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Encyclopedia > Kingdom of Bavaria
Königreich Bayern
Kingdom of Bavaria

 

1805 – 1918
Flag Coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem
Königsstrophe
Location of Bavaria
Kingdom of Bavaria within the German Empire.
Capital Munich
Government Monarchy
King
 - 1805-1825 Maximilian I (first)
 - 1913-1918 Ludwig III (last)
History
 - Established 1805
 - Disestablished 1918

The Kingdom of Bavaria (German: Königreich Bayern), was a state that existed from 1805 to 1918 following the creation of the Bavarian throne in 1805 by Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria, a Wittelsbach who was the former Elector of Bavaria. The monarchy would remain held by the Wittelsbachs until the kingdom's dissolution in 1918. Most of Bavaria's modern-day borders were established after 1814, with the Treaty of Paris, in which Bavaria ceded Tyrol and Vorarlberg to the Austrian Empire while receiving Aschaffenburg and parts of Hessen-Darmstadt. During its tenure as a state of the German Empire, the kingdom was the second largest state in the empire, second only to the Kingdom of Prussia, which was the largest. Since the kingdom joined Germany in 1871, Bavaria has remained part of Germany to present day. The geographic region and Free State of Bavaria (German: Freistaat Bayern), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bavaria_(lozengy). ... The Bishopric of Würzburg was an ecclesiastical principality in the Holy Roman Empire, located in Lower Franconia, around the City of Würzburg. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bavaria_(lozengy). ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bavaria_(striped). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (761x1015, 657 KB) Source: http://www. ... Greater Coat of arms of Bavaria Small Coat of arms of Bavaria This article is about the coat of arms of the German state of Bavaria. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogising the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognised either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Image File history File links Map-DR-Bavaria. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... , For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... The following is a list of rulers during the history of Bavaria: // Around 548 the kings of the Franks placed the border region of Bavaria under the administration of a duke -- possibly Frankish or possibly chosen from amongst the local leading families -- who was supposed to act as a regional... This page refers to King Maximilian I of Bavaria. ... Ludwig III (Ludwig Leopold Joseph Maria Aloys Alfred), King of Bavaria, (January 7, 1845 – October 18, 1921) was the last King of Bavaria, reigning from 1913 to 1918. ... This page refers to King Maximilian I of Bavaria. ... The Wittelsbach family is an European royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria. ... The Wittelsbach family is an European royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria. ... The Treaty of Paris was signed on May 30, 1814 and ended the war between France and the Sixth Coalition of the United Kingdom, Russia, Austria, Sweden, Portugal and Prussia. ... Coat of arms of the Counts of Tyrol Austria-Hungary in 1914, showing Tirol–Vorarlberg as the left-most province, coloured cream Capital Meran (Merano), until 1848 Government Principality Historical era Middle Ages  - Created County 1140  - Bequeathed to Habsburgs 1363 or 1369  - Joined Council of Princes 1582  - Trent, Tyrol and... Vorarlberg is the westernmost state (Land) of Austria. ... Anthem Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) The Austrian Empire Capital Vienna Language(s) German Hungarian Romanian Czech Slovakian Slovenian Croatian Serbian Italian Polish Ruthenian Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Ausgleich 1867 The Crown of the Austrian Emperor The Austrian Empire (German: ) was a modern era successor empire founded... Aschaffenburg (IPA: ; dialect: [ˈaʒəˌbɜːʃ]) is a large town in north west Bavaria, Germany. ... The Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt came into existence in 1568, as the portion of George, youngest of the four sons of Landgrave Philip I of Hesse. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim...

Contents

Foundation

Main article: History of Bavaria

In 1805, the Holy Roman Empire recognized Maximilian I's claim to be King of Bavaria, officially changing the Electorate of Bavaria to being the Kingdom of Bavaria. The new kingdom faced challenges from the outset of its creation, it relied on the support of Napoleonic France and had to change its constitution in accordance with France's wishes. The Kingdom faced war with Austria in 1808 and from 1810 to 1814, lost territory to Württemberg, Italy, and then Austria. It has been suggested that Bavaria#Historical_Buildings be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... The geographic region and Free State of Bavaria (German: Freistaat Bayern), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Constitutional Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era... Arms of the Kingdom of Württemberg The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Wuerttemberg. ...


However with the defeat of Napoleon's France in 1814, Bavaria was compensated for some of its losses, and received new territories such as the Bishopric of Würzburg, the Archbishopric of Mainz (Aschaffenburg), parts of the Grand Duchy of Hesse, and in 1816, Palatinate from France. The Bishopric of Würzburg was an ecclesiastical principality in the Holy Roman Empire, located in Lower Franconia, around the City of Würzburg. ... Between 780–82 and 1802 the Archbishop of Mainz was an influential ecclesiastic and secular prince in the Holy Roman Empire. ... The Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt came into existence in 1568, as the portion of George, youngest of the four sons of Landgrave Philip I of Hesse. ... Location of Palatinate in Rhineland-Palatinate The Palatinate (German: ), historically also Rhenish Palatinate (Latin: ; German: ), is a region in south-western Germany. ...


On 26 May 1818, the constitution of the Kingdom of Bavaria was proclaimed. The parliament would have two houses, an upper house comprising the aristocracy and noblemen, including the high-class hereditary landowners, government officials and nominees of the crown. The second house, a lower house, would include representatives of small landowners, the towns and the peasants. The rights of Protestants were safeguarded in the constitution with articles supporting the equality of all religions, despite opposition by supporters of the Roman Catholic Church. The initial constitution almost proved disastrous for the monarchy, with controversies such as the army having to swear allegiance to the new constitution. The monarchy appealed to Kingdom of Prussia and the Austrian Empire for advice, the two refused to take action on Bavaria's behalf, but the debacles lessened and the state stabilized with the accession of Ludwig I to the throne following the death of Maximilian in 1825. is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim...


Ludwig I, Maximilian II and the Revolutions

In 1825, Ludwig I accended to the throne of Bavaria. Under Ludwig, the arts flourished in Bavaria, and Ludwig personally ordered and financially assisted the creation of many neoclassical buildings and architecture across Bavaria. Ludwig also increased Bavaria's pace towards industrialization under his reign. In foreign affairs under Ludwig's rule, Bavaria supported the Greeks during the Greek War of Independence with his second son, Otto being elected King of Greece in 1832. As for politics, initial reforms advocated by Ludwig were both liberal and reform-oriented. However, after the Revolutions of 1830, Ludwig turned to conservative reaction. In 1837, the Roman Catholic supported clerical movement, the Ultramontanes, came to power in the Bavarian parliament and began a campaign of reform to the constitution, which removed civil rights that had earlier been granted to Protestants, as well as enforcing censorship and forbidding the free discussion of internal politics. This regime was short-lived due to the demand by the Ultramontanes of the naturalization of Ludwig I's Irish mistress, which was resented by Ludwig and the Ultramontanes were pushed out. Image File history File links LouisI.jpg Summary King Louis I ( Bavaria ) Licensing Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links LouisI.jpg Summary King Louis I ( Bavaria ) Licensing Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Ludwig I (or Louis I, which is the French form of his name, his godfather was Louis XVI of France) (Strasbourg, August 25, 1786 – February 29, 1868 in Nice) was king of Bavaria from 1825 until the 1848 revolutions in the German states. ... Ludwig I (or Louis I, which is the French form of his name) (August 25, 1786 – February 29, 1868) was king of Bavaria from 1825 until 1848. ... Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture. ... Combatants Greek revolutionaries United Kingdom France Russian Empire  Ottoman Empire Egyptian Khedivate Commanders Theodoros Kolokotronis Alexander Ypsilanti Georgios Karaiskakis Omer Vryonis Mahmud Dramali Pasha ReÅŸid Mehmed Pasha Ibrahim Pasha. ... King Otto of Greece, (Greek: , Othon, Vasileus tis Ellados) also Prince of Bavaria (June 1, 1815 – July 26, 1867) was made the first modern king of Greece in 1832 under the Convention of London, whereby Greece became a new independent kingdom under the protection of the Great Powers (the United... This is a list of the Kings of Greece, formally known by the title of King of the Hellenes House of Wittelsbach Otto (1832-1862) House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg George I (1863 - 1913) Constantine I (1913 - 1917) first time Alexander (1917 - 1920) Constantine I (1920 - 1922) second... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution Episode of the Belgian Revolution of 1830, Egide Charles Gustave Wappers (1834), in the Musée dArt Ancien, Brussels The nineteenth century is marked in Europe by a set of civil wars which marks the wake of... Ultramontanism literally alludes to a policy supporting those dwelling beyond the mountains (ultra montes), that is beyond the Alps - generally referring to the Pope in Rome. ...


Following the Revolutions of 1848 and Ludwig's low popularity, Ludwig I abdicated the throne to avoid a potential coup, and allowed his son, Maximilian II to become the King of Bavaria. Maximilian II responded to the demands of the people for a united German state, by attending the Frankfurt Assembly which intended to create such a state. Maximilian II stood alongside Bavaria's ally, the Austrian Empire, in opposition to Austria's enemy, the Kingdom of Prussia, which was to receive the imperial crown of a united Germany. This opposition was resented by many Bavarian citizens who wanted a united Germany, but in the end Prussia declined accepting the crown and the constitution of a German state they perceived to be too liberal and not in Prussia's interests. The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, were a revolutionary wave which erupted in Sicily and then, further triggered by the revolutions of 1848 in France, soon spread to the rest of Europe and as far afield as... Maximilian II of Bavaria (November 28, 1811 – March 10, 1864) was king of Bavaria from 1848 until 1864. ... The Coat of arms of the Kings of Bavaria Bold textKing of Bavaria was a title held by the hereditary Wittelsbach rulers of Bavaria from 1805 till 1918, when the kingdom was abolished. ... The Frankfurt Parliament is the name of the German National Assembly founded during the Revolutions of 1848 that tried to unite Germany in a democratic way. ... Anthem Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) The Austrian Empire Capital Vienna Language(s) German Hungarian Romanian Czech Slovakian Slovenian Croatian Serbian Italian Polish Ruthenian Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Ausgleich 1867 The Crown of the Austrian Emperor The Austrian Empire (German: ) was a modern era successor empire founded... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim...


Bavaria within a Divided Germany

In the aftermath of the failure of the Frankfurt Assembly, Prussia and Austria continued to debate of which monarchy had the inherent right to rule Germany. A dispute between Austria and the Electoral Prince of Hesse-Kassel was used by Austria and its allies (including Bavaria) to promote the isolation of Prussia in German political affairs. This diplomatic insult almost led to war when Austria, Bavaria and other allies moved troops through Bavaria towards Hesse-Kassel in 1850. However the Prussian army backed down Austria and caved in to the acceptance of dual leadership. This event was known as the Punctation of Olmütz but also known as the "Humiliation of Olmütz" by Prussia. This event solidified the Bavarian kingdom's alliance with Austria against Prussia. Attempts by Prussia to reorganize the loose and un-led German Confederation, were opposed by Bavaria and Austria while taking part in its own discussions with Austria and other allies in 1863 in Frankfurt without Prussia and its allies attending. The Frankfurt Parliament is the name of the German National Assembly founded during the Revolutions of 1848 that tried to unite Germany in a democratic way. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... Hesse-Kassel (Hessen-Kassel in German) was a German principality that came into existence when the Landgraviate of Hesse was divided in 1568 upon the death of Landgrave Philip I of Hesse. ... The Punctation of Olmütz is a treaty between Prussia and Austria, dated November 29, 1850. ...


Austro-Prussian War

In 1864, Maximilian II died, and his eighteen year-old son, Ludwig II, became King of Bavaria. With escalating tensions between Austria and Prussia grew steadily. Prussia's Minister-President Otto von Bismarck, recognizing the immediate likelihood of war, attempted to sway Bavaria towards neutrality in the conflict. Ludwig II refused Bismarck's offers and continued Bavaria's alliance with Austria. In 1866, violence erupted between Austria and Prussia and the Austro-Prussian War began. Bavaria and most of the south German states with the exception of Austria and Saxony, contributed far less to the war effort against Prussia. Austria quickly faltered after its defeat at the Battle of Königgrätz and was defeated shortly afterward. Austria was humiliated by defeat and was forced to concede control and its sphere of influence over the south German states. Bavaria from this point on, steadily progressed into Prussia's sphere of influence. Maximilian II can refer to: Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor (1527-1576) Maximilian II von und zu Liechtenstein (1641-1709) Maximilian II Emanuel of Bavaria (1662-1726) Maximilian II of Bavaria (1811-1864) Maximilian Egon II von Fürstenberg (1863-1941) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid... Ludwig (Louis) II, King of Bavaria, Ludwig Friedrich Wilhelm, also known as Ludwig the Mad, and Mad King Ludwig (August 25, 1845 - June 13, 1886) was king of Bavaria from 1864 until his death. ... “Bismarck” redirects here. ... Combatants Austria, Saxony, Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, Hanover and some minor German States (formerly as the German Confederation) Prussia, Italy, and some minor German States Strength 600,000 Austrians and German allies 500,000 Prussians and German allies 300,000 Italians Casualties 20,000 dead or wounded 37,000 dead... Combatants Prussia Austria Commanders Wilhelm I Helmuth von Moltke Ludwig von Benedek Strength 140,000troops in 3 Prussian Armies 90,000 Austrians and 25,000 Saxons Casualties 10,000 45,000 including 20,000 prisoners {{{notes}}} In the Battle of Königgrätz or Battle of Sadowa of July 3...


German Empire

Franco-Prussian War and the Proclamation of the German Empire

With Austria's defeat in the Austro-Prussian War, the northern German states quickly unified into the North German Confederation with Prussia's King leading the state. Bavaria's early inhibitions towards Prussia changed along with those of many of the south German states, after French emperor Napoleon III began speaking of France's need for "compensation" from its loss in 1814, and included Bavarian-held Palatinate as part of its territorial claims. Ludwig II joined an alliance with Prussia in 1870 against France which was seen by Germans as the greatest enemy to a united Germany. At the same time, Bavaria increased its political, legal, and trade ties with the North German Confederation. In 1870, war erupted between France and Prussia in the Franco-Prussian War. The Bavarian Army was sent under the command of the Prussian crown prince against the French army. Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Federation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ... Location of Palatinate in Rhineland-Palatinate The Palatinate (German: ), historically also Rhenish Palatinate (Latin: ; German: ), is a region in south-western Germany. ... Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with south German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III Otto Von Bismarck, Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at the beginning of the war 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000 dead or wounded 284,000 captured 350,000 civilian...


With France's defeat and humiliation against the German forces, it was Ludwig II who proposed that Prussian King Wilhelm I be proclaimed German Emperor or "Kaiser" of the German Empire ("Deutsches Reich"), which occurred in 1871 in German occupied Versailles, France. The territories of the German Empire were declared which included the states of the North German Confederation and all os the south German states, with the major exception of Austria. The Empire also included the formerly French territory of Alsace-Lorraine, which was annexed in large part due to Ludwig's desire to move the French frontier away from the Palatinate. Ludwig (Louis) II, King of Bavaria, Ludwig Friedrich Wilhelm, also known as Ludwig the Mad, and Mad King Ludwig (August 25, 1845 - June 13, 1886) was king of Bavaria from 1864 until his death. ... Wilhelm I of Germany Wilhelm I, (March 22, 1797 - March 9, 1888), German Emperor (Kaiser), ruled January 18, 1871-1888 and king of Prussia, ruled 1861-1888. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... Deutsches Reich was the official name for Germany from 1871 to 1945 in the German language. ... Versailles, formerly the capital city of the kingdom of France, is now a wealthy suburb of Paris and is still an important administrative and judicial center. ... Imperial Province of Elsaß-Lothringen Alsace-Lorraine (German: , generally Elsass-Lothringen) was a territorial entity created by the German Empire in 1871 after the annexation of most of Alsace and parts of Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian War. ... Ceremonies during the annexation of Hawaii. ...


Bavaria's entry into the German Empire changed from jubilation over France's defeat, to dismay shortly afterward over the direction of Germany under the new German Chancellor and Prussian Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck. The persecution of the Catholic Church in Bismarck's Kulturkampf frustrated the predominantly Catholic southern German states including Bavaria, although Bismarck was eventually compelled to moderate his policies. The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ... The Prime Minister (Ministerpräsident) of Prussia existed in one form or another from 1792 until the dissolution of Prussia in 1947. ... “Bismarck” redirects here. ... The German term Kulturkampf (literally, culture struggle) refers to German policies in relation to secularity and the influence of the Roman Catholic Church, enacted from 1871 to 1878 by the Chancellor of the German Empire, Otto von Bismarck. ...


The fall of the "Mad King"

An 1890s photochrom print of Castle Neuschwanstein. This castle was designed and constructed during the reign of Ludwig II and remains today a major tourist attraction in Bavaria.
An 1890s photochrom print of Castle Neuschwanstein. This castle was designed and constructed during the reign of Ludwig II and remains today a major tourist attraction in Bavaria.

After Bavaria's unification into Germany, Ludwig II became increasingly detached from Bavaria's political affairs and spent vast amounts of the kingdom's expenditures on personal projects, such as the construction of a number of fairytale-like castles and palaces, the most famous of which being the Wagnerian-style Castle Neuschwanstein. In 1886, Ludwig II was determined to be unable to execute his governmental powers due to insanity and his powers were removed. Otto I, son of Maximilian II, officially became King of Bavaria, but his power was delegated to a regent, Prince Luitpold due to Otto himself also having a severe mental illness which made him incapacitated, and unable to rule. After Ludwig II's deposition, in seclusion, Ludwig II died mysteriously after requesting the presence of Professor Gudden to go on a walk with him along Lake Starnberg (then called Lake Würm). Ludwig II and Gulden were found dead floating in the water of Lake Starnberg. An autopsy listed cause of death as suicide by drowning but no water was found in Ludwig II's lungs. While it could be explained by dry drowning it also has led to some conspiracy theories of political assassination. From de:Bild:00179r. ... From de:Bild:00179r. ... This photochrom illustrates Hildesheim town hall in the 1890s, and shows the evocative coloration characteristic of the process. ... Neuschwanstein seen from the Marienbrücke. ... Ludwig Friedrich Wilhelm II, King of Bavaria (August 25, 1845 – June 13, 1886) was king of Bavaria from 1864 until shortly before his death. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (May 22, 1813 – February 13, 1883) was an influential German composer, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas. ... Neuschwanstein seen from the Marienbrücke. ... Postcard photograph from 1916 of King Ottos body in repose. ... Maximilian II of Bavaria (November 28, 1811 – March 10, 1864) was king of Bavaria from 1848 until 1864. ... Prince Regent Luitpold Luitpold, Prince Regent of Bavaria (German: Prinzregent Luitpold Karl Joseph Wilhelm Ludwig von Bayern) (12 March 1821—12 December 1912), was the regent and de facto ruler of Bavaria from 1886 to 1912, due to the incapacity of his nephews, Ludwig II and Otto. ... A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior. ... Lake Starnberg (German: Starnberger See) in southern Bavaria is Germanys fourth largest lake and a popular recreation area for the nearby city of Munich. ... Dry drowning is when a persons lungs become unable to extract oxygen from the air, due primarily to: Muscular paralysis Puncture wound to the torso (affecting ability of diaphragm to create respiritory movement), or Changes to the oxygen-absorbing tissues. ... For other uses, see Conspiracy theory (disambiguation). ...


Regency

From 1886 to 1913, the Kingdom of Bavaria was run by a regency, with the official heir, Otto I, being deemed mentally incapable of becoming the country's ruler. During the regency of Prince-Regent Luitpold relations between Bavarians and Prussians remained cold with Bavarians remembering the anti-Catholic agenda of Bismarck's Kulturkampf as well as Prussia's strategic dominance over the empire. Bavaria protested Prussian dominance over Germany and snubbed the Prussian-born German Emperor, Wilhelm II in 1900, by forbidding the flying of any other flag other than the Bavarian flag on public buildings for the Emperor's Birthday, which was quickly modified afterward and then allowed the German imperial flag to be hung side by side with the Bavarian flag. In 1912, Luipold died and his son Prince-Regent Luipold II took over as regent of Bavaria. A year later the regency ended, when Luipold II declared himself King of Bavaria, from that point on he was known as Ludwig III. The German term Kulturkampf (literally, culture struggle) refers to German policies in relation to secularity and the influence of the Roman Catholic Church, enacted from 1871 to 1878 by the Chancellor of the German Empire, Otto von Bismarck. ... Wilhelm II of Prussia and Germany, Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern (January 27, 1859 - June 4, 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and the last King (König) of Prussia from 1888 - 1918. ... Ludwig III (Ludwig Leopold Joseph Maria Aloys Alfred), King of Bavaria, (January 7, 1845 – October 18, 1921) was the last King of Bavaria, reigning from 1913 to 1918. ...


World War I and the end of the Kingdom

A young Adolf Hitler (bottom left) posed with other soldiers of the 16th Bavarian Reserve Regiment.

In 1914, a clash of alliances occurred over Austria-Hungary's invasion of Serbia following the assassination of Austrian Arch Duke Francis Ferdinand by a Bosnian Serb terrorist. Germany went to the side of its former rival-turned-ally Austria-Hungary, while France, Russia, and the United Kingdom declared war on Austria-Hungary and Germany. Initially, in Bavaria and all across Germany, recruits flocked enthusiastically to the German Army. In 1914 Bavaria's corps even accepted the service of one foreigner who would later become infamous in both Bavaria and Germany as a whole, the young Austrian and future German dictator Adolf Hitler. Over time with a stalmated and bloody war on the western front, Bavarians like many Germans grew weary of a continuing war. By 1918, civil unrest was spreading across Bavaria and Germany, Bavarian defiance to Prussian hegemony and Bavarian separatism. In 1918 the kingdom attempted to negotiate a separate peace with the allies but failed. In November 1918, Wilhelm II abdicated the throne of Germany and Ludwig III along with the other German monarchs followed in abdication shortly afterward. With this, the Wittelsbach dynasty came to an end, and the former Kingdom of Bavaria became the Free State of Bavaria, which it is still named today. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 539 pixelsFull resolution (3040 × 2048 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 539 pixelsFull resolution (3040 × 2048 pixel, file size: 1. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... Franz Ferdinand links to here. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Wilhelm II of Prussia and Germany, Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern (January 27, 1859 - June 4, 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and the last King (König) of Prussia from 1888 - 1918. ... The Wittelsbach family is an European royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Kingdom of Bavaria (4068 words)
Its tributaries in Bavaria from the south are the Iller, a stream rich in fish, the Lech, the Isar, and the Inn; from the north its tributaries are the Wörnitz, the Altmühl, the Regen, and the Vils.
Farming in lower Bavaria and cattle-breeding in Swabia, Upper Bavaria, and Middle Franconia are the chief occupations, while the wines of Franconia and the Palatinate and the fruit and vegetables of Bamberg have a high reputation.
Bavaria is well supplied with institutions for the care of the sick, the crippled, children, and old people.
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When Henry the Lion was deposed as duke of Saxony and Bavaria by his cousin, Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, in 1180, Bavaria was awarded as fief to the Wittelsbach family, which ruled from 1180 to 1918.
When Napoleon abolished the Empire, Bavaria became a kingdom in 1806, and in 1815 the Rhenish Palatinate was annexed to it.
Bavaria has long been a bastion of conservative politics in Germany, with the Christian Social Union having almost a stranglehold on power since its inception in 1946.
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