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Encyclopedia > Kingdom of Castile
Reino de Castilla
Kingdom of Castile
Kingdom

Flag
850 – 1479

Coat of arms of Kingdom of Castile Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Coat of arms Kingdom of León, 1030 Capital León Language(s) Mainly Latin and Astur-Leonese. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 436 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (996 × 1368 pixel, file size: 163 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Spain. ... Motto (Latin) Further Beyond Anthem  1(Spanish) Royal March Spain() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() Capital (and largest city) Madrid Official languages Spanish, Catalan2, Galician2, Basque2, (Occitan) Aranese2 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Head of State King Juan Carlos I  -  President of the Government Formation 15th century   -  Dynastic union... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 436 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (996 × 1368 pixel, file size: 148 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


Coat of arms

Location of Kingdom of Castile
Kingdom of Castile in the 15th century.
Capital Burgos, Toledo
Language(s) Castilian, Basque, Galician, Asturian
Religion Roman Catholicism (Islam, Judaism)
Government Monarchy
Historical era Middle Ages
 - Rodrigo becomes the first Count of Castile 850
 - The County of Castile is unified by count Fernán González 931
 - Castile becomes a kingdom 1035
 - Castile and Aragon form Spain 1479

The Kingdom of Castile was one of the medieval kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula. It emerged as a politically autonomous entity in the 9th century: it was called County of Castile and was held in vassalage from the Kingdom of León. Its name is supposed to be related to the host of castles constructed in the region. It was one of the ancestor kingdoms of the Kingdom of Spain. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... The cathedral Our Lady of Burgos. ... This article is about the city in Spain. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... Galician (Galician: galego, IPA: ) is a language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia, an autonomous community with the constitutional status of historic nationality, located in northwestern Spain and small bordering zones in neighbouring autonomous communities of Asturias and Castilla y León. ... Asturian, Leonese, Astur-Leonese or Bable (Asturianu in Asturian, Llïonés in Leonese) is a Romance language spoken in some parts of the provinces of Asturias, León, Zamora and Salamanca in Spain, and in the area of Miranda de Douro in Portugal (where it is officially recognized as... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... “Kingdom” redirects here. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Events Ramiro II of Leon becomes king of León Eric Bloodaxe becomes second king of Norway Births Deaths Emperor Uda of Japan Harald I of Norway Categories: 931 ... Events Harthacanute becomes king of Denmark. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Coat of arms Kingdom of León, 1030 Capital León Language(s) Mainly Latin and Astur-Leonese. ... Pierrefonds Castle, France. ...

Contents

History

9th to 11th centuries: The beginnings

The first reference to the name "Castilla" can be found in a document of the year 800: We have erected a church to the honour of Saint Martin, in Area Patriniano, in the territory of Castile. In the chronicle of Alfonso III (King of Asturias, 9th century) it is written: The Vardulias are now called Castilla. Alfonso III (c. ...


The county of Castile was re-populated by inhabitants of Cantabri, Astur, Vascon and Visigothic origins. It had its own romance dialect and laws. The first Count of Castile was Rodrigo in 850, under Ordoño I of Asturias and Alfonso III of Asturias. In 931 the county was unified by count Fernán González, who made his lands subject to a hereditary succession, independent of the kings of León. Cantabri was an ancient tribe which inhabited the north coast of Spain near Santander and Bilbao and the mountains behind a district hence known as Cantabria. ... The Astures were the original indoeuropean inhabitants of northwest area of Hispania that now comprises the provinces of León, Asturias (only the central area, between Navia and Sella rivers), and northern Zamora (all in modern Spain). ... Location of the tribe of the Vascones. ... Migrations The Visigoths (Western Goths) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... Rodrigo is a Spanish and Portuguese name derived from the Germanic name *HrōþirÄ«k(i)az (famous ruler). It can refer to: Joaquín Rodrigo, a 20th century composer King Roderic, the last Visigothic king Rodrigo Bueno, Argentine singer Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar, known as El Cid Campeador... Ordoño I (830?-May 27, 866), became king of Asturias in 850. ... Alfonso III (c. ... Ferdinand II González (930–970) was the first independent count of Castile, son of Gonzalo Fernández de Lara, who had been named count of Arlanza and the Duero around the year 900, a descendent of Nuño Rasura, one of the two judges from Castile, and of Rodrigo...


11th and 12th centuries: Expansion and union to the Kingdom of León

In 1028 Sancho III the Great, of Navarre, married the sister of count García Sánchez and inherited title to the County of Castile after his brother-in-law's death. In 1035 he left the county to his son Fernando and at which time Castile acquired the status of a kingdom. Fernando I was married to Sancha, sister of Bermudo III of León. Fernando III began a war with Castile and in the battle of Tamarón against a coalition of Castile and Navarre the king of León was killed, leaving no offspring. His brother-in-law Fernando assumed the crown of León for himself using his wife's rights, resulting in the first union of the kingdoms of León and Castile. Sancho III of Navarre (c. ... Bermudo III (1010–4 September 1037), king of León (1028–4 September 1037), son of Alfonso V of León by his wife Elvira Mendes, was the last scion of Peter of Cantabria to rule in the Leonese kingdom. ... Statue in Madrid (L.S. Carmona, 1750-53). ...


When Fernando I died in 1065, his last will followed the Navarre tradition of dividing the kingdoms between the heirs: For the first-born, Sancho II, the kingdom of Castile. For Alfonso VI the territory brought by the mother, the kingdom of León. For the third, García, the kingdom of Galicia. For his daughter Urraca the town of Zamora. Sancho II of Castile allied himself with Alfonso VI of León and conquered Galicia. Not being satisfied enough with Castile and half of Galicia, Sancho attacked his brother and invaded León with the help of El Cid. Urraca permitted the greater part of the Leonese army to take refuge in the town of Zamora. Sancho laid siege to the town, but the Castilian king was assassinated in 1072 by Bellido Dolfos, a Galician nobleman. The Castilian troops then withdrew. Alfonso VI (before June 1040 – July 1, 1109), nicknamed the Brave, was King of León from 1065 to 1109 and King of Castile since 1072 after his brothers death. ... Statue of El Cid in Burgos. ... Urraca may mean: Urraca of Castile (1082 - 1129), who was Queen of Castile and León and aunt to Afonso I. Urraca, princess of Portugal (1151–1188), who was a daughter of Afonso I, king of Portugal and the wife of King Ferdinand II of León. ...


As a result Alfonso VI recovered all his original territory of León, and now became the king of both Castile and Galicia. This was the second union of León and Castile, although the two kingdoms remained distinct. The sworn oath taken by El Cid to Alfonso VI in Santa Gadea de Burgos regarding the innocence of the Leonese king in the matter of the murder of his brother is well known. Statue of El Cid in Burgos. ...


With Alfonso VI, there is an approach to the rest of Europeans kingdoms, especially France. He marries his daughters Urraca and Teresa with Raymond of Bourgogne and Henri of Lorraine. In the Council of Burgos in 1080 the traditional Mozarabe rite is replaced by the Roman one. Upon his death, Alfonso VI was succeeded by his daughter Urraca. Urraca married Alfonso I of Aragón (her second marriage), but when he was unable to unify both kingdoms, he repudiated Urraca in 1114, which increased tensions between the two kingdoms. Urraca also had to contend with her son (offspring of her first marriage), the king of Galicia, to assert her rights. When Urraca died, he became the king of Castile as Alfonso VII. During his reign Alfonso VII managed to annex parts of the weaker kingdoms of Navarre and Aragón which fought to secede after the death of Alfonso I of Aragón. Alfonso VII refused his right to conquer the Mediterranean coast for the new union of Aragón with the County of Barcelona (Petronila and Ramón Berenguer IV).


Twelfth century: a link between Christendom and Islam

During the twelfth century, Europe enjoyed a great advance in intellectual achievements thanks to Castile. Via the Islamic Empire, long forgotten classic works in Europe were recovered, and contacts established with the knowledge and works of Muslim scientists.


In the first half of the century a program of translations, traditionally called the "School of Toledo", was undertaken which rendered many philosophical and scientific works from classical Greece and the Islamic world into Latin. Many European thinkers, such as Daniel de Morley, disappointed by the universities of Paris, travelled to Spain to gain further education. The Twelfth century saw a major search by European scholars for new learning, which led them to the Arabic fringes of Europe, especially to Spain and Sicily. ... Daniel of Morley (c. ...


The Way of St. James further enhanced the cultural exchange between the kingdoms of Castile and León and the rest of Europe. The Way of St. ...


The twelfth century saw the establishment of many new religious orders, after the European fashion, such as Calatrava, Alcantara and Santiago; and the foundation of many Cistercian abbeys.


13th century: Definitive union with the Kingdom of León

The Kingdom of Castile in 1210
The Kingdom of Castile in 1210

Alfonso VII restored the royal tradition of dividing his kingdom among his children. Sancho III became King of Castile and Fernando II, King of León. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (600x643, 821 KB) Courtesy of the University of Texas Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (600x643, 821 KB) Courtesy of the University of Texas Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin. ... Alfonso VII of Castile (March 1, 1104/5 _ August 21, 1157), nicknamed the Emperor, was the king of Castile and Leon since 1126, son of Urraca of Castile and Count Raymond (the third?) of Burgundy. ... Sancho III of Castile (1134 – August 30, 1158), called el Deseado (The Desired), was King of Castile for one year, from 1157 to 1158. ... Ferdinand II, king of León (d. ...


The rivalry between both kingdoms started again until 1230 when Fernando III el Santo received the Kingdom of Castile from his mother Berenguela (in 1217) and the Kingdom of León from his father Alfonso IX. In addition, he took advantage of the decline of the Almohad empire to conquer the Guadalquivir Valley whilst his son Alfonso took the Kingdom of Murcia. The Courts from León and Castile merged, an event considered as the starting point of the Crown of Castile, consisting of two kingdoms: Castile and León, and taifas and feudal domains conquered from the Arabs (Córdoba, Murcia, Jaén, Sevilla). The kingdoms retained their laws (e.g. when subjects of Kingdom of Castile were tried in the Kingdom of León, the laws of the latter applied) Events Kingdom of Leon unites with the Kingdom of Castile. ... United arms of Castile and León which Ferdinand first used. ... April 9 - Peter of Courtenay crowned emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople at Rome, by Pope Honorius III May 20 - First Barons War, royalist victory at Lincoln. ... Alfonso IX of León (August 15, 1171 â€“ September 23 or 24, 1230; ruled from 1188–1230), first cousin of Alfonso VIII of Castile, and numbered next to him as being a junior member of the family, is said by Ibn Khaldun to have been called the Baboso or Slobberer... The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ... The starting point of Crown of Castile can be considered when the union of the Kingdoms of Castile and Leon in 1230 or the later fusion of their Cortes (their Parlaments). ...


Government: Councils and courts

As in every other medieval kingdom, the supreme power, granted by God, fell upon the king. But soon rural and urban communities established assemblies to make decisions on everyday life matters.


These assemblies evolved to Councils where part of the neighbours represented the others. They achieved more powers and rights such as being able to elect magistrates and officers, mayors, speakers, clerks...


Due to the increasing power of the Councils the need for communication between these and the King arose and from that, the Courts were established in the Kingdom of León in 1188. A corresponding version was created in the Kingdom of Castile in 1250. In the medieval Courts, the inhabitants of the cities were a small group (known as laboratores) and had no legislative powers, but they were the nexus between the king and the kingdom, something that was pioneered by the kingdoms of Castile and León. Coat of arms Kingdom of León, 1030 Capital León Language(s) Mainly Latin and Astur-Leonese. ... Saladin unsuccessfully besieges the Hospitaller fortress of Krak des Chevaliers in modern Syria. ... // April 30 - King Louis IX of France released by his Egyptian captors after paying a ransom of one million dinars and turning over the city of Damietta. ...


Arms of the Kingdom of Castile

During the reign of Alfonso VIII Gules charged with tower triple-turreted Or, started to be used as canting arms of the Kingdom of Castile both in blazons and flags. This is an article about Heraldry. ... The Flags (Far North Liquids and Associated Gas System) Pipeline is used to transport gas from the following Oil platforms: Cormorant A North Cormorant North West Hutton Ninian Central Ninian North & South Brent A, B, C and D Tern Magnus Thistle Murchison Statfjord Heather The pipeline is a 36 inch...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Castile - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (319 words)
Historically, the Castilian Kingdom and people were the architects of the Spanish State by a process of expansion to the South against the Muslims and of marriages, wars, assimilation, and annexation of its smaller Eastern and Western neighbours.
By the Treaty of Alcaçovas with Portugal on March 6, 1460, the ownership of the Canary Islands was transferred to Castile.
The dynastic union of Castile and Aragon in 1469, when Ferdinand II of Aragon wed Isabella of Castile, would eventually lead to the formal creation of Spain as a single entity in 1516 when their grandson Charles V assumed both thrones.
Castile-Leon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (191 words)
Castile and Leon (Spanish Castilla y León) is an autonomous community of Spain, the country's largest.
Castile and León is bordered to the north by Asturias and Cantabria, on the east by Aragon, the Basque Country, and La Rioja, to the southeast by the autonomous community of Madrid and Castile-La Mancha, to the south by Extremadura, and to the west by Portugal and Galicia.
Castile and León is composed of the provinces of Ávila, Burgos, León, Palencia, Salamanca, Segovia, Soria, Valladolid and Zamora.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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