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Encyclopedia > King of the Germans

The following list of German monarchs is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. These are lists of incumbents, i. ...


This is not a list of Holy Roman Emperors but for sovereign monarchs who ruled over Germany. The following list of Holy Roman Emperors is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ...

Contents


Notes

The relationship between the title of "king" and "emperor" in the area that is today called Germany is just as complicated as the history and the structure of the Holy Roman Empire itself. The following remarks may or may not clarify things a little (for details, refer to the Holy Roman Empire article): An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... This page is about the Germanic empire. ... This page is about the Germanic empire. ...

  1. The Holy Roman Empire (although only titled as such much later) started out as the eastern section of the Frankish kingdom, which was split by the Treaty of Verdun in 843 (while the western section eventually became France). The rulers of the eastern area thus called themselves rex Francorum, king of the Franks, and later just rex. A reference to the "Germans", indicating the emergence of a German nation of some sort, did not appear until the 11th century, when the pope referred to his enemy Henry IV as rex teutonicorum, King of the Teutons, in order to brand him as a foreigner. The kings reacted by consistently using the title rex Romanorum, King of the Romans, to emphasize their universal rule even before becoming Emperor. This title remained until the end of the Empire in 1806 (but in this and related entries, the kings are called kings of Germany, for clarity's sake.)
  2. The kingdom was never entirely hereditary; instead, ancestry was only one of the factors that determined the succession of kings. The king was formally elected by the leading nobilty in the realm, continuing the Frankish tradition. Gradually the election became the privilege of a group of princes called Electors and the Golden Bull of 1356 formally defined election proceedings.
  3. In the Middle Ages, the King did not assume the title "Emperor" (since 982 the full title was Imperator Augustus Romanorum, August Emperor of the Romans) until crowned by the Pope. He also had to be crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy, after which he assumed the title of rex Italicum, King of Italy. After this he would ride on to Rome and be crowned Emperor by the Pope.
  4. In 1508 Maximilian I was the first king who announced that henceforth he would use the title of "Emperor-Elect", after his attempt to march to Rome and be crowned by the Pope had failed. His successor, Charles V, was the last emperor to be crowned by the Pope. From Ferdinand I onwards, all Emperors were merely "Emperors-Elect", although they were normally referred to as "the Emperor." At the same time, chosen successors of the Habsburg emperors were called "King of the Romans", if elected during their father's lifetime.

The Frankish kingdom was divided with the Treaty of Verdun in 843 among the sons of Louis the Pious. East Francia would become Germany. For other uses, see Franks (disambiguation). ... In the Treaty of Verdun of 843 the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious divided his territories, the Carolingian Empire, into three kingdoms. ... Events Treaty of Verdun divides the Carolingian empire between the 3 sons of Louis the Pious. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... HEINRIC·IMP[ERATOR], Emperor Henry Henry IV (November 11, 1050 – August 7, 1106) was King of Germany from 1056 and Emperor from 1084, until his abdication in 1105. ... This entry is about the Teutonic people, not to be confused with the Teutonic Knights. ... The title King of the Romans (Latin: Rex Romanorum) — not to be confused with the early, partially mythical Kings of Rome — was carried by Holy Roman Emperors after they had been confirmed as Emperor, but before they had undergone the ceremony of coronation by the Pope. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... The Golden Bull of 1356 was a decree issued by a Reichstag in Nuremberg headed by Emperor Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor (see Diet of Nuremberg) that fixed, for a period of more than four hundred years, an important aspect of the constitutional structure of the Holy Roman Empire. ... Events Greenland founded by Erik the Red ; first contact of Europeans with North America Births Emma of Normandy Atisha the Bengali Buddhist Saint Deaths Categories: 982 ... The Iron Crown of Lombardy is both a reliquary and one of the most ancient royal insignia of Europe. ... King of Italy is a title adopted by many rulers after the fall of the Roman Empire. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Left-Wing Democrats) Area  - City Proper  1285 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2. ... 1508 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Portrait by Albrecht Dürer, 1519 (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna). ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Left-Wing Democrats) Area  - City Proper  1285 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ferdinand I Habsburg Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor (March 10, 1503 – July 27, 1564) was one of the Habsburg emperors that at various periods during his life ruled over Austria, Germany, Bohemia and Hungary. ... The following list of Frankish Kings is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ... In the Treaty of Verdun of 843 the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious divided his territories, the Carolingian Empire, into three kingdoms. ... Events Treaty of Verdun divides the Carolingian empire between the 3 sons of Louis the Pious. ... Louis the Pious doing penance at Attigny in 822. ... East Franks corresponds with what is now Germany. ...


Eastern Kingdom of the Franks, later Holy Roman Empire

The following list of Frankish Kings is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ... This page is about the Germanic empire. ...

Carolingian Dynasty (817-911)

The following list of Frankish Kings is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ... Louis the German (also known as Louis II or Louis the Bavarian) (804 - August 28, 876), the third son of the emperor Louis the Pious and his first wife, Ermengarde of Hesbaye, was the king of Bavaria from 817, when his father partitioned the empire, and king of East Francia... Louis the Pious doing penance at Attigny in 822. ... For the King of France known as Louis the Younger, see Louis VII of France. ... Carloman (830-880) was the eldest son of Louis the German, king of East Francia (Germany), and Emma, daughter of the count Welf. ... Charles the Fat in a mediaeval French manuscript. ... Charles the Fat in a mediaeval French manuscript. ... Arnulf of Carinthia (German Arnulf von Kärnten, Slovenian Arnulf Koroški) (850 – December 8, 899) was one of the last ruling members of the Carolingian house in the Eastern part of the Frankish Kingdom, which had been split in the Treaty of Verdun in 843. ... This title could also refer to Louis of Sicily. ...

Conradine Dynasty (911-918)

Conrad I (or Konrad), duke of Franconia, was king of the East Franconian Kingdom from 911 to 918, the first and only king of the Conradine (Franconian) dynasty. ...

Ottonian (Saxon) Dynasty (919-1024)

Henry I, the Fowler (German: Heinrich der Vogler) (876 - July 2, 936), was Duke of Saxony from 912 and king of the Germans from 919 until his death in 936. ... Arnulf I, called der Böse (the Bad or the Evil) (died July 14, 937), was duke of Bavaria from 907 until his death. ... Emperor Otto I Otto I the Great (November 23, 912 - May 7, 973), son of Henry I the Fowler, king of the Germans, and Matilda of Ringelheim, was Duke of Saxony, King of the Germans and arguably the first Holy Roman Emperor. ... Otto II Otto II (955 – December 7, 983, Rome), was the third German ruler of the Saxon or Ottonian dynasty. ... Otto III (980 - January 23, 1002) was the fourth ruler of the Saxon or Ottonian dynasty. ... Saint Henry II of Germany (972 – 13 July 1024), was the fifth and last Holy Roman Emperor of the Saxon or Ottonian dynasty. ...

Salian (Frankish) Dynasty (1024-1125)

  • Conrad II, king 1024, emperor 1027-1039
  • Henry III, king 1039, emperor 1046-1056
  • Henry IV, king 1056, emperor 1084-1105
  • Henry V, king 1098-1125 (until 1105 under his father), emperor 1111-1125

The Salian Dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire was founded by Conrad II (c. ... Conrad II (c. ... Henry III, from a miniature of 1040 Henry III (October 29, 1017 – October 5, 1056), called the Black, was a member of the Salian (sometimes Franconian) dynasty of Holy Roman Emperors. ... HEINRIC·IMP[ERATOR], Emperor Henry Henry IV (November 11, 1050 – August 7, 1106) was King of Germany from 1056 and Emperor from 1084, until his abdication in 1105. ... Rudolph of Rheinfelden (in German, Rudolf von Rheinfeld, and in Italian Rodolfo di Svevia), died October 15, 1080, was Duke of Swabia (1057–1077) and German antiking (1077–1080). ... Conrad (12 February 1074 – 27 July 1101 was the second son of Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV. As such he was King of Germany from 1087 to 1098 and also King of Italy from 1093 to 1098. ... Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor, (1081 – May 23, 1125) was the fourth and last ruler of the Salian dynasty. ...

Supplinburger (1125-1137)

Lothair III of Supplinburg (1075–1137), was Duke of Saxony (1106), King of Germany (1125), and Holy Roman Emperor from 1133 to 1137. ...

Staufen (or Hohenstaufen) dynasty (1137-1254)

  • Frederick II, king 1212, emperor 1220-1250
  • Conrad IV, king 1237-1254 (until 1250 under his father)
    • Heinrich Raspe of Thuringia, anti-king 1246-1247

Arms of the Hohenstaufen The Hohenstaufen were a dynasty of Kings of Germany, many of whom were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Dukes of Swabia. ... Conrad III (1093-1152), the first German king of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was the son of Frederick I, Duke of Swabia. ... Frederick in a 13th century Chronicle Friedrich I. von Hohenstaufen (1122 – June 10, 1190), also known as Friedrich Barbarossa (Frederick Redbeard) was elected king of Germany on March 4, 1152 and crowned Holy Roman Emperor on June 18, 1155. ... Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor (November 1165, Nijmegen – September 28, 1197, Messina) was king of Germany 1190-1197, and Holy Roman Emperor 1191-1197. ... Frederick II (December 26, 1194 – December 13, 1250), Holy Roman Emperor of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212, unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 until his death in 1250. ... Philip of Swabia depicted in a medieval manuscript (about 1200) Philip of Swabia (1177-1208), German king and duke of Swabia, the rival of the emperor Otto IV, was the fifth and youngest son of the emperor Frederick I and Beatrix, daughter of Renaud III, count of Burgundy, and consequently... Otto IV of Brunswick (died 1218) was King of Germany (1208-1215) and Holy Roman Emperor from 1209 - 1215. ... The House of Welf (or House of Guelph) is a European dynasty that has included many German and British monarchs from the 11th century until the 20th century. ... Frederick II (December 26, 1194 – December 13, 1250), Holy Roman Emperor of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212, unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 until his death in 1250. ... Henry (VII) (1211 – February 10, 1242), was King of the Romans, King of Sicily, and Duke of Swabia. ... Conrad IV (April 25, 1228 Andria, Italy - May 21, 1254), Lavello, was king of Jerusalem 1228-1254, Germany 1237-1254, and Sicily 1250-1254. ... Heinrich Raspe (1204 - February 16, 1247) became Landgraf, or count, of Thuringia (now part of modern-day Germany) in 1227; he later became king in 1246-1247 in opposition to Conrad IV. First in Thuringia, Heinrich ruled for his under-age nephew Hermann II, whom he had expelled from the...

Interregnum (1254-1273)

Count Willem II of Holland Granting Privileges by Caesar van Everdingen (1654) William II of Holland, (February 1228-28 January 1256), was a count of Holland (1235-1256) and king of Germany (1247-1256). ... Richard (5 January 1209 - 2 April 1272) was Count of Poitou (bef. ... Alfonso X and his court. ...

Miscellaneous Houses (1273-1437)

The brass of the tomb of Rudolph I in Speyer Rudolph I (Rudolph of Habsburg) (May 1, 1218 – July 15, 1291) was a German king, who played a vital role in raising the Habsburg family to a leading position among the royal dynasties of Germany. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Adolf of Nassau (ca. ... Albert I (July 1255 – May 1, 1308) was a German king, duke of Austria, and eldest son of King Rudolph I of Habsburg and Gertrud of Hohenberg. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Henry VII, (In German: Heinrich), ca. ... Foundation Henry VII, (In German: Heinrich), ca. ... Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor. ... The Wittelsbach family is a European royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria. ... Frederick the Handsome (born 1286; died January 13, 1330), from the House of Habsburg, was Duke of Austria as Frederick I and King of the Romans as Frederick (III). ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor. ... Foundation Henry VII, (In German: Heinrich), ca. ... Günther von Schwarzburg (1304-1349), German king, was a descendant of the counts of Schwarzburg and the younger son of Henry VII, count of Blankenburg. ... Wenceslaus (German: Wenzel; sometimes known as the Drunkard, Czech: Václav IV) of the house of Luxembourg (born February 26, 1361, died August 16, 1419) succeeded his father Charles IV as Holy Roman Emperor (ruled 1378 - 1400) and as king of Bohemia (ruled 1378 - 1419). ... Foundation Henry VII, (In German: Heinrich), ca. ... Rupert of the house of Wittelsbach (1352–1410) succeeded his father Rupert II as Rupert III, Count Palatine of the Rhine (see Palatinate) and one of the foremost rulers in western Germany in 1398. ... The Wittelsbach family is a European royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria. ... Sigismund (February 14/15, 1368 - December 9, 1437) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1433 to 1437. ... Foundation Henry VII, (In German: Heinrich), ca. ... Jobst (or Jost) of Moravia was born in 1351 as son of John Henry of Bohemia, margrave of Moravia, the brother of emperor Charles IV. Jobst was margrave of Brandenburg from 1388-1411. ...

House of Habsburg (1438-1740)

Leaving no male heir, Charles VI left his territories to his daughter Maria Theresa. Charles VI, Charles VII Albert, elector of Bavaria, challenged this succession on behalf of his wife, daughter of Emperor Joseph I. Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Albert II Habsburg (August 10, 1397 - October 27, 1439), German ruler, king of Bohemia and Hungary, and (as Albert V) duke of Austria, was born on August 10, 1397, the son of Albert IV of Habsburg, duke of Austria. ... Detail of Aeneas Piccolomini Introduces Eleonora of Portugal to Frederick III by Pinturicchio (1454-1513) Frederick III of Habsburg (Innsbruck, September 21, 1415 – August 19, 1493 in Linz) was elected as German King as the successor of Albert II in 1440. ... Portrait by Albrecht Dürer, 1519 (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ferdinand I Habsburg Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor (March 10, 1503 – July 27, 1564) was one of the Habsburg emperors that at various periods during his life ruled over Austria, Germany, Bohemia and Hungary. ... Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian II Maximilian II of the Habsburg dynasty was born July 31, 1527 at Vienna and died October 12, 1576 in Regensburg. ... Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II Rudolf II Habsburg was an emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, king of Bohemia, and king of Hungary. ... Holy Roman Emperor Matthias Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor (1612-1619) was born in Vienna on February 24, 1557 and died in Vienna on March 20, 1619. ... Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor (July 9, 1578 – February 15, 1637), of the house of Habsburg, ruled 1620-1637. ... Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor (July 13, 1608 – April 2, 1657), ruled February 15, 1637 – 1657. ... Ferdinand IV (September 8, 1633 - July 9, 1654) was King of the Romans, of Hungary, and of Bohemia. ... Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I Habsburg (June 9, 1640 – May 5, 1705), Holy Roman emperor, was the second son of the emperor Ferdinand III and his first wife Maria Anna, daughter of Philip III of Spain. ... Joseph I. Joseph I (July 26, 1678 – April 17, 1711), Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary and Bohemia, Archduke of Austria, was the elder son of the emperor Leopold I and his third wife, Eleanora, Countess Palatine, daughter of Philip William of Neuburg, Elector Palatine. ... Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI Charles VI of Austria (October 1, 1685 – October 20, 1740) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1711 to 1740 and the second son of Leopold I with his third wife, Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg, came first to the throne with the name Charles III of... H.I.M. Maria Theresa, Holy Roman Empress, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, Archduchess of Austria, Great Principess of Transylvania, Duchess of Parma, Piacenza, and Guastalla Maria Theresa (May 13, 1717 – November 29, 1780) was the first and only female head of the Habsburg dynasty. ... Categories: People stubs | Holy Roman emperors | Dukes of Bavaria ...


House of Wittelsbach (1742-1745)

The Wittelsbach family is a European royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria. ... Categories: People stubs | Holy Roman emperors | Dukes of Bavaria ...

Habsburg-Lorraine (1745-1806)

Habsburg - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Francis I Francis I (December 8, 1708 – August 18, 1765) was Holy Roman Emperor and Grand Duke of Tuscany. ... H.I.M. Maria Theresa, Holy Roman Empress, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, Archduchess of Austria, Great Principess of Transylvania, Duchess of Parma, Piacenza, and Guastalla Maria Theresa (May 13, 1717 – November 29, 1780) was the first and only female head of the Habsburg dynasty. ... Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II Joseph II (March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790. ... Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II Leopold II (born Peter Leopold Joseph) (Vienna, May 5, 1747 – Vienna, March 1, 1792) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1790 to 1792 and Grand-duke of Tuscany. ... Francis II Francis I Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, who may also be referred to as Francis von Habsburg or Emperor Franz I of Austria (February 12, 1768 - March 2, 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until August 6, 1806, when the Empire was disbanded. ...

Confederation of the Rhine 1806-1813

The Confederation of the Rhine or Rhine Confederation (Rheinbund in German; in French officially États confédérés du Rhin but in practice Confédération du Rhin) lasted from 1806 to 1813 and was formed from sixeteen German states by Napoleon after he defeated Habsburgs Francis II... Napoleon I of France, by Jacques-Louis David Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution, and the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from 11 November 1799 to 18 May 1804, then as Emperor of the...

German Confederation 1814-1866

The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was a loose association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Francis II Francis I Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, who may also be referred to as Francis von Habsburg or Emperor Franz I of Austria (February 12, 1768 - March 2, 1835) was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until August 6, 1806, when the Empire was disbanded. ... Emperor Ferdinand Ferdinand I Karl Leopold Joseph Franz Marchlin Emperor of Austria King of Hungary and Bohemia (April 19, 1793 – June 29, 1875) succeeded his father (Franz II Holy Roman Emperor/Franz I of Austria) as Emperor and King in 1835 and was forced to abdicate in 1848. ... Johann, Archduke of Austria, b. ... The Frankfurt Parliament is the name of the German National Assembly founded during the Revolutions of 1848 that tried to unite Germany in a democratic way. ... King Frederick William IV of Prussia (October 15, 1795 - January 2, 1861), the eldest son and successor of Frederick William III of Prussia, reigned as King of Prussia from 1840 to 1861. ... The Frankfurt Parliament is the name of the German National Assembly founded during the Revolutions of 1848 that tried to unite Germany in a democratic way. ... Franz Joseph I. Francis Joseph I (in German often abbreviated Franz Joseph or Franz Josef, and in English also Francis Joseph) (August 18, 1830 – November 21, 1916) of the Habsburg Dynasty was Emperor of Austria and King of Bohemia from 1848 until 1916, and Apostolic King of Hungary from 1867...

North German Confederation 1867-1871

  • King Wilhelm I of Prussia (Hohenzollern), president of the North German Confederation 1867-1871, later proclaimed Emperor Wilhelm I

Flag of North German Confederation, 1867-1871 The North German Confederation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund), came into existence in 1867, following the dissolution of the German Confederation. ... Wilhelm I of Germany (March 22, 1797 – March 9, 1888), German Emperor (Kaiser), ruled January 18, 1871 – 9 March 1888 and King of Prussia, ruled 2 January 1861 – 9 March 1888. ...

German Empire (1871-1918)

Flag of the German Empire, 1871–1919: black-white-red The term German Empire commonly refers to Germany, from its foundation as a unified nation-state on January 18, 1871, until the abdication of Emperor Wilhelm II on November 9, 1918. ...

Hohenzollern (1871-1918)

Birds-eye view of the castle, Hohenzollern, Germany. ... Wilhelm I of Germany (March 22, 1797 – March 9, 1888), German Emperor (Kaiser), ruled January 18, 1871 – 9 March 1888 and King of Prussia, ruled 2 January 1861 – 9 March 1888. ... Friedrich III (October 18, 1831 – June 15, 1888), German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruled 1888. ... German Emperor Wilhelm II (born Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albrecht von Hohenzollern 27 January 1859–4 June 1941), was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and the last King (König) of Prussia, ruling from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. ...

External links

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Holy Roman Emperors

  Results from FactBites:
 
List of German monarchs - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (736 words)
Albert I (House of Habsburg), anti-king 1298, king 1298-1308
Wenceslaus of Bohemia (House of Luxemburg), king 1378-1400
Ruprecht of Palatinate (House of Wittelsbach), king 1400-1410
Holy Roman Empire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4996 words)
The pope's crowning of Charlemagne as Augustus in 800 formed the example that later kings would follow: it was the result of Charlemagne having defended the pope against the rebellious inhabitants of Rome, which initiated the notion of the Reich being the protector of the church.
German kings had been elected since time immemorial: in the 9th century by the leaders of the five most important tribes (the Franks, Saxons, Bavarians, Swabians and Thuringians), later by the main lay and clerical dukes of the kingdom, finally only by the so-called Kurfürsten (electing dukes, electors).
The difficulties in electing the king eventually led to the emergence of a fixed college of electors, the Kurfürsten, whose composition and procedures were set forth in the Golden Bull of 1356.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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