FACTOID # 8: Bookworms: Vermont has the highest number of high school teachers per capita and third highest number of librarians per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > King Philip's War
Attack
Attack

King Philip's War, sometimes called Metacom's War or Metacom's Rebellion,[1] was an armed conflict between Indian inhabitants of present-day southern New England and English colonists and their Indian allies from 1675–1676. Nearly one in twenty persons overall among Indians and English were wounded or killed. King Philip's war was proportionately one of the bloodiest and costliest in the history of America. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). ... Image File history File links During King Philips War, in 1676 Indians burned all but four Groton garrisons. ... Image File history File links During King Philips War, in 1676 Indians burned all but four Groton garrisons. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ...


The war is named after the main leader of the Indian side, Metacomet, Metacom, or Pometacom known to the English as "King Philip." Metacomet (died August 12, 1676), also known as King Philip or Metacom, was a war chief or sachem of the Wampanoag Indians and their leader in King Philips War. ...

Contents

Background

Plymouth, Massachusetts was established in 1620 with significant early help from the Indians, particularly Squanto and Massasoit, Metacomet's father and chief of the Wampanoag tribe. Salem, Massachusetts, Boston, Massachusetts and several other small towns were established around Boston in the period of 1628-1640. Towns like Windsor, Connecticut (est. 1635), Hartford, Connecticut (est. 1636), Springfield, Massachusetts (est. 1636) and Northampton, Massachusetts (est. 1654) on the Connecticut River and towns like Providence, Rhode Island in Narragansett Bay (est. 1638) were being progressively built into Native American territories. Prior to King Philip's War tensions fluctuated between different groups of native people and the colonists; but were generally peaceful. The colonists of what is now southern and eastern New England, were an increasing presence as their small population grew inexorably larger over time and the number of towns increased. The Wampanoag, Nipmuck, Narragansett, Mohegan, Pequot tribes and other small tribes were each treated individually (many were traditional enemies) by the English officials of Rhode Island, Plymouth, Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut, and New Haven. The New Englanders continued to expand their settlements along the coastal plain, and up the Connecticut River valley. By 1675 they had even established a few small towns in the interior between Boston and the Connecticut River The Indians were running out of trade goods and territory and felt progressively squeezed by the colonists out of some of their traditional territories. Nickname: Location in Plymouth County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Plymouth Settled 1620 Incorporated (town) 1670 Government [1]  - Type Representative town meeting  - Town    Manager Mark Sylvia Area  - Total 134. ... This article is about the actual historical figure. ... This 1902 photo shows Profile Rock in Assonet, Massachusetts. ... The Wampanoag (Wôpanâak in the Wampanoag language) are a Native American people. ... Nickname: Location in Essex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Essex Settled 1626 Incorporated 1626 A City 1836 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Kimberley Driscoll Area  - Total 18. ... Boston redirects here. ... Motto: First in Connecticut, First for its Citizens Location in Hartford County, Connecticut Coordinates: , NECTA Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford Region Capitol Region Settled 1633 Named 1637 Government  - Type Council-manager[1]  - Town manager Peter Souza  - Town council Donald S. Trinks, Mayor; Timothy Curtis, Deputy Mayor; Robert B. Gegetskas II... Hartford redirects here. ... Nickname: Location in Hampden County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Hampden Settled 1636 Incorporated 1852 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Charles Ryan (D) Area  - Total 33. ... Nickname: Motto: caritas, educatio, justitia Location in Hampshire County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Hampshire Settled and Charter granted 1654 Incorporated as a city 1884 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Mary Clare Higgins Area  - City  35. ... The Connecticut River as seen from the French King Bridge in western Massachusetts. ... Providence redirects here. ... Narragansett Bay, shown in pink. ... The Wampanoag (Wôpanâak in the Wampanoag language) are a Native American people. ... Nipmuck emblem The Nipmuck are an aboriginal North American people, belonging to the family of Algonquian peoples, currently living in and around the Chaubunagungamaug Reservation of Webster, Massachusetts. ... The Narragansett tribe, or more accurately Nahahiganseck Sovereign Nation, are a Native American tribe who controlled the area surrounding Narragansett Bay in present-day Rhode Island, and also portions of Connecticut, and eastern Massachusetts. ... The Mohegan tribe is an Algonquian-speaking tribe living in eastern (upper Thames valley) Connecticut [1] that was jointly ruled by the Pequot tribe until 1637. ... See Main articles: Mashantucket Pequot Eastern Pequot Tribal Nation. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Seal of Plymouth Colony Map of Plymouth Colony showing town locations Capital Plymouth Language(s) English Religion Puritan, Separatist Government Monarchy Legislature General Court History  - Established 1620  - First Thanksgiving 1621  - Pequot War 1637  - King Philips War 1675–1676  - Part of the Dominion of New England 1686–1688  - Disestablished 1691... A map of the Massachusetts Bay Colony Capital Charlestown, Boston History  - Established 1629  - New England Confederation 1643  - Dominion of New England 1686  - Province of Massachusetts Bay 1692  - Disestablished 1692 The Massachusetts Bay Colony (sometimes called the Massachusetts Bay Company, for the institution that founded it) was an English settlement on... A map of the Connecticut, New Haven, and Saybrook colonies. ... The New Haven Colony was an English colonial venture in Connecticut in North America from 1637 to 1662. ... The Connecticut River as seen from the French King Bridge in western Massachusetts. ... The Connecticut River as seen from the French King Bridge in western Massachusetts. ...


The English Civil War and Oliver Cromwell's English Commonwealth was fought and won by New England's Puritan allies who remained in England. After Cromwell's death in 1659 and the English Restoration of 1660, Charles II of England was "restored" back to England under restrictions set by the English Parliament. He was the son of the beheaded Charles I of England and a bitter enemy of all things Puritan. For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Oliver Cromwell (disambiguation). ... The Commonwealth was the republican government which ruled first England and then the whole of Britain, Ireland, the colonies and other Crown possessions during the periods from 1649 (the monarch Charles I being beheaded on January 30 and An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth being passed by the... For other uses, see Restoration. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... A body now called the English Parliament first arose during the thirteenth century, referred to variously as colloquium and parliamentum. It shared most of the powers typical of representative institutions in medieval and early modern Europe, and was arranged from the fourteenth century in a bicameral manner, with a House... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ...


By 1664 Charles II had declared war on the Dutch and captured New York, installing Edmund Andros as governor there. The French in Canada hated almost all things British and would more likely support the Indians than the colonists. Bacon's Rebellion of 1675 had tied down the Virginia government, the only other significant English presence in North America. In 1675 the New England colonies were almost without allies in North America and would fight the war almost exclusively with their own money and militias. This article is about the state. ... Sir Edmund Andros Sir Edmund Andros (December 6, 1637 - February 24, 1714), was an early colonial governor in North America, and head of the short-lived Dominion of New England. ... Bacons Rebellion or the Virginia Rebellion was an uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony, led by Nathaniel Bacon. ...


Disease and war

The native population throughout the Northeast had been significantly reduced by pandemics of smallpox, spotted fever and measles brought in by fishermen starting in about 1618 — two years before the first colony at Plymouth, Massachusetts had been settled.[2] This article is about large epidemics. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... Spotted fever can refer to: Mediterranean spotted fever Rocky Mountain spotted fever This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Nickname: Location in Plymouth County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Plymouth Settled 1620 Incorporated (town) 1670 Government [1]  - Type Representative town meeting  - Town    Manager Mark Sylvia Area  - Total 134. ...


Shifting alliances between different Algonkian peoples and the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois), represented by leaders such as Massasoit, Sassacus, Uncas, and Ninigret, and the colonial polities of Massachusetts Bay Colony, Plymouth Colony, Rhode Island, and Connecticut, negotiated a troubled peace for several decades. The Algonquian (also Algonkian) languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic language family (others are Wiyot and Yurok of northwestern California). ... The Haudenosaunee is the traditional leadership of the Iroquois Confederacy, comprised of the six Native American nations of the Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, Mohawk and Tuscarora. ... This 1902 photo shows Profile Rock in Assonet, Massachusetts. ... SASSACUS, Pequot chief, born near Oroton, Connecticut, about 1560 died in the Mohawk settlement in June, 1637. ... Uncas (c. ... Ninigret was a sachem of the Rhode Island Narragansett Native American tribe. ... A map of the Massachusetts Bay Colony Capital Charlestown, Boston History  - Established 1629  - New England Confederation 1643  - Dominion of New England 1686  - Province of Massachusetts Bay 1692  - Disestablished 1692 The Massachusetts Bay Colony (sometimes called the Massachusetts Bay Company, for the institution that founded it) was an English settlement on... Seal of Plymouth Colony Map of Plymouth Colony showing town locations Capital Plymouth Language(s) English Religion Puritan, Separatist Government Monarchy Legislature General Court History  - Established 1620  - First Thanksgiving 1621  - Pequot War 1637  - King Philips War 1675–1676  - Part of the Dominion of New England 1686–1688  - Disestablished 1691... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[3] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[2] Area  Ranked 48th  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ...


Failure of diplomacy

"King Philip's Seat," a meeting place on Mount Hope, (Rhode Island)
"King Philip's Seat," a meeting place on Mount Hope, (Rhode Island)

Metacom, known to the English as "King Philip" became Sachem of the Pokanoket and Grand Sachem of the Wampanoag Confederacy after the suspicious death of his older brother, the Grand Sachem Wamsutta in 1662. Well known to the English before his ascension to the Wampanoag chieftancy, Metacom's open distrust of the colony came to a head when Wamsutta suddenly died in Plymouth, while negotiating with colonial officials there. Metacom succeeded his brother. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The site of King Philips death in Miery Swamp on Mount Hope King Philips Seat, a meeting place on Mount Hope, (Rhode Island) Mount Hope (originally Montaup in Pokanoket) is a hill in Bristol, Rhode Island overlooking the part of Narragansett Bay known as Mount Hope Bay. ... A sagamore is the head of a Native American tribe. ... The Pokanoket were one of the tribes that made up the Wampanoag peoples. ... The Wampanoag (Wôpanâak in the Wampanoag language) are a Native American people. ... Wamsutta (b. ...


Metacom began negotiating with other Indian tribes against the interests of Plymouth Colony soon after the death of the Plymouth colony's greatest ally, his father, Massasoit in 1661 and his brother Wamsutta in 1662. For almost half a century, Massasoit had been able to maintain an uneasy alliance with the English soon after their arrival as a source of much desired trade goods and even a counter-weight to his traditional enemies, the Pequot, Narragansett, and the Mohegan. Massasoit's price for having the English as allies and traders of Iron Age goods was colonial incursion into Wampanoag territory as well as English political interference. Maintaining good relations with the English became increasingly difficult as Massasoit, Wamsutta and Metacom ran out of Indian trade goods and started trading land for iron tools and weapons. Seal of Plymouth Colony Map of Plymouth Colony showing town locations Capital Plymouth Language(s) English Religion Puritan, Separatist Government Monarchy Legislature General Court History  - Established 1620  - First Thanksgiving 1621  - Pequot War 1637  - King Philips War 1675–1676  - Part of the Dominion of New England 1686–1688  - Disestablished 1691... This 1902 photo shows Profile Rock in Assonet, Massachusetts. ... Wamsutta (b. ... See Main articles: Mashantucket Pequot Eastern Pequot Tribal Nation. ... Tribal flag The Narragansett tribe, or more accurately Nahahiganseck Sovereign Nation, are a Native American tribe who controlled the area surrounding Narragansett Bay in present-day Rhode Island, and also portions of Connecticut, and eastern Massachusetts. ... The Mohegan tribe is an Algonquian-speaking tribe living in eastern (upper Thames valley) Connecticut [1] that was jointly ruled by the Pequot tribe until 1637. ...


Religion

Many Puritans regarded one of the aims of settling anywhere to be the conversion of people around them to share their Puritan beliefs. This political, diplomatic, philosophical, and moral position sometimes increased tensions – as the Indians had their own beliefs. Through conversion to Christianity, the Puritans hoped to share their moral convictions with the gradual religious, social and political integration of native peoples into Puritan colonial society. However, only a handful of colonial missionaries, such as John Eliot and Thomas Mayhew, succeeded in gaining the trust of native peoples. Even Massasoit, one of the colony's staunchest Native allies, refused admittance to villages within greater Wampanoag territory to those intent on Christian conversion. For the record label, see Puritan Records. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... John Eliot is the name of several notable individuals. ... Thomas Mayhew, Sr. ... This 1902 photo shows Profile Rock in Assonet, Massachusetts. ...


Initial Anglo-Indian contacts were mutually beneficial without any religious content. As relationships developed some Puritans eventually attempted to convert Indians to Christianity, as this was what they believed their Bible taught – everyone should hear the word of the God in their Bible. By the 1650s, many Indians had converted and moved to "praying towns." These were towns where the inhabitants were all Christian Indians and where English customs and trades were taught in addition to religious instruction. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is...


By 1660, John Eliot oversaw the establishment of seven "Praying Towns." By 1680, several more had been established in Nipmuc territory, among which were, Chachaubunkkakowok (Chaubunagungamaug), Okommakamesit (Ockoogameset), Hassanamisco, Magunkaquog (Makunkokoag, Magunkook), Maanexit (also spelled Mayanexit, located on the Quinebaug River near the old Connecticut Path to and from Massachusetts, Quinnatisset, located roughly "6 miles south of Maanexit", and Wabaquasset (Massomuck, Wabiquisset), the largest of the three northeastern Connecticut praying towns, located 6 miles west of the Quinebaug River in present-day Woodstock, Connecticut, Manchaug, Nashobah, Nashaway (Weshacum), Okommakamesit Pakachoog (Packachaug), Quabaug (Quaboag), Quantisset (Quinetusset), Wacuntug (Wacuntuc, Wacumtaug), and Wamesit. Here, Indian peoples were expected to learn English customs and trades. In all there were several hundred "Praying Indians" converts and they would be used shabbily by both sides in the upcoming conflict. They may have wanted English goods and military protection as well as instruction in new trades, reading, writing and religion. Praying towns developed quickly due to the efforts of native peoples themselves who voluntarily moved there. Nipmuck emblem The Nipmuck are an aboriginal North American people, belonging to the family of Algonquian peoples, currently living in and around the Chaubunagungamaug Reservation of Webster, Massachusetts. ... Chaubunagungamaug may refer to: Lake Chaubunagungamaug in Webster, Massachusetts Chaubunagungamaug Nipmuck Indians of Webster, Massachusetts Category: ... Flag of the Nipmuc Nation The Hassanamisco Nipmuck, from whom the Hassanamisco Reservation in Grafton, Massachusetts takes its name, are a home to a group of Nipmuck Indians native to Worcester County, Massachusetts. ... Quinebaug River and environs The Quinebaug River is a river in south-central Massachusetts and eastern Connecticut, with watershed extending into western Rhode Island. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Woodstock is a town located in Windham County, Connecticut. ... The Nashaway (or Nashua or Weshacum) were a tribe of Algonquian Indians inhabiting the Nashua River valley in present-day central Massachusetts in the 17th Century. ...


The War begins

The spark that ignited King Phillip's War was a report from an Indian Christian convert ("Praying Indian") early Harvard graduate, translator, and adviser to Metacom named John Sassamon. Sassamon relayed to Plymouth Colony officials the news of King Philip trying to arrange Indian attacks on widely dispersed colonial settlements. Before colonial officials could investigate the charges, John Sassamon was murdered, his body found beneath an ice-covered pond, allegedly killed by a few of Philip's Wampanoag angry at his betrayal. 17th century term refering to Native Americans of New England who converted to Christianity. ... // Early Biography John Sassamon was a Wampanoag Indian born in Massachusetts during the earlier part of the 17th century. ...


On the testimony of an Indian witness, Plymouth Colony arrested three Wampanoags, (including one of Metacomet's councilors) convicted them (with a jury having some Indian members) of John Sassamon's murder, and hanged them on June 8, 1675 at Plymouth. Some of the Wampanoag believed that both the trial and the court's sentence were an insult to Indian sovereignty. In response, on June 20, a band of Pokanoket, possibly without Philip's approval, assaulted several isolated homesteads in Swansea – a small Plymouth colony settlement. First, laying siege to the town, they then destroyed it five days later and killed several settlers and others coming to help the settlers. is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1675 (MDCLXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Nickname: Location in Plymouth County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Plymouth Settled 1620 Incorporated (town) 1670 Government [1]  - Type Representative town meeting  - Town    Manager Mark Sylvia Area  - Total 134. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Pokanoket were one of the tribes that made up the Wampanoag peoples. ... Swansea is a town located in Bristol County in southeastern Massachusetts. ...


Officials from Plymouth and Boston were quick to respond, and on June 28 they sent an military expedition that destroyed the Wampanoag town at Mount Hope (modern Bristol, Rhode Island). Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Motto: Official website: http://www. ...


The War

Early engagements

Massacre
Massacre

The war quickly spread, and soon involved the Podunk and Nipmuck tribes. During the summer of 1675 the Indians attacked at Middleborough and Dartmouth (July 8),Mendon (July 14), Brookfield (August 2), and Lancaster (August 9). In early September they attacked Deerfield, Hadley, and Northfield (possibly giving rise to the Angel of Hadley legend.) The New England Confederation declared war on the Indians on September 9, 1675. The next colonial expedition was to recover crops from abandoned fields for the coming winter and included almost a hundred farmers/militia. They got careless and were ambushed and soundly defeated in the Battle of Bloody Brook[1] (near Hadley) on September 18, 1675. The attacks on frontier settlements continued at Springfield (October 5) and Hatfield (October 16). Image File history File links Settler_Massacre. ... Image File history File links Settler_Massacre. ... In American English, Podunk, or Podunk Hollow has come to denote something, usually a place, of small size and is often used as a placeholder name in a context of dismissing significance or importance. ... Nipmuck emblem The Nipmuck are an aboriginal North American people, belonging to the family of Algonquian peoples, currently living in and around the Chaubunagungamaug Reservation of Webster, Massachusetts. ... Middleborough is a town in Plymouth County, Massachusetts, United States. ... Location in Massachusetts Country United States State Massachusetts County Bristol County Settled 1650 Incorporated 1664 Government  - Type Representative town meeting Area  - Town  97. ... Mendon is a town in Worcester County, Massachusetts, United States. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that History of Brookfield, Connecticut be merged into this article or section. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Meeting House, designed by noted architect Charles Bulfinch, built 1815-1817. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Deerfield is a town located in Franklin County, Massachusetts. ... Hadley is a town located in Hampshire County, Massachusetts. ... Northfield is a town located in Franklin County, Massachusetts. ... The Angel of Hadley is the central character in an epynomous legend intersecting the The Regicide of Charles I of England, King Philips War and the Town of Hadley, Massachusetts. ... Mercator projection: New England Confederation in yellow The United Colonies of New England, commonly known as the New England Confederation, was a political and military alliance of the British colonies of Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1675 (MDCLXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1675 (MDCLXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Nickname: Location in Hampden County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Hampden Settled 1636 Incorporated 1852 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Charles Ryan (D) Area  - Total 33. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Hatfield is a town located in Hampshire County, Massachusetts. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The next expansion of the war came from the colonists. On November 2, Josiah Winslow led a combined force of colonial militia against the Narragansett tribe. The Narragansetts had not yet been directly involved in the war, but they had sheltered many of the Wampanoag's women and children and several of their men had reportedly been seen in several Indian raiding parties. The tribe was not trusted by the colonists. As the colonial force assembled and marched around Rhode Island they found and burned several Indian towns that had been abandoned by the Narragansett, who had retreated to a massive fort in a swamp. Led by an Indian guide, on December 16, 1675 on a bitterly cold storm-filled day the colonial force found the main Narragansett fort near modern South Kingstown, Rhode Island. Crossing the frozen swamp, a combined force of Plymouth, Massachusetts and Connecticut militia numbering about 1000 men, including about 150 Pequots and Mohicans, attacked the fort. The bitter and hard-fought battle that followed is known as the Great Swamp Fight. It's believed that about 300 Indians were killed (exact figures are unavailable). The massive fort (occupying over five acres of land) was burned and most of the tribe's winter stores were destroyed. Many of the warriors and their families escaped into the frozen swamp. Facing a winter with little food and shelter, the entire surviving Narragansett tribe was forced out of quasi-neutrality and joined the fight. The colonists lost many of their officers in this assault: about 70 of their men were killed and nearly 150 more wounded. [3] is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1675 (MDCLXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... South Kingstown is a town in Washington County, Rhode Island, United States. ... The Great Swamp Fight was a crucial battle during King Phillips War, a devastating war fought in 17th century New England in the United States. ...


Native American victories

Throughout the winter of 1675–1676 more frontier settlements were destroyed by the Indians, as well as the burning of Bull Garrison House. Attacks came at Andover, Bridgewater, Chelmsford, Groton, Lancaster, Marlborough, Medfield, Millis, Medford, Portland, Providence, Rehoboth, Scituate, Seekonk, Simsbury, Sudbury, Suffield,Warwick, Weymouth, and Wrentham. The famous captive story of Mary Rowlandson, captured in Lancaster Massachusetts, gives a Colonial captive's perspective on the war [2]. Bull Garrison House was located on Tower Hill, South Kingstown, Rhode Island. ... This article is about the Massachusetts town. ... Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country United States State Massachusetts County Plymouth County Settled 1650 Incorporated 1656 Government  - Type Open town meeting Area  - Town  28. ... Chelmsford is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts in the Greater Boston area. ...   Settled: 1655 â€“ Incorporated: 1655 Zip Code(s): 01450 â€“ Area Code(s): 351 / 978 Official website: http://www. ... Meeting House, designed by noted architect Charles Bulfinch, built 1815-1817. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Medfield is a town in Norfolk County, Massachusetts, United States. ... Millis is a town in Norfolk County, in the U.S. state of Massachusetts. ... Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country United States State Massachusetts County Middlesex County Settled 1630 Incorporated 1630 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Michael J. McGlynn Area  - City  8. ... Nickname: Motto: Resurgam (Latin for I will rise again) Coordinates: , Country State County Cumberland Settled 1632 Incorporated 1786 Government  - Mayor Nicholas M. Mavodones, Jr Area  - City  52. ... Providence redirects here. ... Rehoboth is a town located in Bristol County, Massachusetts. ... Scituate, Massachusetts is a small seacoast town located in Plymouth County, Massachusetts, on Cape Cod Bay midway between Boston and Plymouth. ... Seekonk seal The Town of Seekonk is a suburban community in Bristol County on the Rhode Island border. ... Simsbury is a town located in Hartford County, Connecticut. ... Sudbury is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. ... Suffield is a town in Hartford County, Connecticut, United States. ... Warwick is a city in Kent County, Rhode Island, United States. ... Location in Norfolk County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Norfolk Settled 1630 Incorporated 1635 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Sue Kay (D) Area  - Total 21. ... Wrentham is a town in Norfolk County, Massachusetts, United States. ...


Spring of 1676 marked the high point for the combined tribes when, on March 12, they attacked Plymouth Plantation itself. Though the town withstood the assault, the natives had demonstrated their ability to penetrate deep into colonial terrority. Three more settlements – Longmeadow (near Springfield), Marlborough, and Simsbury – were attacked two weeks later, as Captain Pierce and a company of Massachusetts soldiers were wiped out between Pawtucket and the Blackstone's settlement. The abandoned capital of Rhode Island (Providence) was burned to the ground on March 29. At the same time, a small band of Indians infiltrated and burned part of Springfield, Massachusetts while the militia was away. is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Seal of Plymouth Colony Map of Plymouth Colony showing town locations Capital Plymouth Language(s) English Religion Puritan, Separatist Government Monarchy Legislature General Court History  - Established 1620  - First Thanksgiving 1621  - Pequot War 1637  - King Philips War 1675–1676  - Part of the Dominion of New England 1686–1688  - Disestablished 1691... Providence redirects here. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Location in Hampden County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Hampden Settled 1636 Incorporated 1852 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Charles Ryan (D) Area  - Total 33. ...


Colonial comeback

Reprisal
Reprisal

The tide of war slowly began to turn in the colonist's favor later in the spring of 1676 as it became a war of attrition, and both sides were determined to eliminate the other. The Indians had succeeded in driving the colonists back into their larger towns, but the Indian's supplies, nearly always only sufficient for a season or so, were running out. The colony of Rhode Island became an island colony for a time as the few hundred colonists there were driven back to Newport and Portsmouth RI on Aquidneck Island and Providence, Rhode Island was burned to the ground. The Connecticut River towns with their thousands of acres of cultivated crop land – known as the bread basket of New England, had to cut down on their crops as they had to work in large armed groups for self protection. Towns such as Springfield, Hatfield, Hadley and Northampton, Massachusetts fortified their towns, reinforced their militias and held their ground, though attacked several times. The small towns of Northfield, Massachusetts and Deerfield, Massachusetts and several others were abandoned as settlers retreated to the larger towns. The towns of the Connecticut colony largely escaped unharmed although over 100 Connecticut militia were killed helping their fellow colonists. The colonists continued to be re-supplied by sea from whereever they could buy supplies (the English government essentially ignored them). The war ultimately cost the colonists over £100,000--a lot of money then when most families earned less than £20/yr, that caused taxes to sky rocket. Over 600 colonial men, women and children were killed and twelve towns totally destroyed with many more damaged. Despite this they eventually emerged victorious. The Indians lost many more killed and were dispersed out of New England or put on reservations. They never recovered their former power in New England. The hopes of many to integrate Indian and colonial societies was abandoned. Image File history File links Early_American_Conflict. ... Image File history File links Early_American_Conflict. ... Newport, Rhode Island Newport is a city in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States, about 30 miles (48 km) south of Providence. ... Location of Portsmouth, Rhode Island Portsmouth is a town in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States. ... Aquidneck Island highlighted in red Aquidneck Island, also called Rhode Island, is the largest island in Narragansett Bay. ... Providence redirects here. ... The Connecticut River as seen from the French King Bridge in western Massachusetts. ... Nickname: Location in Hampden County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Hampden Settled 1636 Incorporated 1852 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Charles Ryan (D) Area  - Total 33. ... Hatfield is a town located in Hampshire County, Massachusetts. ... Hadley is a town located in Hampshire County, Massachusetts. ... Nickname: Motto: caritas, educatio, justitia Location in Hampshire County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Hampshire Settled and Charter granted 1654 Incorporated as a city 1884 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Mary Clare Higgins Area  - City  35. ... Northfield is a town located in Franklin County, Massachusetts. ... Deerfield is a town located in Franklin County, Massachusetts. ...


The Indian hopes for supplies from the French in Canada were not met, except for some small amounts of ammunition obtained in Maine. The colonists allied themselves with the Mohegan and Pequot tribes in Connecticut as well as several Indian groups in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. King Philip and his allies found their forces continually harassed nearly everywhere they went. In January 1675/76 Philip traveled westward to Mohawk territory, seeking, but failing to secure, an alliance. The Mohawks, the traditional enemy of many of the warring tribes, instead of aiding King Philip proceeded to raid isolated groups of Indians, scattering and killing many. Their traditional Indian crop growing areas and fishing places in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut, were continually attacked by roving patrols of combined Colonials and friendly Indians. They had poor luck finding any place to grow more food for the coming winter. Many Indians drifted North into Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont and Canada. Some drifted west into New York and points further west to avoid their traditional enemies, the Iroquois. The Mohegan tribe is an Algonquian-speaking tribe living in eastern (upper Thames valley) Connecticut [1] that was jointly ruled by the Pequot tribe until 1637. ... See Main articles: Mashantucket Pequot Eastern Pequot Tribal Nation. ... This article is about the people known as Mohawk. For other uses, see Mohawk. ...


In April 1676 the Narragansett were nearly completely defeated and their chief, Canonchet, was killed. On May 18, 1676 Captain William Turner of the Massachusetts Militia and a group of about 150 militia volunteers from Hadley, Northampton and Hatfield, Massachusetts managed to sneak up and attack a large fishing camp of hungry Indians at Peskeopscut on a falls on the Connecticut river (now called Turners Falls, Massachusetts). These Indians had been raiding the Colonists towns and fields along the upper Connecticut river. The surprise was nearly complete and it's claimed that one to two hundred Indians were killed. Many jumped in the river to escape and were swept over the falls. Turner and as many as 40 of the militia were killed during the retreat.[4] With the help of their long time allies the Mohegans, the colonists won at Hadley, Massachusetts on June 12, 1676, and scattered most of the survivors into the wilds of New Hampshire and points north. Later that month, a force of 250 Indians was routed near Marlborough, Massachusetts. Other forces, often a combined force of colonial volunteers and Indian allies from Massachusetts and Connecticut continued to attack, kill, capture or disperse bands of Narragansetts as they tried drifting back to their traditional locations in Connecticut and Rhode Island. Amnesty was granted to Indians who surrendered and showed they had not participated in the conflict. is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 29 - Feodor III becomes Tsar of Russia First measurement of the speed of light, by Ole Rømer Bacons Rebellion Russo-Turkish Wars commence. ... Hadley is a town located in Hampshire County, Massachusetts. ... Hatfield is a town located in Hampshire County, Massachusetts. ... Turners Falls is a census-designated place and village located in the town of Montague in Franklin County, Massachusetts. ... Hadley is a town located in Hampshire County, Massachusetts. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 29 - Feodor III becomes Tsar of Russia First measurement of the speed of light, by Ole Rømer Bacons Rebellion Russo-Turkish Wars commence. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Philip's allies began to desert him. By early July, over 400 had surrendered to the colonists, and Philip himself had taken refuge in the Assowamset Swamp, below Providence, Rhode Island, close to where the war had started. The colonists began to form raiding parties of friendly Indians and volunteer militia. They were allowed to keep what warring Indian possessions they found and received a bounty on all captives. Philip was ultimately killed by one of these teams when he was tracked down by friendly Indians led by Captain Benjamin Church and Captain Josiah Standish of the Plymouth colony militia at Mt. Hope Rhode Island where he was shot and killed by an Indian named John Alderman on August 12, 1676. He was beheaded, drawn and quartered (a traditional treatment of criminals in this era). His head was displayed in Plymouth for many years. The war was nearly over except for a few attacks in Maine that lasted until 1677. Providence redirects here. ... Captain Benjamin Church (c. ... Seal of Plymouth Colony Map of Plymouth Colony showing town locations Capital Plymouth Language(s) English Religion Puritan, Separatist Government Monarchy Legislature General Court History  - Established 1620  - First Thanksgiving 1621  - Pequot War 1637  - King Philips War 1675–1676  - Part of the Dominion of New England 1686–1688  - Disestablished 1691... Nickname: Motto: Official website: http://www. ... John Alderman was a Praying Indian who shot and killed Metacomet (also known as King Philip) in 1676 as part of an expedition led by Captain Benjamin Church. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 29 - Feodor III becomes Tsar of Russia First measurement of the speed of light, by Ole Rømer Bacons Rebellion Russo-Turkish Wars commence. ...


Aftermath

The site of King Philip's death in Miery Swamp on Mount Hope (Rhode Island)
The site of King Philip's death in Miery Swamp on Mount Hope (Rhode Island)

The war in the south largely ended with Metacom's death. Over 600 colonists and 3,000 Indians had died, including several hundred native captives that were tried and executed or sold as slaves in Bermuda [3]. The majority of these Indians and many of the colonials died as the result of disease, which was typical of all armies in this era. Those sent to Bermuda included Metacom's son (and also, according to Bermudian tradition, his wife). A sizable number of Bermudians today claim ancestry from these exiles. Members of the Sachem's extended family were placed for safekeeping among colonists in Rhode Island and eastern Connecticut. Other survivors were forced to join more western tribes, mainly as captives or lower caste tribal members. The Narragansett, Wampanoag, Podunk, Nipmuck, and several smaller bands were virtually eliminated as organized bands,[citation needed] while even the Mohegans were greatly weakened. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... The site of King Philips death in Miery Swamp on Mount Hope King Philips Seat, a meeting place on Mount Hope, (Rhode Island) Mount Hope (originally Montaup in Pokanoket) is a hill in Bristol, Rhode Island overlooking the part of Narragansett Bay known as Mount Hope Bay. ...


Sir Edmund Andros negotiated a treaty with some of the northern Indian bands on April 12, 1678 as he tried to establish his New York based, royal power structure in Maine's fishing industry. Andros was arrested and sent back to England at the start of the Glorious Revolution in 1689 when James II, Charles II's son, was forced to vacate the British throne. Sporadic Indian and French raids plagued Maine, New Hampshire and northern Massachusetts for the next 50 years as France encouraged and financed raids on New England settlers. Most of Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode Island was now nearly completely open to New England's continuing settlementt, free of interference from the Indians. Frontier settlements in New England would face sporadic Indian raids until the French and Indian War (1754-1763) finally drove the French authorities out of North America in 1763. Sir Edmund Andros Sir Edmund Andros (December 6, 1637 - February 24, 1714), was an early colonial governor in North America, and head of the short-lived Dominion of New England. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events August 10 - Treaty of Nijmegen ends the Dutch War. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland) in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange), who as a result ascended the English throne as William... Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and...


King Philip's War, for a time, seriously damaged the recently arrived English colonists' prospects in New England. But with their extraordinary population growth rate of about 3% a year (doubling every 25 years) they repaired all the damage, replaced their losses, rebuilt the destroyed towns and continued on with establishing new towns within a few years.


The colonists' defense of New England brought them to the attention of the British royal government who soon tried to exploit them for their own gain. This started with the revocation of the charter of Massachusetts Bay in 1684 (enforced 1686). At the same time, an Anglican church was established in Boston in 1686, ending the Puritan monopoly on religion in Massachusetts. The legend of Connecticut's Charter Oak stems from the belief that a cavity within the tree was used in late 1687 as a hiding place for the colony's charter as Andros tried unsuccessfully to revoke their charter and take over their militia. In 1690, Plymouth's charter was not renewed and they were forced to join the Massachusetts government. The equally small colony of Rhode Island, with its largely Puritan dissident settlers, maintained its charter – mainly as a counterweight and irritant to Massachusetts. The Massachusetts General Court (their main legislative and judicial body) was brought under nominal British government control, but all members except the Royal Governor and a few of his henchmen were elected from the various towns as always. The Charter Oak on the Connecticut quarter The Charter Oak was an unusually large white oak tree growing, from around the 12th or 13th century until 1856, on what the English colonists named Wyllys Hill, in Hartford, Connecticut, USA. // Early history The Dutch explorer Adrian (or Adriaen) Block described, in...


Nearly all layers of government and church life (except in Rhode Island) remained Puritan and only a few of the so called "upper crust" joined the Anglican church. Most New Englanders lived in self governing towns and attended the Congregational or dissident churches that they had already set up by 1690. New towns, complete with their own militias, were nearly all established by the sons and daughters of the original settlers and were in nearly all cases modeled after these original settlements. The many trials and tribulations between the British crown and British Parliament for the next 100 years made self government not only desirable but relatively easy to continue. The squabbles with the British government would eventually lead to Lexington, Concord and the Battle of Bunker Hill by 1775, a century and four generations later. When the British were forced to evacuate Boston in 1776, only a few thousand of the over 700,000 New Englanders went with them. Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1642 Incorporated 1713 Government  - Type Representative town meeting Area  - Total 16. ... Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1635 Incorporated 1635 Government  - Type Open town meeting Area  - Total 25. ... For a list of numerous places and things that are named after this battle, see Bunker Hill. ...


King Philip's War was not the first or last conflict between Europeans and Indians. Previous conflicts include the Spanish enslavement of natives in the Caribbean, Florida and New Mexico as Coronado's expedition of 1540-1542 to New Mexico and the midwest and Desoto's war of destruction to the Mississippi in 1538-1542 introduced the Indians to Spanish culture. The Powhatan war of 1622 in Virginia, the Pequot War of 1637 in Connecticut, the Dutch-Indian war of 1643 along the Hudson River [4], the second Powhatan war of 1644 [5] and the Iroquois Beaver Wars of 1650 [6] are a few of a long list of other battles or "wars" fought prior to 1675's Philip's War. Coronado Sets Out to the North, by Frederic Remington, 1861-1909 Francisco Vázquez de Coronado (c. ... Hernando de Soto is a: Spanish explorer. ... Indian massacre of 1622, depicted as a woodcut by Theodore de Bry The Indian massacre of 1622 (also known as the Jamestown massacre) occurred in the Virginia Colony on March 22, 1622. ... Lion Gardiner in the Pequot War from a Charles Stanley Reinhart drawing circa 1890 The Pequot War was an armed conflict in 1637-1638 between an alliance of Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth colonies, with Native American allies (the Narragansett, and Mohegan tribe), against the Pequot tribe. ... Kiefts War, also known as the Wappinger War, was a conflict between Dutch settlers and Native Americans in the colony of New Netherland from 1643 to 1645. ... The French and Iroquois Wars (also called the Iroquois Wars or the Beaver Wars) commonly refer to a brutal series of conflicts fought in the mid-17th century in eastern North America. ...


In her book, The Name of War, Boston University Professor Jill Lepore theorizes that King Philip's War was the beginning of the development of a greater American identity, for the trials and tribulations suffered by the colonists made them into a group distinct from their English ties.


External links

References

  1. ^ America’s Guardian Myths, op-ed by Susan Faludi, September 7, 2007. New York Times. Accessed September 6, 2007.
  2. ^ "Epidemics and Pandemics in the U.S."
  3. ^ "Flintlock and Tomahawk – New England in King Philip's War" by Douglas Edward Leach, pg. 130-132
  4. ^ "Flintlock and Tomahawk – New England in King Philip's War" by Douglas Edward Leach, pg 200-203

Susan C. Faludi (born April 18, 1959 ) ) is a Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist and author of two well-known books and won a Pulitzer Prize for Explanatory Journalism in 1991, for a report on the leveraged buy-out of Safeway Stores, Inc. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

Bibliography

Primary sources

  • Easton, John, A Relation of the Indian War, by Mr. Easton, of Rhode Island, 1675 (See link below.)
  • Eliot, John, ”Indian Dialogues”: A Study in Cultural Interaction eds. James P. Rhonda and Henry W. Bowden (Greenwood Press, 1980).
  • Mather, Increase, A Brief History of the Warr with the Indians in New-England (Boston, 1676; London, 1676). (See link below.)
  • ______. Relation of the Troubles Which Have Happened in New England by Reason of the Indians There, from the Year 1614 to the Year 1675 (Kessinger Publishing, [1677] 2003).
  • ______. The History of King Philip's War by the Rev. Increase Mather, D.D.; also, a history of the same war, by the Rev. Cotton Mather, D.D.; to which are added an introduction and notes, by Samuel G. Drake(Boston: Samuel G. Drake, 1862).
  • ______. "Diary", March, 1675-December, 1676: Together with extracts from another diary by him, 1674-1687 /With introductions and notes, by Samuel A. Green (Cambridge, MA: J. Wilson, [1675-76] 1900).
  • Rowlandson, Mary, The Sovereignty and Goodness of God: with Related Documents (Bedford/St. Martin's Press, 1997).
  • Rowlandson, Mary, The Narrative of the Captivity and the Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson (1682)online edition
  • Belmonte, Laura. "Edward Randolph, the Causes and Results of King Philip's War (1675)"

John Eliot is the name of several notable individuals. ... The Reverend Increase Mather (June 21, 1639 – August 23, 1723) was a major figure in the early history of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and Province of Massachusetts Bay (now the Federal state of Massachusetts). ... Historical marker in Princeton, Massachusetts commemorating Mary Rowlandsons release Mary White Rowlandson (1636 – January 5, 1711) was a colonial American woman, who wrote a vivid description of the nearly three months she spent living with Native Americans. ... Historical marker in Princeton, Massachusetts commemorating Mary Rowlandsons release Mary White Rowlandson (1636 – January 5, 1711) was a colonial American woman, who wrote a vivid description of the nearly three months she spent living with Native Americans. ...

Secondary sources

  • Cave, Alfred A. The Pequot War (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1996).
  • Cogley, Richard A. John Eliot's Mission to the Indians before King Philip's War (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999).
  • Hall, David. Worlds of Wonder, Days of Judgment: Popular Religious Belief in Early New England (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990).
  • Kawashima, Yasuhide. Igniting King Philip's War: The John Sassamon Murder Trial (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2001).
  • Lepore, Jill. The Name of War: King Philip's War and the Origins of American Identity (New York: Vintage Books, 1999).
  • Philbrick, Nathaniel. Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community, and War (Penguin USA, 2006) ISBN 0-670-03760-5
  • Webb, Stephen Saunders. 1676: The End of American Independence (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1995).

E-Sources


  Results from FactBites:
 
King Philip's War (498 words)
Native soldiers fighting on the side of the colonists helped turn the tide of the war, which ended in 1676 when Philip was killed by a Wampanoag fighting with Captain Benjamin Church.
King Philip’s War was one of the bloodiest and most costly in the history of America.
The outcome of King Philip’s War was devastating to the traditional way of life for Native People in New England.
Bodge's King Philip War (4108 words)
Philip kept on selling and surrendering, till at last, as early as 1670/1 he began to feel the pressure of civilization upon their hunting and fishing grounds as well as cornfields.
The English seem not to have contemplated the possibility of a general war, nor to have at all appreciated the gravity of the present situation in the colonies.
Philip with all his fighting-men and the greater part of his own and Weetamoo's people, escaped across the river and passed through the open plain in Rehoboth, where they were discovered by some of the settlers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m