York was a branch of the English royal House of Plantagenet, three of whom became English kings in the late 15th century. ... Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), was the founder and first patriarch of the Tudor dynasty. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Tudor dynasty or House of Tudor (Welsh: ) was a series of five monarchs who ruled England and Ireland from 1485 until 1603. ...


Meanwhile, Wales retained the distinct legal and administrative system that had been established by Edward I in the late 13th century. The second Tudor monarch, Henry VIII of England, merged Wales into England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535-1542. Wales ceased to be a personal fiefdom of the King of England but was annexed to the Kingdom of England and was represented in the Parliament of England. Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and who tried to do the same to Scotland. ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 - 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland, from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... The Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 were a series of parliamentary measures by which the legal system of Wales was annexed to England and the norms of English administration introduced in order to create a single state and a single legal jurisdiction, which is frequently referred to as England... Under the system of feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud, feoff, or fee, often consisted of inheritable lands or revenue-producing property granted by a liege lord in return for a form of allegiance, originally to give him the means to fulfill his military duties when called upon. ... The English parliament in front of the King, c. ...


During Henry VIII's reign in 1541 the Parliament of Ireland proclaimed him King of Ireland, thus bringing the Kingdom of Ireland into personal union with the Kingdom of England. This article is about the legislature abolished in 1801. ... The designation King of Ireland has been used during three periods of Irish history. ... Coat of arms1 Capital Dublin Language(s) Irish, English Government Monarchy King2  - 1542-1547 Henry VIII  - 1760-1801 George III Chief Secretary  - 1660 Matthew Lock  - 1798-1801 Viscount Castlereagh Legislature Parliament of Ireland  - Upper house Irish House of Lords  - Lower house Irish House of Commons History  - Act of Parliament 1541...

Portrait of Elizabeth made to commemorate the defeat of the Spanish Armada (1588), depicted in the background. Elizabeth's international power is symbolized by the hand resting on the globe.
Portrait of Elizabeth made to commemorate the defeat of the Spanish Armada (1588), depicted in the background. Elizabeth's international power is symbolized by the hand resting on the globe.

During the reign of Mary I of England, eldest daughter of Henry VIII, Calais was captured by Francis, Duke of Guise on January 7, 1558. Image File history File links Elizabeth_I_(Armada_Portrait). ... Image File history File links Elizabeth_I_(Armada_Portrait). ... Combatants England Dutch Republic Spain Portugal Commanders Charles Howard Francis Drake Duke of Medina Sidonia Strength 34 warships 163 armed merchant vessels 22 galleons 108 armed merchant vessels Casualties 50–100 dead[1] ~400 wounded 600 dead, 800 wounded,[2] 397 captured, 4 merchant ships sunk or captured The Spanish... Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de facto) or 19 July 1553 (de jure) until her death on 17 November 1558. ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 - 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland, from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... Francis, Duke of Guise Francis II, Prince of Joinville, Duke of Guise, Duke of Aumale (February 17, 1519 – February 24, 1563), called Balafré (the scarred), was a French soldier and politician. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ...


The House of Tudor ended with the death of its last monarch, Elizabeth I of England, on March 24, 1603. Without any direct heir to her throne, James VI, King of Scots, a distant Protestant relative of Elizabeth from Scotland's Stuart dynasty, acceded to the throne of England as King James I of England. Despite this Union of the Crowns, the Kingdom of England and Kingdom of Scotland remained separate and independent states under this personal union, until 1707. Elizabeth I redirects here. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1603 (MDCIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... James VI and I King of England, Scotland and Ireland James VI of Scotland and I of England (Charles James) (19 June 1566–27 March 1625) was a King who ruled over England, Scotland and Ireland, and was the first Sovereign to reign in the three realms simultaneously. ... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... James VI of Scotland and I of England (Charles James) (19 June 1566–27 March 1625) was a King who ruled over England, Scotland and Ireland, and was the first Sovereign to reign in the three realms simultaneously. ... The Union of the Crowns refers to the accession of James VI, King of Scots, to the thrones of England and Ireland, in March 1603. ... Motto Latin: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Capital Edinburgh¹ Language(s) Gaelic, Scots Government Monarchy King/Queen  - 843-860 Kenneth I  - 1587–1625 James VI  - 1702-1714 Anne Legislature Parliament of Scotland History  - United 843  - Union of the Crowns March 24, 1603  - Act of... It has been suggested that Dynastic union be merged into this article or section. ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ...


In 1707, the Acts of Union ratified by both the Parliament of Scotland and Parliament of England created the Kingdom of Great Britain (1707–1801). Queen Anne, the last monarch from the House of Stuart, became the first monarch of the new kingdom. Both the English and Scottish Parliaments were merged into the Parliament of Great Britain, located in Westminster, London. At this point, England ceased to exist as a separate political entity and has since had no national government. Legally, however, the jurisdiction continued to operate as England and Wales (just as Scotland continued to have its own laws and law courts) and this continued also after the Act of Union of 1800 between the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland which created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. (Later going on to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland). The Acts of Union were a pair of Acts of Parliament passed in 1706 and 1707 (taking effect on 1 May 1707) by, respectively, the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... The parliament of Scotland, officially the Estates of Parliament, was the legislature of the independent Kingdom of Scotland. ... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) followed Englands only joint monarchy to become Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702 after the passing of both William and Mary. ... A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... Westminster is a district within the City of Westminster in London. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic and Scots1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... The Act of Union 1800 merged the Kingdom of Ireland and the Kingdom of Great Britain (itself a merger of England and Wales and Scotland under the Act of Union 1707) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 1 January 1801. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right1 Anthem God Save the King (Queen) Territory of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Capital London Language(s) English² Government Constitutional monarchy Monarch  - 1801–1820 George III  - 1820–1830 George IV  - 1830–1837 William IV  - 1837–1901... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent...


Commonwealth and Protectorate

Cromwell at Dunbar. Oliver Cromwell united the whole of the British Isles by force and created the Commonwealth of England.
Cromwell at Dunbar. Oliver Cromwell united the whole of the British Isles by force and created the Commonwealth of England.

England was a monarchy for the entirety of its political existence since its creation about 927 up to the 1707 Act of Union, except for the eleven years of English Interregnum (1649 to 1660) that followed the English Civil War. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... The British Isles in relation to mainland Europe The British Isles (French: , Irish: [1] or Oileáin Iarthair Eorpa,[2] Manx: Ellanyn Goaldagh, Scottish Gaelic: , Welsh: ), are a group of islands off the northwest coast of continental Europe comprising Great Britain, Ireland and a number of smaller islands. ... Motto: PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1649-1658 Oliver Cromwell Legislature Rump Parliament Barebones Parliament History  - Declaration of Commonwealth May 19, 1649  - Declaration of Breda April 4, 1660 Area 130,395... “Kingdom” redirects here. ... The English Interregnum was the period of parliamentary and military rule in the land occupied by modern-day England and Wales after the English Civil War. ... The English Civil War consisted of a series of armed conflicts and political machinations that took place between Parliamentarians (known as Roundheads) and Royalists (known as Cavaliers) between 1642 and 1651. ...


The rule of executed King Charles I of England was replaced by that of a republic known as Commonwealth of England (1649–1653). The most prominent general of the republic, Oliver Cromwell, managed to extend its rule to Ireland and Scotland. Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... in particular, for the archaizing senses of republic, as a translation of politeia or res publica Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A republic is a form of government maintained by a state or country whose sovereignty is based on popular consent and whose... Motto: PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1649-1658 Oliver Cromwell Legislature Rump Parliament Barebones Parliament History  - Declaration of Commonwealth May 19, 1649  - Declaration of Breda April 4, 1660 Area 130,395... Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... Combatants Scottish Royalists and Irish Catholic Confederate troops Scottish Covenanters Commanders James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquess of Argyll and David Leslie Strength Fluctuating, 2000-4000 troops at any one time over 30,000 troops, but many based in England and Ireland Casualties Total of 28...


The victorious general eventually turned against the republic, and established a new form of government known as The Protectorate, with himself as Lord Protector until his death on September 3, 1658. He was succeeded by his son Richard Cromwell. However, anarchy eventually developed, as Richard proved unable to maintain his rule. He resigned his title and retired into obscurity. The Commonwealth was re-established but proved unstable. The exiled claimant Charles II of England was recalled to the throne in 1660 in the English Restoration. Motto PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English; Irish; Scots Gaelic; Welsh Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1653-1658 Oliver Cromwell  - 1658-1659 Richard Cromwell Legislature Parliament (1st, 2nd, 3rd) History  - Instrument of Government December 16, 1653  - Resignation of... Lord Protector is a particular English title for Heads of State, with two meanings (and full styles) at different periods of history. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by... Richard Cromwell (4 October 1626 – 12 July 1712) was the third son of Oliver Cromwell, and the second Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, for little over eight months, from 3 September 1658 until 25 May 1659. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration. ...


References

See also

Preceded by
The Heptarchy
c.500 – c.927
Kingdom of England
c.927 – 1707
Succeeded by
Kingdom of Great Britain
1707 – 1801

  Results from FactBites:
 
England (324 words)
England (formerly the Kingdom of England up to its merger with Scotland in 1707, which created the Kingdom of Great Britain) is the largest and most densely populated of the nations that make up the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
England comprises most of the southern half of the island of Great Britain, bordered to the north by Scotland and to the west by Wales.
According to the 2001 census the population of England was 49,138,831.
England: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (4964 words)
England was formed as a country during the 10th century and takes its name from the Angles - one of a number of Germanic tribes who settled in the territory during the 5th and 6th centuries.
The Norman conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England.
England is home to some of the finest mediaeval castles and forts in the world (see Castles in England), including Warwick Castle, the Tower of London and Windsor Castle (the largest inhabited castle in the world and, dating back to the time of William the Conqueror, it is the oldest in continuous occupation).
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