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Encyclopedia > King Tubby
King Tubby
King Tubby

King Tubby (born Osbourne Ruddock, January 28, 1941February 6, 1989) was a Jamaican electronics and sound engineer, known primarily for his influence on the development of dub in the 1960s and 1970s. Tubby's innovative studio work, which saw him elevate the role of record producer to a creative height previously only reserved for composers and musicians, would prove to be highly influential across many genres of popular music. He is often cited as the inventor of the concept of the remix, and so may be seen as a direct antecedent of much dance and electronic music production. Image File history File links Essential_dub_big. ... Image File history File links Essential_dub_big. ... January 28 is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... In the music industry, a record producer (or music producer) has many roles, among them controlling the recording sessions, coaching and guiding the musicians, and supervising the recording, mixing and mastering processes. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... A musician is a person who plays or composes music. ... A remix is an alternative version of a song, different from the original version. ... Dance music is a style of popular music commonly played in dance music nightclubs, radio stations and shows and raves. ... Electronic music is a term for music created using electronic devices. ...

Contents

Early life

In the 1950s, King Tubby's musical career began with the sound systems, which were set up on the streets of Kingston to play dance music for the people. As a talented radio repairman, Tubby was soon in great demand at most of the major sound systems of Kingston, as the tropical weather of the Caribbean Island, (often combined with sabotage by rival sound system owners) prompted many malfunctions in the equipment. Tubby would eventually form his own sound system, Tubby's Hometown Hi-Fi, which became a crowd favourite due to high sound quality, exclusive releases and Tubby's own echo and reverb sound effects, at that point something of a novelty. // Recovering from World War II and its aftermath, the economic miracle emerged in West Germany and Italy. ... In Jamaica, a Sound System is a popular type of nomadic outdoor concert/party. ... The City of Kingston is the capital and largest city of Jamaica. ... ECHO is a German music award granted every year by the Deutsche Phono-Akademie (an association of recording companies). ... When sound is produced in an enclosed space multiple reflections build up and blend together creating reverberation or reverb. ... Look up novelty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Remixes

Tubby began working as a disc cutter for producer Duke Reid in 1968. Reid, one of the major figures in early Jamaican music alongside rival Clement 'Coxsone' Dodd, ran Treasure Isle studios, one of Jamaica's first independent production houses, and was a key producer of Ska, Rocksteady and eventually Reggae recordings. Asked to produce instrumental versions of songs for sound system MCs or toasters, Tubby initially worked to remove the vocal tracks with the sliders on Reid's mixing desk, but soon discovered that the various instrumental tracks could be accentuated, reworked and emphasised through the settings on the mixer and primitive early effects units. In time, Tubby (and others) began to create wholly new pieces of music by shifting the emphasis in the instrumentals, adding sounds and removing others and adding various special effects, like echoes, reverb and phase effects. Partly due to the incredible popularity of these early remixes, 1971 saw Tubby's soundsystem consolidate its position as one of the most popular in Kingston and so he decided to open a studio of his own. Duke Reid was a Jamaican record producer, DJ and label owner. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... Clement Seymour Sir Coxsone Dodd (Kingston, Jamaica, January 26, 1932 – May 5, 2004) was a Jamaican record producer who was influential in the development of reggae and other forms of Jamaican music in the 1950s, 60s and later. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Rocksteady is the name given to a style of music popular in Jamaica between 1966 and 1968. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Toasting, chatting, or DJing is the act of talking or chanting over a rhythm or beat. ... A remix is an alternative version of a song, different from the original version. ... See also: 1970 in music, other events of 1971, 1972 in music, 1970s in music and the list of years in music // February 8 - Bob Dylans hour-long documentary film, Eat the Document, premieres at New Yorks Academy of Music. ...


Dub music production

King Tubby's production work in the 1970s would see him become one of the best-known celebrities in Jamaica, and would generate interest in his production techniques from musicians across the world. Tubby built on his considerable knowledge of electronics to repair, adapt and design his own studio equipment, which made use of a combination of old devices and new technologies to produce a studio capable of the precise, atmospheric sounds which would become Tubby's trademark. With a variety of effects units connected to his mixer, Tubby was able to 'play' the mixing desk like an instrument, bringing instruments and vocals in and out of the mix (literally 'dubbing' them) to create an entirely new genre: dub music. The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... Dub is a form of Jamaican music, which developed in the early 1970s. ...


Using existing master tapes or his own highly skilled session musicians, Tubby would twist the instrumental parts of songs into unexpected configurations which highlighted the heavy rhythms of their bass and drum parts with minute snatches of vocals, horns and keyboard. These techniques mirrored the actions of the soundsystem selectors, who had long used EQ equipiment to emphasise certain aspects of particular records, but Tubby was able to use his custom-built studio to take this technique into unexpected areas, often transforming a hit song to the point where it was almost unrecognizeable from its original. A selector can be: a Reggae DJ (who selects music to play). ...


Tubby engineered/remixed songs by Jamaica's top producers such as Lee Perry, Bunny Lee, Augustus Pablo and Vivian Jackson that featured artists such as Johnny Clarke, Cornell Campbell, Linval Thompson, Horace Andy, Big Joe, Delroy Wilson, Jah Stitch and many others. In 1973, he began recording vocals to put along the instrumentals. It is unlikely that a complete discography of Tubby's production work could be created based on the number of labels, artists and producers with whom he worked, and subsequent repressings of these releases sometimes contained contradictory information. His name is credited on hundreds of b-side labels, with the possibility that many others were by his hand yet uncredited, due to similarities with his known work. Lee Scratch Perry, The Upsetter in Dub Lee Scratch Perry (born Rainford Hugh Perry March 20, 1936) is one of the most influential people in the development of reggae and dub music in Jamaica. ... Bunny Lee Edward OSullivan Lee, better known as Bunny Striker Lee (born August 23, 1941) was a prominent, prolific and successful Jamaican record producer in the 1970s. ... Horace Swaby (June 21, 1954 – May 18, 1999), better known as Augustus Pablo, was a Jamaican roots reggae and dub record producer and keyboardist, active from the 1970s onwards. ... Johnny Clarke was born on 12 January 1955 in Jamaica. ... Linval Thompson is a reggae and dub artist and producer. ... Horace Andy (born Horace Hinds, 19 February 1951 in Kingston, Jamaica), is a legendary Roots reggae singer, notable for such tracks as Government Land, You Are My Angel, Skylarking and a version of Aint no sunshine. Andy made his earliest recordings in the late 1960s, at Coxsone Dodds... Big Joe was a subprogram of Project Mercury. ... Delroy Wilson (5 October 1948-6 March 1995) was a Jamaican ska, rock steady and reggae singer. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ...


By the later part of the decade, though, King Tubby had mostly retired from music, still occasionally recording remixes and tutoring a new generation of artists, including King Jammy and Scientist. In the 1980s, he focused on the management of his own labels, Firehouse, Waterhouse and Taurus, which released the work of Anthony Red Rose, Sugar Minott, Conroy Smith and other popular musicians. He has been cited numerous times as influential to modern musicians including Animal Collective's Panda Bear (Noah Lennox). King Jammy was born Lloyd James in Kingston, Jamaica and worked as Prince Jammy together with King Tubby. ... Scientist (Overton/Hopetone Brown) was a protégé of King Tubby (Osbourne Ruddock) one of the originators of Dub music. ... The 1980s refers to the years of 1980 to 1989. ... Sugar Minnott (born May 25, 1956) is a Jamaican singer. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Animal Collective are a New York City-based group of experimental musicians from Baltimore, Maryland. ...


Death

King Tubby was shot and killed on February 6, 1989 by unknown persons outside his home in Duhaney Park, upon returning from a session at his Waterhouse studio. It is thought that the murder was probably in a robbery attempt (see 1989 in music). 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... See also: 1989 in music (UK) Musical groups established in 1989 Record labels established in 1989 other events of 1989 list of years in music 1980s in music // January 5 - Madonna files for divorce from Sean Penn after three-and-a-half years of marriage, citing irreconcilable differences. ...


Sample

Download sample of "King Tubby Meets Rockers Uptown", an Augustus Pablo track produced by King Tubby. Horace Swaby (June 21, 1954 – May 18, 1999), better known as Augustus Pablo, was a Jamaican roots reggae and dub record producer and keyboardist, active from the 1970s onwards. ...


External links

  • King Tubby's Discography
  • Discography of 1970's recordings & dub sources at X Ray Music
  • BBC Profile
  • "Dub Echoes", a documentary about dub's influence on the birth of electronic music and hip hop

  Results from FactBites:
 
King Tubby - Pioneer of Dub (1786 words)
King Tubby (born Osbourne Ruddock, January 28, 1941 - February 6, 1989) is a Jamaican musician, known primarily for his influence on the development of dub in the 1960s.
By 1971, Tubby's soundsystem was one of the most popular in Kingston and he decided to open a studio of his own.
By the later part of the decade though, King Tubby had mostly retired from music, still occasionally recording remixes and tutoring a new generation of artists, including King Jammy and Scientist.
King Tubby - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (766 words)
King Tubby (born Osbourne Ruddock, January 28, 1941 February 6, 1989) was a Jamaican electronics and sound engineer, known primarily for his influence on the development of dub in the 1960s and 1970s.
Tubby's innovative studio work, which saw him elevate the role of record producer to a creative height previously only reserved for composers and musicians, would prove to be highly influential across many genres of popular music.
Tubby built on his considerable knowledge of electronics to repair, adapt and design his own studio equipment, which made use of a combination of old devices and new technologies to produce a studio capable of the precise, atmospheric sounds which would become Tubby's trademark.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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