FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > King Kong (1933 film)
King Kong
Directed by Merian C. Cooper
Ernest B. Schoedsack
Produced by Merian C. Cooper
Ernest B. Schoedsack
David O. Selznick (executive producer)
Written by Merian C. Cooper (story)
Edgar Wallace (story)
James Ashmore Creelman (screenplay)
Ruth Rose (screenplay)
Starring Fay Wray
Robert Armstrong
Bruce Cabot
Music by Max Steiner
Cinematography Eddie Linden
J.O. Taylor
Vernon Walker
Distributed by RKO Radio Pictures, Inc.
Release date(s) March 2, 1933 (U.S. release)
Running time 104 minutes
Country Flag of the United States United States
Followed by The Son of Kong
All Movie Guide profile
IMDb profile
This is about the original movie and novel. For other uses and adaptations see King Kong.

King Kong is a landmark black-and-white 1933 Hollywood horror-adventure film about a gigantic prehistoric gorilla named "Kong". Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... 1930s Poster of King Kong. ... Merian C. Cooper Merian Caldwell Cooper (October 24, 1893, Jacksonville, Florida, USA — April 21, 1973, San Diego, California, USA, died of cancer) was an American aviator, American Air Force and Polish Air Force officer, adventurer, director, screenwriter and producer. ... Ernest B. Schoedsack (June 8, 1893 - December 23, 1979) is probably best remembered for being the co-director of the 1933 film, King Kong. ... Ernest B. Schoedsack (June 8, 1893 - December 23, 1979) is probably best remembered for being the co-director of the 1933 film, King Kong. ... David O. Selznick David Oliver Selznick (May 10, 1902–June 22, 1965), was one of the icon Hollywood producers of the Golden Age. ... The Mixer (1927), 1962 Arrow paperback edition. ... James Ashmore Creelman (born 1901 - died 9 September 1941 in New York City) was an early Hollywood film writer. ... Vina Fay Wray (September 15, 1907 – August 8, 2004) was a Canadian–American actress. ... Armstrong (right) in promotional photo for 1933s King Kong Robert Armstrong (November 20, 1890-April 20, 1973) was a film actor probably best remembered for his role in the 1933 version of King Kong by RKO Pictures. ... Promotional photo for actor Bruce Cabot Bruce Cabot (April 20, 1904 – May 3, 1972) was an American film actor. ... Maximilian Raoul Walter Steiner (born May 10, 1888 in Vienna, Austria-Hungary; died December 28, 1971 in Hollywood, California) was an Austrian-American composer of music for theater production shows and films. ... The classic logo of RKO Radio Pictures. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Son of Kong is the sequel to the successful film King Kong. ... King Kong in the 1933 film. ... Black-and-white or black and white) can refer to a general term used in photography, film, and other media (see black-and-white). ... See also: 1932 in film 1933 1934 in film 1930s in film years in film film // Events British Film Institute founded. ... ... “Horror Movie” redirects here. ... The quintessential adventure film. ... Type species Troglodytes gorilla Savage, 1847 distribution of Gorilla Species Gorilla gorilla Gorilla beringei The gorilla, the largest of the living primates, is a ground-dwelling omnivore that inhabits the forests of Africa. ... King Kong in the 1933 film. ...


The film was made by RKO and was written originally for the screen by Ruth Rose, and James Ashmore Creelman from a concept by Merian C. Cooper (A major on-screen credit for Edgar Wallace, sharing story with Cooper, was unearned, as Wallace was taken ill soon after his arrival in Hollywood and died without writing a word, but Cooper had promised him a credit [1]). A novelization of the screenplay actually appeared before the film, in 1932, adapted by Delos W. Lovelace, and contains descriptions of scenes not in the movie. This article is about the film production company. ... James Ashmore Creelman (born 1901 - died 9 September 1941 in New York City) was an early Hollywood film writer. ... Merian C. Cooper Merian Caldwell Cooper (October 24, 1893, Jacksonville, Florida, USA — April 21, 1973, San Diego, California, USA, died of cancer) was an American aviator, American Air Force and Polish Air Force officer, adventurer, director, screenwriter and producer. ... The Mixer (1927), 1962 Arrow paperback edition. ... Author of the original novelisation of the film King Kong. ...


The film was directed by Merian C. Cooper and Ernest B. Schoedsack and starred Fay Wray, Robert Armstrong and Bruce Cabot. It is notable for Willis O'Brien's ground-breaking stop-motion animation work, Max Steiner's musical score, and actress Fay Wray's performance as the ape's improbable love interest. King Kong premiered in New York City on March 2, 1933. Merian C. Cooper Merian Caldwell Cooper (October 24, 1893, Jacksonville, Florida, USA — April 21, 1973, San Diego, California, USA, died of cancer) was an American aviator, American Air Force and Polish Air Force officer, adventurer, director, screenwriter and producer. ... Ernest B. Schoedsack (June 8, 1893 - December 23, 1979) is probably best remembered for being the co-director of the 1933 film, King Kong. ... Vina Fay Wray (September 15, 1907 – August 8, 2004) was a Canadian–American actress. ... Armstrong (right) in promotional photo for 1933s King Kong Robert Armstrong (November 20, 1890-April 20, 1973) was a film actor probably best remembered for his role in the 1933 version of King Kong by RKO Pictures. ... Promotional photo for actor Bruce Cabot Bruce Cabot (April 20, 1904 – May 3, 1972) was an American film actor. ... Willis OBrien with his Academy Award. ... A stop motion animation of a moving coin. ... Maximilian Raoul Walter Steiner (born May 10, 1888 in Vienna, Austria-Hungary; died December 28, 1971 in Hollywood, California) was an Austrian-American composer of music for theater production shows and films. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Influences

King Kong was influenced by the "Lost World" literary genre, in particular Arthur Conan Doyle's The Lost World (1912) and Edgar Rice Burroughs' The Land That Time Forgot (1918), which depicted remote and isolated jungles teeming with dinosaur life. Furthermore, the Doyle novel was filmed in 1925, with special effects by Kong 's Willis O'Brien and most of the same crew. The Lost World literary genre is a fantasy or science fiction genre that involves the discovery of a new world out of time, place, or both. ... Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle, DL (22 May 1859–7 July 1930) was a British author most noted for his stories about the detective Sherlock Holmes, which are generally considered a major innovation in the field of crime fiction, and for the adventures of Professor Challenger. ... The Lost World is a 1912 novel by Arthur Conan Doyle concerning an expedition to a plateau (native name is Tepuyes) in South America (Venezuela) where prehistoric animals (dinosaurs and other extinct creatures) still survive. ... Edgar Rice Burroughs Edgar Rice Burroughs (September 1, 1875 – March 19, 1950) was an American author, best known for his creation of the jungle hero Tarzan, although he also produced works in many genres. ... Cover art for first combined edition of The Land That Time Forgot by Edgar Rice Burroughs, McClurg, 1924 The Land That Time Forgot is an Edgar Rice Burroughs science fiction novel, the first of his Caspak trilogy. ... The Lost World is a 1925 silent adaptation of Arthur Conan Doyles book of the same name. ... See also: 1924 in film 1925 1926 in film 1920s in film years in film film Events Top grossing films Ben-Hur His People The Unholy Three The Freshman Movies released Movies released in 1925 include: Ben-Hur, starring Ramon Novarro. ...


In the early 20th century, few zoos had monkey exhibits so there was popular demand to see them on film. William S. Campbell specialized in monkey-themed films with Monkey Stuff and Jazz Monkey in 1919, and Prohibition Monkey in 1920. Kong producer Schoedsack had earlier monkey experience directing Chang in 1927 (with Cooper) and Rango in 1931, both of which prominently featured monkeys in real jungle settings. See also: 1926 in film 1927 1928 in film 1920s in film years in film film // Events January 10 - The film Metropolis by Fritz Lang premieres. ... // Frankenstein, starring Boris Karloff Ingagi, starring Sir Hubert Winstead Mata Hari, starring Greta Garbo and Lionel Barrymore City Lights starring Charles Chaplin Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde starring Fredric March Best Picture: Cimarron - MGM Best Actor: Lionel Barrymore - A Free Soul Best Actor: Wallace Beery - The Champ Best Actor: Fredric...


Capitalizing on this trend "Congo Pictures" released the hoax documentary Ingagi in 1930, advertising the film as "an authentic incontestable celluloid document showing the sacrifice of a living woman to mammoth gorillas!". Ingagi was an unabashed black exploitation film, immediately running afoul of the Hollywood code of ethics, as it implicitly depicted black women having sex with gorillas, and baby offspring that looked more ape than human.[2] The film was an immediate hit, and by some estimates it was one of the highest grossing movies of the 1930s at over $4 million. Although producer Merian C. Cooper never listed Ingagi among his influences for King Kong, it's long been held that RKO green-lighted Kong because of the bottom-line example of Ingagi and the formula that "gorillas plus sexy women in peril equals enormous profits". [3] Ingagi is a 1930 exploitation film. ... See also: 1929 in film 1930 1931 in film 1930s in film 1920s in film years in film film // Events Top grossing films The Indians Are Coming Madam Satan Der Blaue Engel Academy Awards Best Picture: All Quiet on the Western Front - Universal Studios Best Actress: Norma Shearer - The Divorcee... Grindhouse redirects here. ...


Both directors, including Merian C. Cooper, author of the original idea, fought in World War I, and were probably influenced by WWI propaganda posters. One poster in particular showed Germany like a bloodthirsty giant ape seizing a helpless girl in its hand.[4]. Merian C. Cooper Merian Caldwell Cooper (October 24, 1893, Jacksonville, Florida, USA — April 21, 1973, San Diego, California, USA, died of cancer) was an American aviator, American Air Force and Polish Air Force officer, adventurer, director, screenwriter and producer. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Paul du Chaillu's travel narrative Explorations and Adventures in Equatorial Africa (1861) was a favorite of Merian C. Cooper when he was a child. The gorilla chase scene in the book was likely an inspiration for King Kong. [[1]] Paul du Chaillu (July 31, 1835 – April 29, 1903), traveller and anthropologist, was born in either Paris or New Orleans (accounts conflict). ... Merian C. Cooper Merian Caldwell Cooper (October 24, 1893, Jacksonville, Florida, USA — April 21, 1973, San Diego, California, USA, died of cancer) was an American aviator, American Air Force and Polish Air Force officer, adventurer, director, screenwriter and producer. ...


The biggest influence on Kong was, in a sense, the unfinished 1931 film Creation. Until Cooper, in his capacity as an RKO executive, screened this footage, he had great doubts that he could make his "gorilla" picture. Willis O'Brien's techniques were the answer. In the film industry, a film is considered shelved if it is not released for public viewing after filming has started, or even completed. ... Creation was an unfinished 1931 feature film, and project of stop motion animator Willis OBrien. ... Willis OBrien with his Academy Award. ...


Plot

The film starts off in 1930's New York City, during the depths of the Great Depression. Carl Denham, a film director famous for shooting 'animal pictures' in remote and exotic locations, is unable to hire an actress to star in his newest project and so wanders the streets searching for a suitable woman. He chances upon a poor girl, Ann Darrow, just as she is caught trying to steal an apple. Denham pays off the grocer then buys Ann a meal and offers her a job starring in his new film. Although Ann is apprehensive, she has nothing to lose and, after reassurances from Denham, agrees. New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Carl Denham (born 1896 in New York City died in 1957 in California) is a fictional film director in the films King Kong and Son of Kong (both released in 1933), as well as in the 2005 remake of King Kong, and a 2004 illustrated-novel titled Kong: King of... Fay Wray as Ann Darrow in the 1933 version of King Kong. ...


They set sail aboard the freighter Venture, which travels for weeks in the general direction of Indonesia. Despite his ongoing declarations that women have no place on board ships, the Venture's first mate Jack Driscoll is obviously becoming attracted to Ann. Denham takes note and informs Driscoll he has enough troubles without the complications of a seagoing love affair. Discoll sneers at the suggestion, reminding Denham of his toughness in past adventures. Denham's reply outlines the theme of both King Kong and the picture he is making: "The Beast was a tough guy too. He could lick the world. But when he saw Beauty, she got him. He went soft. He forgot his wisdom and the little fellas licked him. Think it over, Jack." Jack, as portrayed by Bruce Cabot in the 1933 original film Jack Driscoll is a fictional character in the 1933 film King Kong and its 2005 remake. ...


After maintaining secrecy throughout the trip, Denham finally tells Driscoll and the Venture's captain Englehorn that they're searching for an island uncharted on any normal map. (Outside the movie, this landmass is often called Skull Island, but it is never given any name onscreen.) Denham says that a skipper gave him the one map on which it is charted, having received it in turn from a native of the island who had been swept out to sea. Denham then describes something monstrous connected to the island, a legend of vague fear: "Kong." Captain Englehorn (right), as portrayed by Thomas Kretschmann in the 2005 version Captain Englehorn is a fictional captain in the films King Kong and Son of Kong (both released in 1933), the 2005 remake of King Kong, and in the television series The King Kong Show, and a 2004 illustrated... This page refers to the fictional Skull Island of King Kong. ...


As the Venture creeps through the fog surrounding the island the crew hear drums in the distance. Finally arriving at the island's shore, they see a native village perched on a peninsula and cut off from the bulk of the island by an enormous and ancient wall. An expedition from the ship goes ashore and encounters the natives, who are about to hand over a girl to Kong as a ritual sacrifice. Although Denham, Englehorn, Jack, Ann and a number of crewmen are hiding behind foliage, the native chief spots them and approaches threateningly. Captain Englehorn is able to understand the native speech, and at Denham's urging makes friendly overtures to the chief. When he gets a clear look at Ann, the chief begins speaking with great energy. Englehorn translates this as "Look at the golden woman!". The chief proposes to swap six native women for Ann, an offer Denham delicately declines as he and his party edge away from the scene, assuring the chief that they will "be back tomorrow to make friends".


Back on the Venture, Jack and Ann openly express their love for one another. When Jack is called away to the captain's quarters, Ann is captured by a stealthy contingent of natives in an outrigger canoe, taken back to the wall, and handed over to Kong in a ceremony; when Kong emerges from the jungle, he is revealed to be a giant gorilla. The Venture crew returns to the village and takes control of the wall from the natives; a portion of the crew then goes after Kong, encountering an aggressive Stegosaurus and a territorial Brontosaurus. Species Marsh, 1877 (type) Marsh, 1887 Gilmore, 1914 Stegosaurus (IPA: ) is a genus of stegosaurid armoured dinosaur from the Late Jurassic period (Kimmeridgian to Early Tithonian) in what is now western North America. ... Species Apatosaurus ajax Apatosaurus excelsus Apatosaurus louisae Apatosaurus (pronounced ) meaning deceptive lizard, because its chevron bones were like those of Mosasaurus (Greek apatelos or apatelios = deceptive + sauros = lizard), often mistakenly referred to as Brontosaurus, is a genus of sauropod dinosaurs that lived about 140 million years ago, during the Jurassic...

Kong wrestles a Tyrannosaurus rex to protect Ann Darrow in a famous scene from the original King Kong film. Of all the scenes in the movie, this was the most difficult and time consuming to animate.

Up ahead in the jungle, Kong places Ann in the cleft of a dead tree. He then doubles back and confronts the pursuing crewmembers just as they are crossing a deep ravine by way of an enormous moss-covered log. Kong shakes them off the log, killing all except for Driscoll and Denham; Driscoll continues the chase, while Denham, stuck on the wrong side of the ravine, returns to the village. Meanwhile, a Tyrannosaurus rex is about to attack Ann; Kong rushes back and a long struggle between the two titans ends when Kong pries open the T. rex's jaw until it snaps. Kong takes Ann up to his mountaintop cave, in the process fighting off another attack from a plesiosaur. Kong then inspects his blonde prize and begins to caress her, tearing off pieces of her clothing and, once he's finished, he starts tickling her by now almost totally bare legs. Jack interrupts the proceedings by knocking over a boulder. When the gorilla leaves Ann to investigate the noise, a pterosaur swoops from the sky and clutches Ann in its talons. A final fight ensues and the pterodactyl is defeated. While Kong is thus distracted, Jack rescues Ann and takes her back to the native village. Kong chases them, breaks through the large door in the wall and rampages through the village in which the native warriors promptly attack Kong with spears, further enranging him and killing many of the natives. Denham hurls a gas bomb, knocking Kong unconscious, whereupon he exults in the opportunity to take the giant back to New York: "He's always been King of his world. But we'll teach him fear! We're millionaires, boys! I'll share it with all of you. Why, in a few months, it'll be up in lights on Broadway: 'Kong — the Eighth Wonder of the World!'" Image File history File linksMetadata Kong_vs_T-Rex. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Kong_vs_T-Rex. ... Binomial name Tyrannosaurus rex Osborn, 1905 Synonyms Manospondylus gigas Dynamosaurus imperiosus Dinotyrannus megagracilis Nanotyrannus lancensis? Tyrannosaurus (IPA pronunciation or ; from the Greek τυραννόσαυρος, meaning tyrant lizard) is a genus of tyrannosaurid theropod dinosaur. ... King Kong in the 1933 film. ... Species T. rex (type) Osborn, 1905 Synonyms Manospondylus Cope, 1892 Dynamosaurus Osborn, 1905  ?Nanotyrannus Bakker, Williams & Currie, 1988 Stygivenator Olshevsky, 1995 Dinotyrannus Olshevsky, 1995 Tyrannosaurus (pronounced IPA: , meaning tyrant lizard) is a genus of theropod dinosaur. ... Families Plesiosaurs (IPA ) (Greek: plesios, near to + sauros, lizard) were large, carnivorous aquatic reptiles. ... Suborders Pterodactyloidea Rhamphorhynchoidea * Pterosaurs (, from the Greek πτερόσαυρος, pterosauros, meaning winged lizard, often referred to as pterodactyls, from the Greek πτεροδάκτυλος, pterodaktulos, meaning winged finger ) were flying reptiles of the clade Pterosauria. ...


The next scene begins with those very words in lights on a theater marquee. Along with hundreds of curious New Yorkers, Denham, Driscoll and Ann are in evening wear for the gala event. The curtain lifts, and Denham presents a subdued and manacled Kong to the stunned audience. All goes well until photographers, using the blinding flashbulbs of the era, begin snapping shots of Ann and her fiance Jack. Under the impression that the flashbulbs are attacking Ann, Kong breaks his chains and escapes from the theater. He rampages through the city streets, destroying an elevated train, killing a number of citizens. Running water frozen by flash. ... This page refers to urban rail mass transit systems. ...


Kong finds Anne and carries her to the top of the Empire State Building. When the authorities dispatch four Navy biplanes to the site, the ape gently sets Ann down on the building's observation deck and climbs atop the dirigible mooring mast, trying to fight off the attackers. He destroys one, but Kong is eventually mortally wounded; gunned down, he plummets to his death in the street below. Denham rushes up, where a New York City cop remarks "The airplanes got him". Denham's reply: "Oh no, it wasn't the airplanes; it was beauty. Beauty killed the beast." The Empire State Building is a 102-story Art Deco skyscraper in New York City, New York at the intersection of Fifth Avenue and West 34th Street. ... A biplane is a fixed-wing aircraft with two main wings of similar spans, normally one mounted above, and the other level with, the underside of the fuselage. ... Dirigible can refer to : an airship -- a lighter-than-air aircraft that can be steered and propelled through the air. ...


Production

  • In the original script, the gorilla is named "Kong". The film was then entitled The Eighth Wonder and press booklets were sent off to thousands of movie theaters in 1932 to excite the theatre owners into placing "The Eighth Wonder" into their theaters. The "King" was added to the title by studio publicists. Apart from the opening titles, the only time the name "King Kong" appears in the picture is on the marquee above the theater where Kong is being exhibited — and the marquee was in fact added to the scene as an optical composite after the live footage of the theater entrance had been shot. However, Denham does refer to Kong in his speech to the theater audience as having been "a king in his native land".
  • The giant gate used in the 1933 movie was burned along with other old studio sets for the burning of Atlanta scene in Gone with the Wind. The gate was originally constructed for the 1927 Cecil B. DeMille silent Biblical epic, The King of Kings, and can also be spotted in the Bela Lugosi serial The Return of Chandu (1934).
  • Some jungle scenes were filmed on the same sound stage set as those in The Most Dangerous Game (1932), which was filmed during the day while King Kong was being shot at night, and also featured Fay Wray and Robert Armstrong in prominent roles. Other jungle sequences were filmed on Catalina Island[5].
  • One of the several original metal armatures used to bring Kong to life, as well as other original props from the 1933 film, can be seen in the book It Came From Bob's Basement, a reference to one armature's long-time owners, Bob Burns, who lives in Los Angeles. One armature (Burns'?) was on display in London until a few years ago in the now-closed Museum of the Moving Image. Burns recently sold his armature to Peter Jackson, who also bought all the original Kong dinosaur armatures from Forrest J Ackerman (editor of Famous Monsters of Filmland magazine).

Atlanta redirects here. ... Gone with the Wind is a 1939 film adapted from Margaret Mitchells 1936 novel of the same name. ... See also: 1926 in film 1927 1928 in film 1920s in film years in film film // Events January 10 - The film Metropolis by Fritz Lang premieres. ... Cecil Blount DeMille (August 12, 1881 – January 21, 1959) was one of the most successful filmmakers during the first half of the 20th century. ... For other uses, see King of Kings (disambiguation). ... Bela Lugosi as Dracula United States stamp. ... The Most Dangerous Game is a 1932 film adaptation of the 1924 short story of the same name by Richard Connell. ... Santa Catalina Island, often called Catalina Island, or just Catalina, is a rocky island off the coast of the U.S. State of California. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Forrest J Ackerman (born November 24, 1916 in Los Angeles, California) is a legendary science fiction fan and collector of science fiction-related memorabilia. ...

Cast

Vina Fay Wray (September 15, 1907 – August 8, 2004) was a Canadian–American actress. ... Fay Wray as Ann Darrow in the 1933 version of King Kong. ... Armstrong (right) in promotional photo for 1933s King Kong Robert Armstrong (November 20, 1890-April 20, 1973) was a film actor probably best remembered for his role in the 1933 version of King Kong by RKO Pictures. ... Carl Denham (born 1896 in New York City died in 1957 in California) is a fictional film director in the films King Kong and Son of Kong (both released in 1933), as well as in the 2005 remake of King Kong, and a 2004 illustrated-novel titled Kong: King of... Promotional photo for actor Bruce Cabot Bruce Cabot (April 20, 1904 – May 3, 1972) was an American film actor. ... Jack, as portrayed by Bruce Cabot in the 1933 original film Jack Driscoll is a fictional character in the 1933 film King Kong and its 2005 remake. ... Frank Reicher (2 December 1875 - 19 January 1965), was a German actor born in Munich, Germany. ... Captain Englehorn (right), as portrayed by Thomas Kretschmann in the 2005 version Captain Englehorn is a fictional captain in the films King Kong and Son of Kong (both released in 1933), the 2005 remake of King Kong, and in the television series The King Kong Show, and a 2004 illustrated... Sam Hardy, Born Newbold, Chesterfield August 26, 1883, Sam Hardy was a goalkeeper noted for his safe handling and uncanny anticipation. ... African-American movie actor and producer Noble Johnson was born on April 18, 1881, in Marshall, Missouri. ... Steve Clemente was born on November 22, 1885 in Mexico. ... James William Flavin Jr. ...

Significance

Although King Kong was not the first important Hollywood film to have a thematic music score (many silent films had multi-theme original scores written for them), it's generally considered to be the most ambitious early talkie film to showcase an all-original score, courtesy of a promising young composer, Max Steiner. Maximilian Raoul Walter Steiner (born May 10, 1888 in Vienna, Austria-Hungary; died December 28, 1971 in Hollywood, California) was an Austrian-American composer of music for theater production shows and films. ...


It was also the first hit film to offer a life-like animated central character in any form. Much of what is done today with CGI animation has its conceptual roots in the stop motion model animation that was pioneered in Kong. Willis O'Brien, credited as "Chief Technician" on the film, has been lauded by later generations of film special effects artists as an outstanding original genius of founder status. Stop motion is an animation technique which makes things that are static appear to be moving. ...


At the end of the scene where Kong shakes the crew members off the log, he then goes after Driscoll, who is hiding in a small cave just under the ledge. The scene was shot using the miniature set, a mockup of Kong's hand and a rear-projected image of Driscoll in the cave. This is not the first known use of miniature rear projection, but certainly among the most famous of early attempts at it.


Many shots in King Kong featured optical effects by Linwood G. Dunn, who was RKO's optical technician for decades. Dunn did optical effects on Citizen Kane and the original Star Trek TV series, as well as hundreds of other films and shows. In the 1990s, in his 90s, Dunn co-invented an electronic 3-D system now used for micro-surgery in hospitals and in the military, as well as co-inventing a video projection system with better resolution than 35mm film that is used in modern cinemas. Linwood G. Dunn (December 27, 1904 in Brooklyn, New York - May 20, 1998) was a pioneer of visual special effects in motion pictures and inventor of related technology. ...


During the film's original 1933 theatrical release, the climax was presented in Magnascope. This is where the screen opens up both vertically and horizontally. Cooper had wanted to wow the audience with the Empire State Building battle in a larger-than-life presentation. He had done this earlier for his film Chang (1927) during the climactic elephant stampede.


Censorship

The first version of the film was test screened to a sample audience in San Bernardino, California, in late January, 1933, before the official release. Apparently, at that time the film contained a scene following that in which Kong shakes several sailors off a log into a crevice, showing them eaten alive by a giant spider, a giant crab, a giant lizard, and an octopoid. The spider-pit scene caused members of the audience to scream, some fainted and left the theater. After the preview, the film's producer, Merian C. Cooper, cut the scene. However, a memo written by Merian C. Cooper, recently revealed on a King Kong documentary, indicates that the scene was cut because it slowed the pace of the film down, not because it was too horrific. According to "King Kong Cometh" by Paul A. Wood, the scene did not get past censors and that audiences only claim to have seen the sequence. On the 2005 DVD, nothing is mentioned as to the sequence being in the test screening. Stills from the scene exist, but the footage itself remains lost to this day. It is mentioned on the 2005 DVD by Doug Turner, that Merian C. Cooper, the director, usually relegated his outtakes and deleted scenes to the incinerator (a regular practice in all movie productions for decades), so many presume that the Lost Spider Pit Sequence met this fate as well[1]. Models used in the sequence (a tarantula and a spider) can be seen hanging on the walls of a workshop in one scene in the 1946 film Genius at Work, and a spider and tentacled creature from the sequence were used in O'Brien's 1957 film The Black Scorpion. Director Peter Jackson, and his crew of special effects technicians at Weta Workshop, created an imaginative reconstruction for the 2005 DVD release of the film (the scene was not spliced into the film but is intercut with original footage to show where it would have occurred, and is part of the DVD extras). The scene is also recreated in their 2005 remake, with most men surviving the initial fall but having to fight off giant insects to survive. San Bernardino is the county seat of San Bernardino County, California, United States. ... Merian C. Cooper Merian Caldwell Cooper (October 24, 1893, Jacksonville, Florida, USA — April 21, 1973, San Diego, California, USA, died of cancer) was an American aviator, American Air Force and Polish Air Force officer, adventurer, director, screenwriter and producer. ... This article is about the 1957 film. ... For other persons named Peter Jackson, see Peter Jackson (disambiguation). ... Weta Workshop is a physical effects company based in Miramar, New Zealand, producing effects for television and film. ...


King Kong was released four times between 1933 and 1952. All of the releases saw the film cut for censorship purposes. Scenes of Kong eating people or stepping on them were cut, as was his peeling off of Ann's dress. Many of these cuts were restored for the 1976 theatrical release after it was found that a film editor had saved the trims. Later, an uncensored print of much higher quality was discovered in the United Kingdom (which was not covered by the American Production Code). The Production Code (also known as the Hays Code) was a set of industry guidelines governing the production of American motion pictures. ...


Reception

Critical reaction

The film received mostly positive reviews on its first release. Joe Bigelow of Variety claimed that the film was a good adventure if the viewer is willing to suspend disbelief and "after the audience becomes used to the machine-like movements and other mechanical flaws in the gigantic animals on view, and become accustomed to the phony atmosphere, they may commence to feel the power."[6] The New York Times found it a fascinating adventure film: "Imagine a fifty-foot beast with a girl in one paw climbing up the outside of the Empire State Building, and after putting the girl on a ledge, clutching at airplanes, the pilots of which are pouring bullets from machine guns into the monster's body". [7] Variety is a daily newspaper for the entertainment industry. ...


More recently, Roger Ebert wrote in his Great Films review that the effects are not up to modern standards, but "there is something ageless and primeval about King Kong that still somehow works." [8] Roger Joseph Ebert (born June 18, 1942) is a Pulitzer Prize-winning American film critic. ...


In modern times, currently King Kong holds an average score of 100% "fresh" based on 46 reviews on Rotten Tomatoes[9] and has an average user score of 8.0 on the Internet Movie Database, featured in their Top 250 films list[10]. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ...


Theatrical Re-Releases

King Kong was a great box office success, as it became the highest grossing film of 1933 and the fifth highest grossing film of the 1930s. This was an impressive feat considering King Kong came out during one of the worst years of the Great Depression. Due to popular demand, King Kong was re-released numerous times through the years.

  • In 1938 King Kong was re-released for the first time, but suffered some censorship. The Hays Office, in accordance with stiffer decency rules, removed a few scenes from the film that were considered violent or obscene. These include:
    • The Apatosaurus biting men to death in the swamp
    • Kong peeling Ann Darrow's clothing off
    • Kong's violent attack on the native village
    • Kong biting a New Yorker to death
    • Kong dropping a woman to her death after mistaking her for Ann Darrow
  • In 1942 King Kong was re-released again to great box office success. However it was altered again by censors as various scenes were darkened to "minimize gore."
  • In 1952 King Kong saw its greatest release to date. Not only did it gross more money then any of its other releases, but it brought in more money then most new "A-List" pictures did that year. Due to this success, Warner Brothers was inspired to make a giant monster film of its own called The Beast From 20,000 Fathoms. This movie in turn ended up kicking off the "giant monster on the loose" film boom of the 1950s.
  • King Kong was sold to television in early 1956 and pulled in an estimated 80% of all households with televisions in the New York area that week. In summer of 1956, King Kong was re-released theatrically (mainly drive-ins) based on its great TV success.
  • In the late 1960s, all the censored scenes that were cut back in 1938 were found, and restored back into the film. Janus Films gave the restored King Kong a brief theatrical re-release in 1971. This was the first time since its original run in 1933 that King Kong was seen in its complete form.

The Production Code (also known as the Hays Code) was a set of guidelines governing the production of motion pictures. ... The Beast from 20,000 Fathoms is a black and white 1953 science fiction film directed by Eugène Lourié. The films shooting title was Monster from Beneath the Sea. ... Janus Films is a film distribution company. ...

Awards

The now classic film was not nominated for any Academy Awards, although it is reasonable to speculate that it could have been nominated for Special Effects for its many groundbreaking techniques, if the award had existed at the time. As it was, however, the Special Effects category would not be introduced until 1939, with The Rains Came receiving the honor. Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... The Rains Came is the title of novel by Louis Bromfield, published in 1937, as well as the 1939 20th Century Fox film version which followed it. ...


In 1991 the film was deemed "culturally, historically and aesthetically significant" by the Library of Congress and selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry. In 1998 it was ranked at #43 on the American Film Institute's 100 Years… 100 Movies list and in 2007 at #41 on its updated version. Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ... The National Film Registry is the registry of films selected by the United States National Film Preservation Board for preservation in the Library of Congress. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The first of the AFI 100 Years. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with AFIs 100 Years. ...


In April 2004 Empire magazine ranked King Kong the top movie Monster of all time, citing the 1933 model[11] and in Issue 181, was introduced in their "Masterpiece" film section. 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December Deaths in April • 18 Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara • 19 Norris McWhirter • 22 Pat Tillman • 24 Estée Lauder Other recent deaths Ongoing events EU Enlargement Exploration of Mars: Rovers Haiti Rebellion Reconstruction of Iraq – Occupation & Resistance Israeli... Empire is a British film magazine published monthly by Emap Consumer Media since July 1989. ...


In May 2004 Total Film magazine ranked the final scene fall from the Empire State Building the third "Best movie death" [12]. 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December Deaths in May • 28 Gerald Anthony • 27 Umberto Agnelli • 22 Richard Biggs • 20 Len Murray • 17 Tony Randall • 17 Ezzedine Salim • 9 Alan King • 9 Akhmad Kadyrov • 8... Total Film, published by Future Publishing, is the United Kingdoms second best-selling film magazine, after the longer-established Empire from Emap. ... The Empire State Building is a 102-story Art Deco skyscraper in New York City, New York at the intersection of Fifth Avenue and West 34th Street. ...


King Kong was also listed by Time Magazine in their "All-Time100 best movies" feature[13]. (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ...


Deleted scenes

Known deleted, censored, or never-filmed scenes (some restored or reconstructed today).

  • Kong battles three Triceratops. Partially filmed but scrapped[14].
  • The sauropod more violently kills three sailors in the water.
  • A Styracosaurus chases the sailors onto the log. Filmed but cut afterward[15].
  • When Kong drops the log down the chasm, four surviving sailors are eaten alive by a giant spider, an octopus-like insect, a giant scorpion/crab, and a giant crocodile/lizard. When Merian C. Cooper showed the film to a preview audience with the scene intact, viewers were either frightened, scared out of the theater, or wouldn't stop talking about the scene. Ultimately, Cooper cut the scene. When asked later, he claimed that he cut the scene due to pacing.
  • Kong pulls off Ann's clothes and smells them. Censored for the 1930s rerelease, now in every official print since 1972, as are the other "censorship cuts" listed below. Curiously, one brief moment during Ann's rescue was not cut out. The scene had her and Jack swimming to the surface of the water, and for one frame, Ann's naked breast could be seen, nipple and all[16].
  • A longer scene of Jack and Ann escaping from Kong's lair, including Kong climbing down the cliff after them. This was cut by Cooper for pacing even though the painstaking stop-motion animation had been completed[17].
  • Kong steps on two natives. Censorship cut.
  • Kong kills two natives and a New Yorker with his teeth. Censorship cut.
  • Kong picks a sleeping woman out of the hotel, then realizing she's not Ann, drops her to the streets below to her death. Censorship cut.
  • Kong breaks up a poker party in the hotel. It's unknown if this was filmed or not, but the reason why it was dropped was because it was too similar to an almost identical scene in The Lost World.
  • A shot showing Kong's body from above as he falls off the Empire State Building. This was cut because the special effects didn't look realistic enough; Kong seemed 'transparent' as he fell to the streets below. Peter Jackson did this shot in the 2005 remake in memory of him.

Species (type) Marsh, 1890 Triceratops (IPA: ) was a herbivorous genus of ceratopsid dinosaur that lived during the late Maastrichtian stage of the Late Cretaceous Period, around 68 to 65 million years ago (mya) in what is now North America. ... Families Brachiosauridae Camarasauridae Cetiosauridae Diplodocidae Euhelopodidae Nemegtosauridae Titanosauridae Vulcanodontidae Sauropoda, the sauropods, are a suborder or infraorder of the saurischian (lizard-hipped) dinosaurs. ... Species Styracosaurus (meaning spiked lizard from Greek styrax/στυραξ spike at the butt-end of a spear-shaft and saurus/σαυρος lizard) was a herbivorous ceratopsian dinosaur from the Cretaceous Period, about 77 to 74 million years ago. ... For other uses, see Breast (disambiguation). ... The Lost World is a 1925 silent adaptation of Arthur Conan Doyles book of the same name. ...

Dinosaurs and reptiles

The dinosaurs and other prehistoric animals depicted on Skull Island are never precisely identified in the film. O'Brien based his models on well-informed reconstructions, particularly on those of Charles R. Knight, which were exhibited in major museums at the time (in particular, the American Museum of Natural History in New York City, and the Chicago Natural History Museum). The reconstructions are surprisingly accurate for their time: paleontologist Robert T. Bakker has commented that despite their anatomical inaccuracies, the depiction of the Apatosaurus coming out of the swamp and moving on land, and the Tyrannosaurus being a swift, active predator are actually more accurate than what scientists at the time were teaching. Even so, there are many inaccuracies when compared with 21st century knowledge. However, it is important to realize that King Kong is not a documentary on prehistoric life; it is a movie made for public entertainment, and is not meant to be perfectly accurate. Orders & Suborders Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Theropoda Ornithischia Thyreophora Ornithopoda Marginocephalia Dinosaurs were vertebrate animals that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for over 160 million years, first appearing approximately 230 million years ago. ... Allosaurus by Charles R. Knight. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago The Field Museum of Natural History, in Chicago, Illinois, [USA], sits on Lake Shore Drive next to Lake Michigan, part of a scenic complex known as Museum Campus Chicago. ... Robert T. Bakker Dr. Robert T. Bakker (Bob Bakker), born March 24, 1945, in Bergen County, New Jersey, is an American paleontologist who has helped re-shape modern theories about dinosaurs, particularly by adding support to the theory that some dinosaurs were homeothermic (warm-blooded). ... Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ...


See Skull Island for a list of creatures that appear in King Kong and its sequel Son of Kong. This page refers to the fictional Skull Island of King Kong. ...


Sequels

Further information: King Kong

A sequel, The Son of Kong, was also released in 1933, just in time for the Christmas season. The story concerned a return expedition to Skull Island that discovers that Kong has left behind an albino son. King Kong in the 1933 film. ... Son of Kong is the sequel to the successful film King Kong. ... Albinism is a genetic condition resulting in a lack of pigmentation in the eyes, skin and hair. ...


Video releases

The colorized version.
The colorized version.

The film was released officially for the first time on DVD in the U.S. in November of 2005, after long being available only on videotape releases, and bootleg VHS and DVD releases. Image File history File links King_Kong_early_colorized_version. ... Image File history File links King_Kong_early_colorized_version. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... Bottom view of VHS videotape cassette with magnetic tape exposed Videotape is a means of recording images and sound onto magnetic tape as opposed to movie film. ... Bottom view of VHS cassette with magnetic tape exposed Top view of VHS cassette with front casing removed The Video Home System, better known by its abbreviation VHS, is a recording and playing standard. ...


Warner Home Video and Turner Entertainment (the latter company currently holding domestic rights to King Kong) have released the film in a two-disc special edition that has been released both with regular DVD packaging and in a Collector's Edition featuring both discs in a collectible tin can which also includes a variety of other printed extras exclusive to the Collector's Edition. As of 2006 the US Special Edition has not been released in the United Kingdom. Warner Bros. ... Turner Entertainment Company was established August 4, 1986 to oversee Turner Broadcastings film library after its acquisition of MGM/UA. In addition to the studio, Turner got its library, which included all of MGMs films, Warner Bros. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


At the same time that these two solo editions of King Kong were released, Warner Brothers also released a DVD box set featuring the original 1933 King Kong, as well as the films The Son of Kong and Mighty Joe Young, which were also released separately. Son of Kong is the sequel to the successful film King Kong. ... The original Mighty Joe Young movie poster. ...


King Kong when it was released on a Criterion laserdisc in 1985 featured the first ever audio commentary track, by Ron Haver, on a home video release. The Criterion Collection is a joint venture between Janus Films and The Voyager Company that was begun in the mid 1980s for the purpose of releasing authoritative consumer versions of classic and important contemporary films on the laserdisc and DVD formats. ... Not to be confused with disk laser, a type of solid-state laser in a flat configuration. ... The home video business rents and sells videocassettes and DVDs to the public. ...


The film was also part of the film colorization controversy in the 1980s when it and other classic (and some not-so-classic) black and white films were colorized for television. In recent years, the colorized version has become highly prized among Kong collectors, and there have even been bootleg DVD releases that have appeared on eBay, some containing both versions of the film. Although the colorized version was released officially on the 2004 PAL-format Region 2 DVD from Universal (UK only), it has never been made available on DVD officially in the Region 1 NTSC format. A colorized image of Laurel and Hardy, from March of the Wooden Soldiers (formally Babes in Toyland). ... This article is about the online auction center. ... This article is about the American media conglomerate. ...


Quotes

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
  • And now, ladies and gentlemen, before I tell you any more, I'm going to show you the greatest thing your eyes have ever beheld. He was a king and a god in the world he knew, but now he comes to civilization merely a captive — a show to gratify your curiosity. Ladies and gentlemen, look at Kong, the Eighth Wonder of the World.Carl Denham
  • We're millionaires, boys! I'll share it with all of you! Why, in a few months his name will be up in lights on Broadway! KONG! The Eighth Wonder of the World!
  • No, it wasn't the airplanes, it was beauty killed the beast.

Carl Denham; referencing the tale of "Beauty and the Beast". Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Carl Denham (born 1896 in New York City died in 1957 in California) is a fictional film director in the films King Kong and Son of Kong (both released in 1933), as well as in the 2005 remake of King Kong, and a 2004 illustrated-novel titled Kong: King of... Carl Denham (born 1896 in New York City died in 1957 in California) is a fictional film director in the films King Kong and Son of Kong (both released in 1933), as well as in the 2005 remake of King Kong, and a 2004 illustrated-novel titled Kong: King of... For other uses, see Beauty and the Beast (disambiguation). ...


Trivia

  • King Kong is often credited as being Adolf Hitler's favorite film (unconfirmed but mentioned in many news and magazine articles on the film, including a 2005 Wired Magazine story)
  • It has been suggested by some that King Kong's roars were lion's roars played backwards at half-speed.
  • King Kong's height is different in different parts of the movie. He appears to be 18 feet tall on the island, 24 feet on the stage and in the streets of New York, and 50 feet on the Empire State Building.
  • The film's budget was approximately $600,000, and nearly bankrupted RKO, until the huge box office revenues began rolling in. After this, re-releases of Kong became a way for the studio to alleviate its cash flow problems[18].
  • In the 1933 film, King Kong is displayed at the Palace Theatre in New York City. Along with the film itself, the marquee makes references to the folktale of "Beauty and the Beast". Interestingly enough, the Palace is the same theatre that Disney's Beauty and the Beast opened at in 1994 (and ran there until 1999). On a side note, by 1933, the Palace had become a full-fledged movie house no longer running stage acts.
  • The film influenced director Peter Jackson to go into filmmaking. After the success of his Lord of the Rings trilogy, he would go on to direct the 2005 King Kong. He has said that it has always been his dream to direct it, though he never had the budget to until after Lord of the Rings.
  • The movie premiered in New York City at Radio City Music Hall. After the premiere, the film was also shown concurrently at RKO Center Theater which was the Music Hall's "sister" theater. Because of the seating capacity of the Radio City Music Hall (6,000+ seats) and the RKO Center (4,000+ seats), more than 10,000 patrons could be accommodated at the same time in two theaters.
  • Originally titled "The Eighth Wonder" when pre-release booklets were sent to theatres in 1932. Only ONE copy of this booklet is known to exist and was bought at auction in 2005 for $11,000.

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Hitler redirects here. ... The Palace Theatre, circa 1920. ... For other uses, see Beauty and the Beast (disambiguation). ... Premiering on April 18, 1994, Beauty and the Beast is currently one of Broadways longest running productions, devised and produced by Disney Theatrical, a fully owned subsidiary of The Walt Disney Company. ... For other persons named Peter Jackson, see Peter Jackson (disambiguation). ... Dust jacket of the 1968 UK edition The Lord of the Rings is an epic fantasy story by J. R. R. Tolkien, a sequel to his earlier work, The Hobbit. ... Radio City Music Hall at Christmas 2005 Radio City Music Hall is an entertainment venue located in New York Citys Rockefeller Center. ...

See also

King Kong in the 1933 film. ... Son of Kong is the sequel to the successful film King Kong. ... The original Mighty Joe Young movie poster. ... King Kong (also known as King Kong: The Legend Reborn) is a 1976 American motion picture produced by Dino de Laurentiis and directed by John Guillermin. ... King Kong is a 2005 remake of the 1933 King Kong film about a fictional giant ape called Kong. ... Treehouse of Horror III (on-screen title: The Simpsons Halloween Special III) is the fifth episode of The Simpsons fourth season, and the third Simpsons Halloween episode. ... Creation was an unfinished 1931 feature film, and project of stop motion animator Willis OBrien. ... Willis OBrien with his Academy Award. ... This is a list of stop-motion films from around the world organised in order of release date; theatrical releases as well as made-for-TV and direct-to-video movies. ...

References

  1. ^ Goldner, Orville and George E. Turner, The Making of King Kong, Ballantine Books, 1975.
  2. ^ Gerald Peary, 'Missing Links: The Jungle Origins of King Kong' (1976), repr. Gerald Peary: Film Reviews, Interviews, Essays and Sundry Miscellany, 2004
  3. ^ Erish, Andrew. "Illegitimate Dad of King Kong", Los Angeles Times, January 8, 2006. 
  4. ^ Ruiz, Jesús. “El padre de King Kong”, Ciencia para Impacientes (Spanish blog), March 15, 2007
  5. ^ Goldner, Orville and George E. Turner, The Making of King Kong, Ballantine Books, 1975.
  6. ^ Variety review - Joe Bigelow, 1933.
  7. ^ Hall, Mordaunt. "King Kong", New York Times, March 3, 1933. 
  8. ^ Ebert, Roger. "King Kong (1933)", Chicago Sun Times, February 3, 2002. 
  9. ^ "King Kong (1933)", Rotten Tomatoes, April 19, 2007. 
  10. ^ "King Kong (1933)", Internet Movie Database, April 19, 2007. 
  11. ^ "King Kong tops movie Monster poll", BBC, April 3, 2004. 
  12. ^ "Psyco stabbing 'best film death'", BBC, May 20, 2004. 
  13. ^ "PTime Magazine 100 All Time Best Films", Time Magazine. 
  14. ^ Pettigrew, Neil, The Stop-Motion Filmography, McFarland & Company, 1999, p. 395
  15. ^ Pettigrew, Neil, The Stop-Motion Filmography, McFarland & Company, 1999, p. 395
  16. ^ Hosada, Craig, The Bare Facts Video Guide, 8th ed., 1998, Bare Facts
  17. ^ Pettigrew, Neil, The Stop-Motion Filmography, McFarland & Company, 1999, p. 402
  18. ^ Goldner, Orville and George E. Turner, The Making of King Kong, Ballantine Books, 1975

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
King Kong - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4815 words)
King Kong is the name of the fictional giant ape, from Skull Island, who has appeared in several works, most of which bear his name, including the groundbreaking 1933 film, the film remakes of 1976 and 2005, and numerous sequels and paraphernalia.
Kong: King of Skull Island, an illustrated novel labeled as an authorized sequel to King Kong (1933), was published in 2004 by DH Press, a subsidiary of Dark Horse Comics.
The Iron Kong's rival is the Godzilla-shaped Gojulas, paralleling the Toho films.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m