FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Kingdom of Aksum
መነገሠ ፡ አከሰመ
Mangiśta Aksum
Kingdom of Aksum

The Kingdom of Aksum at its greatest extent. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

National Motto:
Ge'ez ለሐዘበ ፡ ዘየደአ
Greek TOYTOAPECHTHXWPA
(Translation: May it please the people)
(later also "By this cross you will conquer" and other Christian mottoes)

National symbol:
Barley stalks
Sacred animals:
Ibex, Lion
Here is a list of state mottos for countries and their subdivisions around the world. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... National symbols are symbols of any entity considering itself and manifesting itself to the world as a national community (independent states, but also nations and countries in a state of colonialor other dependence, (con)federal integration, even an ethno-cultural community considered a nationality despite the absence of any political... Binomial name Hordeum vulgare L. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is a cereal grain, which serves as a major animal feed crop, with smaller amounts used for malting and in health food. ... Species Capra ibex Capra nubiana Capra pyrenaica Capra sibiria Capra walie See also Ibex (vehicle) ifor the specialist off-road vehicle, and the Ibex Valley. ... Binomial name Panthera leo (Linnaeus, 1758) Distribution of Lions in Africa Synonyms Felis leo (Linnaeus, 1758) The lion (Panthera leo) is a mammal of the family Felidae and one of four big cats in the genus Panthera. ...

Official language Ge'ez
Capital Aksum; later Ku`bar
Government Monarchy
Head of state Emperor (ነጉሠ ፡ ነገሥት nigūśa nagaśt, BACIΛEYC BACIΛEωN)
Area 1.25 million km² (0.483 sq mi) at height
Population
 - Total
Uncertain - Greater than 500,000 for Aksum proper (i.e. excluding conquered territories)
Establishment 1st c. BC, Proto-Aksumite period: 4th c. BC - 1st c. BC
Dissolution 7th-10th c.
First known emperor Zoskales (ca.100 AD)
Last Emperor Dil Na'od (ca. 10th c.)
Preceding state Dʿmt
Succeeding state Zagwe Dynasty
Currency Aksumite currency
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
edit

The Kingdom of Aksum (or Axum, Ge'ez አክሱም), was an important trading nation in northeastern Africa, growing from the proto-Aksumite period ca. 4th century BC to achieve prominence by the 1st century AD. Located in northern Ethiopia and Eritrea, it was deeply involved in the trade from India and the east to the Mediterranean. An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... This article is about a city that serves as a center of government and politics. ... Axum, also Aksum, is a city in northern Ethiopia, located at the base of the Adoua mountains. ... “Kingdom” redirects here. ... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... The Emperor (Geez ንጉሠ ነገሥት, , King of Kings) of Ethiopia was the hereditary ruler of Ethiopia until the abolition of the monarchy in 1975. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... The Establishment is a slang term (chiefly in British and Commonwealth English) for a traditional conservative ruling class and its institutions. ... Gudit (or Judith; also known as Esato) is a semi-legendary non-Christian queen (flourished c. ... Zoskales (c. ... Dil Naod was the last Axumite king or emperor before the Zagwe dynasty of Ethiopia. ... Dmt is the Sabaean name for a kingdom on the northern Ethiopian plateau that existed from around 800 BC until it was united in the Aksum kingdom around the birth of Jesus. ... The Zagwe Dynasty ruled Ethiopia from the end of the Kingdom of Axum to 1270, when Yekuno Amlak defeated and killed the last Zagwe king in battle. ... 5th century gold coin of King Ebana. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Axum, also Aksum, is a city in northern Ethiopia, located at the base of the Adoua mountains. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...


In the 3rd century, Aksum began interfering in South Arabian affairs, controlling at times the western Tihama region among other areas. By the late 3rd century it had begun minting its own currency and was named by Mani as the 3rd of the four powerful states in the world: Persia, Rome, Aksum, and China. It converted to Christianity in 325 or 328 under King Ezana and was the first state ever to use the image of the cross on its coins. At its height, Aksum controlled northern Ethiopia, Eritrea, northern Sudan, southern Egypt, Djibouti, western Somaliland, Yemen, and southern Saudi Arabia, totalling 1.25 million km².[1] Tihamah or Tihama (Arabic: ‎ []) is a narrow coastal region of Arabia on the Red Sea. ... 5th century gold coin of King Ebana. ... Mani (in Persian & Arabic مانی) was born in Babylon, Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq) which was a part of Persian Empire about 210-276 CE. He was a religious preacher and the founder of Manichaeism, an ancient Persian gnostic religion that was once prolific but is now extinct. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Empire (Persian: ṢāṣānÄ«yān) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226 - 651). ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... Events May 20 - First Council of Nicaea - first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church: The Nicene Creed is formulated, the date of Easter is discussed. ... Events May 9: Athanasius is elected bishop of Alexandria Births Valens, Roman Emperor Wong Tai Sin Deaths April 17: Alexander I, Patriarch of Alexandria Categories: 328 ... Ezana of Axum was ruler of the Axumite Kingdom from about 320 to 350 AD. Ezana succeeded his father Ella Amida while still a youth and his mother, Sofya served as regent. ... 5th century gold coin of King Ebana. ... Motto لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول الله  (Arabic) Lā ilāhā illā-llāhu; muhammadun rasÅ«lu-llāhi  (transliteration) There is no God but Allah; Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah And also : Justice, Peace, Freedom, Democracy and Success for All Anthem Saamo ku waar Capital Hargeisa (1941-1960) (1991 - present) Official languages Somali and...


It was a quasi-ally of Byzantium against the Persian Empire of the day and declined after the 7th century due to unknown reasons, but informed speculation suggests the rise of Islam heavily impacted its ability to trade with the Far East in the era when shipping was limited to coastal navigation as well as cut it off from its principal markets in Alexandria, Byzantium and Southern Europe. Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ... Alexandria (Greek: , Coptic: , Arabic: , Egyptian Arabic: Iskindireyya), (population of 3. ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... Southern Europe is a region of the European continent. ...


After a second golden age in the early 6th century, the kingdom began to decline, eventually ceasing its production of coins in the early 7th century. It finally dissolved with the invasion of the pagan or Jewish queen Gudit in the 9th or 10th century, resulting in a dark age about which little is known until the rise of the Zagwe dynasty. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Look up pagan, heathen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Gudit (or Judith; also known as Esato) is a semi-legendary non-Christian queen (flourished c. ... The Zagwe Dynasty ruled Ethiopia from the end of the Kingdom of Axum to 1270, when Yekuno Amlak defeated and killed the last Zagwe king in battle. ...

Contents

Origins

Aksum was previously thought to have been founded by Semitic-speaking Sabaeans who crossed the Red Sea from South Arabia (modern Yemen) on the basis of Conti Rossini's theories and prolific work on Ethiopian history, but most scholars now agree that it was an indigenous development.[2][3] Scholars like Stuart Munro-Hay point to the existence of an older D’mt or Da'amot kingdom, prior to any Sabaean migration ca. 4th or 5th c. BC, as well as to evidence of Sabaean immigrants having resided in Ethiopia for little more than a few decades.[4] Furthermore, Ge'ez, the ancient Semitic language of Ethiopia, is now known to not have derived from Sabaean, and there is evidence of a Semitic speaking presence in Ethiopia and Eritrea at least as early as 2000 BC.[5][6] Sabaean influence is now thought to have been minor, limited to a few localities, and disappearing after a few decades or a century, perhaps representing a trading or military colony in some sort of symbiosis or military alliance with the Ethiopian civilization of D`mt or some proto-Aksumite state.[7] Adding more to the confusion, there existed an Ethiopian city called Saba in the ancient period that does not seem to have been a Sabaean settlement. 14th century BCE diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... The Sabaeans were a people who lived in what is today Yemen in the final millennium BCE. They may be the same nation as the biblical Sheba. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... Dmt is the Arabic name for a kingdom on the northern Ethiopian plateau that existed from around 800 BC until it was united in the Aksum kingdom around the birth of Jesus. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Sabey language was a language and alphabet used in Ethiopia up until the 8th Century AD. The Sabay language was replaced by the Geez language and writing system. ... (Redirected from 2000 BC) (21st century BC - 20th century BC - 19th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 2064 - 1986 BC -- Twin Dynasty wars in Egypt 2000 BC -- Farmers and herders travel south from Ethiopia and settle in Kenya. ... DÊ¿mt was a kingdom on the northern Ethiopian plateau that existed during the 8th and 7th centuries BC. Few inscriptions by or about this kingdom exist, as very little archaeological work has taken place. ...


Geography

The Kingdom of Aksum at its height extended across portions of present-day Eritrea, northern Ethiopia, Yemen, southern Saudi Arabia northern Somalia, Djibouti, and northern Sudan. The capital city of the kingdom was Aksum, now in northern Ethiopia. Other important cities included Yeha, Hawulti, Matara, Adulis, and Qohaito, the last three of which are now in Eritrea. Axum, properly Aksum, is a city in northern Ethiopia. ... Yeha is a town in the north of Ethiopia, located in the region of Tigray. ... Matara (or Metera), is an archeological site in Eritrea (a few kilometers south of Senafe), it was a major Aksumite & Pre-Aksumite City. ... Adulis is an archeological site in Eritrea, about 30 miles south of Massawa. ... Qohaito was an Aksumite city in what is now Eritrea, lying over 2,500 m above sea level. ...


Societal structure

The Aksumite people represented a mix of a dominant |Semitic-speaking people, Cushitic-speaking people, and Nilo-Saharan-speaking people (the Kunama and Nara) collectively known as Habeshas. 14th century BCE diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... The Cushitic languages are a subgroup of the Afro-Asiatic languages, named after the Biblical figure Cush by analogy with Semitic. ... Map showing the distribution of the Nilo-Saharan languages. ... The Kunama are an ethnic group living in Eritrea and Ethiopia, making up only 2 percent of the population of Eritrea, where they are one of the smallest ethnic groups. ... The Nara are an ethnic group living in Eritrea and make up less than 1% of the population. ... The term Habesha (Geez ሐበሻ ḥabaśā, Amh. ...


The Aksumite kings had the official title ነገሠ ፡ ነገሠተ ngś ngśt - King of Kings (later vocalization Ge'ez ንጉሠ ፡ ነገሥት nigūśa nagaśt, Modern Ethiosemitic nigūse negest). Aksumite kings traced their lineage to Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. This royal heritage and title was claimed and used by all emperors of Ethiopia. Note: This article contains special characters. ... Ethiopian Semitic languages (sometimes Ethiopic) is a language group which together with Old South Arabian forms the Western branch of the South Semitic languages. ... Artists depiction of Solomons court (Ingobertus, c. ... Depiction of the Queen of Sheba arriving in Israel. ... The Emperor (Geez ንጉሠ ነገሥት, , King of Kings) of Ethiopia was the hereditary ruler of Ethiopia until the abolition of the monarchy in 1975. ...


Foreign relations and economy

Aksum traded with India and Rome (later Byzantium), exporting ivory, tortoise shell, gold and emeralds, and importing silk and spices. Aksum's access to both the Red Sea and the Upper Nile enabled its strong navy to profit in trade between various African (Nubia), Arabian (Yemen), and Indian states. In the 3rd century AD, Aksum acquired tributary states on the Arabian Peninsula across the Red Sea, and by 350, they conquered the Kingdom of Kush. Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Tortoiseshell can refer to: a Tortoiseshell cat a pattern used in clothing and jewellery the Small Tortoiseshell, a butterfly the Hawksbill turtle Tortoiseshell, a song by The Boo Radleys which appeared on their EP Every Heaven This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Silk dresses Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. ... External links Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Spice Food Bacteria-Spice Survey Shows Why Some Cultures Like It Hot Citat: ...Garlic, onion, allspice and oregano, for example, were found to be the best all-around bacteria killers (they kill everything). ... Nubia is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan. ... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... For the son of Rama and Sita from Indian epic of Ramayana, go to Kush (hindu). ...


Aksum remained a strong empire and trading power until the rise of Islam in the seventh century. However, because the Axumites had sheltered Muhammad's first followers, the Muslims never attempted to overthrow Aksum as they spread across the face of Africa. Nevertheless, as early as 640, Umar ibn al-Khattāb sent a naval expedition against Adulis under Alkama bin Mujazziz, but it was eventually defeated.[8] Aksumite naval power also declined throughout the period, though in 702 Aksumite pirates were able to invade the Hejaz and occupy Jeddah. In retaliation, however, Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik was able to take the Dahlak Archipelago from Aksum, which became Muslim from that point on, though later recovered in the 9th century and vassal to the Emperor of Ethiopia.[9] Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... ( 6th century - 7th century - 8th century - other centuries) Events Islam starts in Arabia, the Quran is written, and Arabs subjugate Syria, Iraq, Persia, Egypt, North Africa and Central Asia to Islam. ... For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Adulis is an archeological site in Eritrea, about 30 miles south of Massawa. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Western Province (Saudi Arabia). ... This article is about the Saudi Arabian city. ... Suleiman bin Abd al-Malik (c. ... The Dahlak archipelago is an island group located in the Red Sea off Massawa. ... The Emperor (Geez ንጉሠ ነገሥት, , King of Kings) of Ethiopia was the hereditary ruler of Ethiopia until the abolition of the monarchy in 1975. ...

Aksum and South Arabia at the end of GDRT's reign in the 3rd century AD.
Aksum and South Arabia at the end of GDRT's reign in the 3rd century AD.

Eventually, the Islamic Empire took control of the Red Sea and most of the Nile, forcing Aksum into economic isolation. However, it still had relatively good relations with all of its Muslim neighbors. Two Christian states northwest of Axum (in modern day Sudan), Maqurra and Alwa, survived until the thirteenth century when they were finally forced by Muslim conversion to become Islamic. Aksum, however, remained untouched by the Islamic movements across Africa. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The term South Arabia commonly refers to either: the Federation of South Arabia or the Protectorate of South Arabia This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated with the same title. ... GDRT (vocalized by historians as Gadarat) was a king of Axum (c. ... Makuria (to Arabs al-Mukurra or al-Muqurra) was a kingdom located in what is today Southern Egypt and the Sudan. ... Alodia or Alwa was a kingdom in Christian Nubia. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ...


Cultural achievements

The Kingdom of Aksum is notable for a number of achievements, such its own alphabet, the Ge'ez alphabet (which evolved from Epigraphic South Arabian during the late pre-Aksumite and proto-Aksumite period), which was modified to include vowels, becoming an abugida. Furthermore, in the early times of the kingdom, around 1700 years ago, giant Obelisks to mark King's (and nobles') tombstones (underground grave chambers) were constructed, the most famous of which is the Obelisk of Axum. Note: This article contains special characters. ... The ancient South Arabian alphabet (also known as musnad) branched from the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet in ca. ... An abugida or alphasyllabary is a writing system composed of signs (graphemes) denoting consonants with an inherent following vowel, which are consistently modified to indicate other vowels (or, in some cases, the lack of a vowel). ... The Northern Stelae Park in Axum, with the King Ezanas Stele at the centre and the Great Stele lies broken. ...

Aksum obelisk, symbol of the Aksumite civilization
Aksum obelisk, symbol of the Aksumite civilization

Under King Ezana, the kingdom adopted Christianity in place of its former polytheistic and Judaic religions around 325. The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church has lasted until the present day. Since the schism with Rome following the Council of Chalcedon (451), it has been an important Miaphysite church, and its scriptures and liturgy are still in Ge'ez. Aksumite Christianity may be one of the foundations for the legend of Prester John.[citation needed] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (511x682, 123 KB) King Ezanas obelisk at Aksum photo taken by de:User:Pzbinden7 first upload: Dec 13, 2004 - de:Wikipedia by the photographer File links The following pages link to this file: Obelisk Axum Metadata This file contains additional information... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (511x682, 123 KB) King Ezanas obelisk at Aksum photo taken by de:User:Pzbinden7 first upload: Dec 13, 2004 - de:Wikipedia by the photographer File links The following pages link to this file: Obelisk Axum Metadata This file contains additional information... Ezana of Axum was ruler of the Axumite Kingdom from about 320 to 350 AD. Ezana succeeded his father Ella Amida while still a youth and his mother, Sofya served as regent. ... Polytheism is belief in, or worship of, multiple gods or divinities. ... For a discussion of Jews as an ethnicity or ethnic group see the article on Jew. ... The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (in Amharic: የኢትዮጵያ ኦርቶዶክስ ተዋሕዶ ቤተክርስትያን Yäityopya ortodoks täwahedo bétäkrestyan) is an Oriental Orthodox church in Ethiopia that was part of the Coptic Orthodox Church until 1959, when it was granted its own Patriarch by Coptic Orthodox Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of All... The Council of Chalcedon was an ecumenical council that took place from October 8 to November 1, 451, at Chalcedon (a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor), today part of the city of Istanbul on the Asian side of the Bosphorus and known as the district of Kadıköy. ... Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning one and physis meaning nature) is the christological position that Christ has only one nature, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human. ... Preste enthroned on a map of East Africa in an atlas prepared for Queen Mary, 1558. ...


A story recorded by Rufinus has it that at that time, a foreign boy named Frumentius was made a slave of the royal court, and later a tutor to the royal children. When the king died, the queen asked Frumentius to help rule Axum. He had declined promised freedom and remained until the queen's son, Ezana, was old enough to rule. Frumentius established a number of Christian churches, and when Ezana became king he made Christianity the official religion of Aksum.[10] This custom of a slave who teaches kings remained an important tradition for the next few hundred years. Frumentius (Geez ፍሬምንጦስ /freminťos/) (died ca. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch...


It was a cosmopolitan and culturally important state. It was a meeting place for a variety of cultures: Egyptian, Sudanic, Arabic, and Indian. The major Aksumite cities had Sabean, Jewish, Nubian, Christian, and even Buddhist minorities. Look up cosmopolitan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predomiantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Maronite, Alawite Islam, Druze, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism An Arab (Arabic: ) is any member of the Semitic group of people whose cultural, linguistic, and in certain cases, ancestral origins trace back to... Harran, also known as Carrhae, is an archeological site in present day southeastern Turkey, 24 miles (39 kilometers) southeast of Sanli Urfa. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... For the Star Wars planet, see Nubia (Star Wars). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by...


The Kingdom of Aksum was also the first African polity to issue its own coins. From the reign of Endubis up to Armah (approximately 270 to 610), gold, silver and bronze coins were minted. Issuing coinage in ancient times was an act of great importance in itself, for it proclaimed that the Axumite kingdom considered itself equal to its neighbors. The presence of coins also simplified trade, and was at once a useful instrument of propaganda and a source of profit to the kingdom. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Centuries: 2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century Decades: 220s - 230s - 240s - 250s - 260s - 270s - 280s - 290s - 300s - 310s - 320s Years: 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 Events Crisis of the Third Century Significant people Aurelian, Roman Emperor Marcus Claudius Tacitus, Roman Emperor Probus, Roman Emperor Categories... Centuries: 6th century 7th century 8th century Decades: 560s - 570s - 580s - 590s - 600s - 610s - 620s - 630s - 640s - 650s - 660s Years: 610 611 612 613 614 615 616 617 618 619 Events: Muhammad, founding Prophet of Islam, escapes from Mecca to Medina. ... Soviet Propaganda Poster during the Great Patriotic War. ...

Typical Aksumite architecture - the monastery of Debre Damo.
Typical Aksumite architecture - the monastery of Debre Damo.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2848x2136, 1700 KB) Summary Monastery Debre Damo, Ethiopia (Church) taken from www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2848x2136, 1700 KB) Summary Monastery Debre Damo, Ethiopia (Church) taken from www. ... Debre Damo is the name of a mountain and a monastery in northern Ethiopia, lying west of Adigrat in the region of Tigray. ...

Decline

Aksum began to decline in the 7th century, and the population was forced to go farther inland to the highlands, eventually being defeated c. 950. Ethiopian histories hold that a Jewish Queen named Yodit (Judith) or "Gudit" (a play on "Yodit" meaning "evil") defeated the kingdom and burned its churches and literature, but while there is evidence of churches being burned and an invasion around this time, her existence has been questioned by some modern authors. Another possibility is that the Axumite power was ended by a southern pagan queen named Bani al-Hamwiyah, possibly of the tribe al-Damutah or Damoti (Sidama). After this period, the Axumite kingdom was succeeded by the Zagwe dynasty in the eleventh century or twelfth century, although limited in size and scope. However, Yekuno Amlak, who killed the last Zagwe king and founded the modern Solomonic dynasty traced his ancestry and his right to rule from the last king of Axum, Dil Na'od. Gudit (or Judith; also known as Esato) is a semi-legendary non-Christian queen (flourished c. ... The Sidama are a tribal people in the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples Region (SNNPR) of Ethiopia. ... The Zagwe Dynasty ruled Ethiopia from the end of the Kingdom of Axum to 1270, when Yekuno Amlak defeated and killed the last Zagwe king in battle. ... In music or music theory an eleventh is the note eleven scale degrees from the root of chord and also the interval between the root and the eleventh. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Yekuno Amlak (throne name Tasfa Iyasus) was negus (1270 - 1285) of Ethiopia and founder of the Solomonid dynasty. ... The Solomonid dynasty is the traditional royal house of Ethiopia, claiming descent from King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, who is said to have given birth to the traditional first king Menelik I after her Biblically-described visit to Solomon in Jerusalem. ... Dil Naod was the last Axumite king or emperor before the Zagwe dynasty of Ethiopia. ...

Glass goblets excavated from a grave in Axum are believed to come from Syria about the time of Christ

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Bibliography

  • Stuart Munro-Hay. Aksum: A Civilization of Late Antiquity. Edinburgh: University Press. 1991. ISBN 0-7486-0106-6
  • Yuri M. Kobishchanov. Axum (Joseph W. Michels, editor; Lorraine T. Kapitanoff, translator). University Park, Pennsylvania: Penn State University Press, 1979. ISBN 0-271-00531-9

References

  1. ^ * East-West Orientation of Historical Empires. Peter Turchin, Jonathan M. Adams, and Thomas D. Hall. University of Connecticut. November 2004.
  2. ^ Stuart Munro-Hay, Aksum: An African Civilization of Late Antiquity. Edinburgh: University Press, 1991, pp.57.
  3. ^ Pankhurst, Richard K.P. Addis Tribune, "Let's Look Across the Red Sea I", January 17, 2003.
  4. ^ Munro-Hay, Aksum, pp. 57.
  5. ^ ibid.
  6. ^ Herausgegeben von Uhlig, Siegbert. Encyclopaedia Aethiopica, "Ge'ez". Wiesbaden:Harrassowitz Verlag, 2005, pp. 732.
  7. ^ Munro-Hay, Aksum, pp.57.
  8. ^ E. Cerulli, "Ethiopia's Relations with the Muslim World," in Cambridge History of Africa, Africa from the Seventh to the Eleventh century, pp.575; Trimingham, Spencer, Islam in Ethiopia, pp.46.
  9. ^ Daniel Kendie, The Five Dimensions of the Eritrean Conflict 1941 – 2004: Deciphering the Geo-Political Puzzle. United States of America: Signature Book Printing, Inc., 2005, pp.228.
  10. ^ Rufinus, Ecclesiastical History

The University of Connecticut, commonly known as UConn, is the State of Connecticuts land-grant university. ...

See also

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The following based on S.C. Munro-Hay, Aksum (Edinburgh: University Press, 1991), pp. ... 5th century gold coin of King Ebana. ... Abraha (died 570) was a governor of the territories in Arabia for the Axumite Kingdom, and later king of modern Yemen. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Kingdom of Aksum - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (887 words)
Aksum began to decline in the 7th century AD, and the population was forced to go farther inland to the highlands, eventually being defeated c.
The Kingdom of Aksum at its height extended across portions of present-day Eritrea, northern Ethiopia, Yemen, northern Somalia, Djibouti, and northern Sudan.
Aksum traded with India and Rome (later Byzantium, a strong cultural influence on Aksum), exporting ivory, tortoise shell, gold and emeralds, and importing silk and spices.
African Empires (3621 words)
Aksum's port city on the Red Sea, Adulis, bustled with activity.
Its agriculture and cattle breeding flourished, and Aksum extended its rule to Nubia, across the Red Sea to Yemen, and it had extended its rule to the northern Ethiopian Highlands and along the coast to Cape Guardafui.
A third empire was centered in the kingdom of the Kongo, which dominated areas such as Loango, Kakong, Ngoi and Kisama.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m