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Encyclopedia > King James I of England
James VI and I
King of England, Scotland and Ireland
British Royalty-
House of Stuart

James I/VI
Children include
   Henry, Prince of Wales
   Elizabeth Stuart
   Charles I
   Robert Stuart, Duke of Kintyre
Charles I
Children
   Charles II
   James II/VII
   Mary, Princess Royal
   Henrietta Anne Stuart
Charles II
James II/VII
Children
   Mary II
   Anne
   James Francis Edward Stuart
Grandchildren
Charles Edward Stuart
Henry Benedict Stuart
Mary II
William III
Anne
Children
William, Duke of Gloucester

James VI of Scotland and I of England (Charles James) (19 June 156627 March 1625) was a King who ruled over England, Scotland and Ireland, and was the first Sovereign to reign in the three realms simultaneously. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 until his death, and in England and Ireland as James I from 24 March 1603 until his death. James I was the first English monarch of the Stuart dynasty, succeeding the last Tudor monarch, Elizabeth I, who died unmarried and childless. Download high resolution version (527x907, 352 KB)Paulus van Somer. ... Download high resolution version (527x907, 352 KB)Paulus van Somer. ... The House of Stuart or Stewart was a Scottish, and then British, Royal House of Breton origin. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other people known as Henry, Prince of Wales see Henry, Prince of Wales (disambiguation) Henry Frederick Stuart, Prince of Wales ( February 19, 1594 - November 6, 1612) was the eldest son of King James VI of Scotland/ James I of England and Anne of Denmark. ... Elizabeth of Bohemia Elizabeth of Bohemia (August 19, 1596 – February 13, 1662), born Princess Elizabeth Stuart, was daughter to King James VI of Scotland and his Queen consort Anne of Denmark. ... The name Charles I is used to refer to numerous persons in history: Kings: Charles I of England, Scotland, and Ireland Charles I of France (also known as Charles the Bald) Charles I of Spain (also known as Charles V of the German Empire) Charles I of Romania Charles I... Robert Bruce Stuart, Duke of Kintyre ( 18 January 1602— 27 May 1602) was the fifth child of King James I of England and Anne of Denmark. ... Charles I (19 November 1600–30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625, until his death. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 30 January 1649 (de jure) or 29 May 1660 (de facto) until his death. ... James II of England and VII of Scotland (14 October 1633–16 September 1701) became King of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 6 February 1685. ... Mary, Princess Royal and Princess Orange-Nassau (4 November 1631 - 24 December 1660) was the eldest daughter of King Charles I of England, Scotland, and Ireland and his queen, Henrietta Maria. ... Henrietta Anne Stuart (June 16, 1644 - June 30, 1670) was the youngest daughter of King Charles I of England and Queen Henrietta Maria of France. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 30 January 1649 (de jure) or 29 May 1660 (de facto) until his death. ... James II of England and VII of Scotland (14 October 1633–16 September 1701) became King of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 6 February 1685. ... Mary II Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) was Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689 until her death, and Queen of Scotland from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... Anne Queen of Great Britain and Ireland Anne (6 February 1665–1 August 1714), became Queen of England and Scotland on 8 March 1702. ... Prince James Francis Edward Stuart or Stewart (June 10, 1688 – January 1, 1766) was a claimant of the thrones of Scotland and England (September 16, 1701 – January 1, 1766) who is more commonly referred to as The Old Pretender. ... Bonnie Prince Charlie Charles Edward Louis John Casimir Silvester Severino Maria Stuart (December 31, 1720 – January 31, 1788), was the exiled claimant to the thrones of Great Britain and Ireland, commonly known as Bonnie Prince Charlie. Charles was the son of James Francis Edward Stuart, the Old Pretender, who was... Henry Benedict Stuart as Cardinal Duke of York Henry Benedict Maria Clement Stuart (March 11, 1725 – July 13, 1807), born in Rome, Italy, was a Prince of England and of Scotland, Duke of York, and Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Mary II Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland Mary II (30 April 1662–28 December 1694) was Queen of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689 until her death, and Queen of Scotland from 11 April 1689 until her death. ... William III and II (14 November 1650–8 March 1702; also known as William Henry and William of Orange) was a Dutch Prince of Orange from his birth, King of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and King of Scotland from 11 April 1689, in each case until his... Anne Queen of Great Britain and Ireland Anne (6 February 1665–1 August 1714), became Queen of England and Scotland on 8 March 1702. ... William, Duke of Gloucester ( 24 July 1689 - 29 July 1700) was the only child of Princess (later Queen) Anne of England to survive infancy. ... June 19 is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 195 days remaining. ... Events January 7 - Pius V becomes Pope Selim II succeeds Suleiman I as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Religious rioting in the Netherlands signifies the beginning of the Eighty Years War in the Netherlands. ... March 27 is the 86th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (87th in Leap years). ... Events March 27 - Prince Charles Stuart becomes King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831 377/km² Religion... Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: Alba) is a country in northwest Europe, occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain. ... July 24 is the 205th day (206th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 160 days remaining. ... Events The Duke of Alva arrives in the Netherlands with Spanish forces to suppress unrest there. ... March 24 is the 83rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (84th in Leap years). ... Events March 24 - Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James VI of Scotland, uniting the crowns of Scotland and England April 28 – Funeral of Elizabeth I of England in Westminster Abbey July 17 or July 19 - Sir Walter Raleigh arrested for treason. ... The House of Stuart or Stewart was a Scottish, and then British, Royal House of Breton origin. ... The Tudor dynasty or House of Tudor (Welsh Twdwr) is a series of five monarchs of Welsh origin who ruled England from 1485 until 1603. ... Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ...


James was a popular and successful monarch in Scotland, but the same was not true in England. He was unable to deal with a hostile English Parliament; the refusal on the part of the House of Commons to impose sufficiently high taxes crippled the royal finances. His taste for political absolutism, his mismanagement of the kingdom's funds and his cultivation of unpopular favourites established the foundation for the English Civil War, during which James's son and successor, Charles I, would be tried and executed. During James's own life, however, the government of the Kingdom was relatively stable. A monarch is a type of ruler or head of state. ... This is a list of Parliaments of England from the reign of Henry VII to 1707. ... In some bicameral parliaments of a Westminster System, the House of Commons has historically been the name of the elected lower house. ... A tax is an involuntary fee paid by individuals or businesses to a government. ... Absolutism is a political theory which argues that one person (generally, a monarch) should hold all power. ... The English Civil War (or Wars) refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651, specifically to the first (1642–1645) and second (1648–1649) civil wars between the supporters of King Charles I and the supporters of... Charles I (19 November 1600–30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625, until his death. ...


Along with Alfred the Great, James is considered to have been one of the most intellectual and learned individuals ever to sit on the English or Scottish Throne. Under him, much of the cultural flourishing of Elizabethan England continued; individuals such as Sir Francis Bacon (afterwards Viscount St Albans) and William Shakespeare flourished during the reign. James himself was a talented scholar, writing works such as Daemonologie (1597), The True Law of Free Monarchies (1598), Basilikon Doron (1599) and A Counterblast to Tobacco (1604). Alfred (849? – 26 October 899) (sometimes spelt Ælfred) was king of the southern Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex from 871 to 899. ... Elizabethan redirects here. ... Sir Francis Bacon Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Albans (January 22, 1561 – April 9, 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, spy, freemason and essayist. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Demonology is the systematic study of demons. ... Events January 24 - Battle of Turnhout. ... The True Law of Free Monarchies is a book of political theory attributed to James I of England. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... Basilikon Doron means royal gift. ... Events Swedish King Sigismund III Vasa is replaced by his brother Charles IX of Sweden. ... A Counterblast to Tobacco was written by James I of England in 1604. ... Events January 14 – Hampton Court conference with James I of England, the Anglican bishops and representatives of Puritans September 20 - Capture of Ostend by Spanish forces under Ambrosio Spinola after a three year siege. ...

Contents

Early life

James was the eldest son of Mary I, Queen of Scots and of her second husband, Henry Stuart, Duke of Albany (more commonly known as Lord Darnley). His legitimacy may have been questionable, as Mary also loved James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell. James's mother was an insecure ruler, as both she and her husband, being Roman Catholics, faced a rebellion of Protestant noblemen. Their marriage, furthermore, was a particularly difficult one. Whilst Mary was pregnant with James, the Duke of Albany secretly allied himself with the rebels and murdered the Queen's private secretary, David Rizzio. Mary I of Scotland (Mary Stuart or Stewart) (December 8, 1542 – February 8, 1587), better known as Mary, Queen of Scots, was the ruler of Scotland from December 14, 1542 – July 24, 1567. ... Henry Stewart (or Stuart, which was the style adopted by his father, and thence perpetuated as the House of Stuart), 1st Duke of Albany (7 December 1545 – 9 or 10 February 1567), commonly known as Lord Darnley, King Consort of Scotland, was the first-cousin and second husband of Mary... The Duke of Orkney James Hepburn (~1535 - April 14, 1578) was the 4th Earl of Bothwell and 1st Duke of Orkney. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... David Rizzio (approx. ...


James was born on 19 June 1566 at Edinburgh Castle, and automatically became Duke of Rothesay and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland, for he was the eldest son of the monarch and thus the heir-apparent. He received the name Charles James, the first name in honour of his godfather Charles IX of France, thus becoming the first future British monarch to have more than one forename. James's father was murdered on 10 February 1567 at Kirk o' Field, most likely to avenge the slaying of Rizzio. Mary's marriage to James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, who was widely suspected of murdering the Duke of Albany, on 15 May of the same year made her even more unpopular. In June 1567, the Protestant rebels arrested Mary and imprisoned her in Loch Leven Castle. Mary was forced to abdicate the Throne on 24 July, which consequently went to James, then only thirteen months old. June 19 is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 195 days remaining. ... Events January 7 - Pius V becomes Pope Selim II succeeds Suleiman I as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Religious rioting in the Netherlands signifies the beginning of the Eighty Years War in the Netherlands. ... Edinburgh Castle and NorLoch, around 1780 by Alexander Nasmyth Edinburgh Castle, an ancient stronghold on the Castle Rock in the centre of the city of Edinburgh, has been in use by assorted military forces since prehistoric times and only transferred from the Ministry of Defence recently. ... Standard of the Duke of Rothesay, quartering the arms of the Stuarts and of the Isles The title Duke of Rothesay is the official title possessed by the Heir Apparent to the throne of Scotland. ... The position of Lord High Steward of England, not to be confused with the Lord Steward, a court functionary, is the first of the Great Officers of State. ... Charles IX ( June 27, 1550 – May 30, 1574) was born Charles-Maximilien, the son of King Henri II of France and Catherine de Medici. ... February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events The Duke of Alva arrives in the Netherlands with Spanish forces to suppress unrest there. ... The Duke of Orkney James Hepburn (~1535 - April 14, 1578) was the 4th Earl of Bothwell and 1st Duke of Orkney. ... May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (136th in leap years). ... Loch Leven Castle is a castle on an island at in Loch Leven in the Perth and Kinross region of Scotland. ... July 24 is the 205th day (206th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 160 days remaining. ...


Regencies

James was formally crowned king at the Kirk of the Holy Rude, Stirling on 29 July 1567. In deference to the religious beliefs of most of the Scots ruling class, he was brought up as a member of the Scottish Protestant Kirk and educated by men with Presbyterian sympathies, though his mother was a Roman Catholic. During James VI's early reign, power was held by a series of regents, the first of whom was James Stuart, 1st Earl of Moray, his mother's illegitimate half-brother. James's mother Mary escaped from prison in 1568, leading to a brief period of violence. Lord Moray defeated Mary's troops at the Battle of Langside, forcing Mary to flee to England, where she was imprisoned by the English Queen, Elizabeth I. Stirling is a city in central Scotland, in the district of Stirling. ... July 29 is the 210th day (211th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 155 days remaining. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Church of Scotland is the national (established) church in Scotland. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray (c. ... Events March 23 - Peace of Longjumeau ends the Second War of Religion in France. ... The Battle of Langside was a battle fought on May 13, 1568 between the forces of Mary Queen of Scots and a confederacy of Scottish Protestants under James Stewart, Earl of Moray, her half-brother (who won the battle). ...


James's first regent, Lord Moray, was assassinated by one of Mary's supporters in 1570. He was succeeded by James's paternal grandfather, Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox, who suffered a similar death in 1571. Next came James VI's guardian, John Erskine, 1st Earl of Mar, who died in 1572. The last of the regents was James Douglas, 4th Earl of Morton, who, during the two previous regencies, had been the most powerful Scottish nobleman—more powerful than the regents themselves. Historian and poet George Buchanan was responsible for James' education. Events January 23 - The assassination of regent James Stewart, Earl of Moray throws Scotland into civil war February 25 - Pope Pius V excommunicates Queen Elizabeth I of England. ... Matthew Stewart (1516-1571) was the 4th Earl of Lennox, and leader of the Catholic nobility in Scotland. ... Events January 11 - Austrian nobility is granted Freedom of religion. ... John Erskine, 1st Earl of Mar (died 29 OCtober 1572), regent of Scotland, was a son of John, 5th Lord Erskine (d. ... Events January 16 - The Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ... James Douglas, 4th Earl of Morton (c. ... George Buchanan (1506 - 1582) was a Sixteenth Century Scottish, Humanist theorist, see George Buchanan (humanist) Sir George Buchanan (1854 - 1924) was a United Kingdom, Diplomat who was British ambassador to Russia during the Russian Revolution in 1917, see George Buchanan (diplomat) Sir George Buchanan was a British civil engineer active...


Lord Morton was successful in finally crushing the families who continued to support the claim of James's mother, Mary. His fall was brought about not by Mary's supporters, but by the King's closest courtiers, who impressed upon the young monarch the extent of the royal powers, thereby encouraging him to take control himself. The courtiers accused Lord Morton of participating in the murder of the King's father, Henry Stuart, Duke of Albany. Lord Morton was consequently tried, convicted and then executed in 1581; power (at least theoretically) was thenceforth held by the King himself, rather than by a regent. Events January 16 - English Parliament outlaws Roman Catholicism April 4 - Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Elizabeth I. July 26 - The Northern Netherlands proclaim their independence from Spain in the Oath of Abjuration. ...


Nevertheless, James VI did not rule by himself, instead relying on the advice of his closest courtiers. One of the most important noblemen at the time was James VI's cousin, Esmé Stuart, Seigneur d'Aubigny, who had come from France in 1579, and who had been made Earl of Lennox. Another powerful courtier at the time was James Stuart, who was created Earl of Arran as a reward for his testimony against Lord Morton. As Lord Lennox was a Catholic, and Lord Arran leaned towards Episcopalianism, the Presbyterian Scottish Lords found the government distasteful. In the Raid of Ruthven (1582), some Presbyterian nobles, led by William Ruthven, 1st Earl of Gowrie, captured James and held him captive for almost a year at Ruthven Castle, now known as Huntingtower Castle, in Perthshire. Lord Arran was also detained, and Lord Lennox was banished to France. The King and Lord Arran escaped in 1583; Lord Gowrie was executed, and the rebels forced to flee to England. The Scottish Parliament, subservient to the King, passed the Black Acts, putting the Church of Scotland directly under royal control. These Acts were extremely unpopular; his clergy opposed and denounced him, attempting to keep his influence under control, lest he grow so powerful as to be bold enough to disestablish Presbyterianism. Events January 6 - The Union of Atrecht united the southern Netherlands under the Duke of Parma, governor in the name of king Philip II of Spain. ... The Peerage title of Earl of Lennox has been created six times in British history, becoming extinct every time. ... Events January 15 - Russia cedes Livonia and Estonia to Poland February 24 - Pope Gregory XIII implements the Gregorian Calendar. ... Huntingtower Castle in Perthshire was built in the 13th century by the Ruthven family. ... Events August 5 - Sir Humphrey Gilbert establishes first English colony in North America, at what is now St Johns, Newfoundland. ... The Scottish Parliament (Pàrlamaid na h-Alba in Gaelic, Scots Pairlament in Scots) is the national legislature of Scotland. ... The Church of Scotland is the national (established) church in Scotland. ...


English succession

In 1586, James VI and Elizabeth I became allies under the Treaty of Berwick. James sought to remain in the favour of the unmarried Queen of England, as he was a potential successor to her Crown; his mother was the granddaughter of Margaret Tudor (Elizabeth I's aunt). Margaret Tudor's brother, Henry VIII, had feared that the English Crown would go to a Scottish individual; thus, in his will, he excluded Margaret and her descendants from the line of succession. Although technically excluded by the will—which, under an Act of Parliament, had the force of law insofar as succession was concerned—both Mary and James were serious claimants to the English Crown, as they were Elizabeth I's closest relatives. Events November 19 - Henry Barrow, English Puritan and Separatist is imprisoned. ... Margaret Tudor Margaret Tudor (November 28, 1489 - November 24, 1541), the daughter of Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York, was a notable figure in the 16th century history of Scotland and England. ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ...


Also in 1586, Mary was implicated in the Babington Plot, a scheme which sought to put the former Scottish Queen on the Throne after murdering Elizabeth I. Elizabeth had previously spared Mary's life after the Ridolfi Plot, but could no longer tolerate the danger posed. Consequently, Mary was executed for her crimes in 1587; but for the will of Henry VIII, James would have been the Heir Presumptive to the English Crown. The Babington Plot was the event which most directly led to the execution of Mary Queen of Scots. ... The Ridolfi plot was a Roman Catholic plot of 1570 to assassinate Queen Elizabeth I of England and replace her with Mary I of Scotland. ... Events February 8 - Mary, Queen of Scots is beheaded at Fotheringhay Castle in England after she is implicated in a plot to murder her cousin, Queen Elizabeth I. July 22 - Colony of Roanoke: A group of English settlers arrive on Roanoke Island off of North Carolina to re-establish the... An Heir Presumptive (capitalised) is the person provisionally scheduled to inherit a throne but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an Heir Apparent or of a new Heir Presumptive with a better claim to the throne. ...

Anne of Denmark was James VI's wife.

Following her execution, Mary's Scottish supporters became weak; James managed to significantly reduce the influence of the Roman Catholic nobles in Scotland. He further endeared himself to Protestants by marrying Anne of Denmark—a Princess from a Protestant country and daughter of Frederick II of Denmark—by proxy in 1589. Another marriage, this time with both parties personally present, occurred on 21 January 1590 at Krondborg during James's visit to Denmark. Soon following his return via Leith on 1 May, he attended the North Berwick Witch Trial, in which several people were convicted of having used witchcraft to create a storm in an attempt to sink the ship on which James and Anne had been travelling. This made him very concerned about the threat that witches and witchcraft were posing to himself and the country. He wrote the aforementioned treatise on demonology. As a result, hundreds of females were put to death for witchcraft; their bodies were found in what used to be called Nor Loch (now Princes Street Gardens). Download high resolution version (561x732, 67 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (561x732, 67 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Anne of Denmark (October 14, 1574 _ March 4, 1619) was queen consort of King James I of England and VI of Scotland. ... Frederick II (July 1, 1534 - April 4, 1588), King of Denmark and Norway from 1559 until his death. ... Events Rebellion of the Catholic League against King Henry III of France, in revenge for his murder of Duke Henry of Guise. ... January 21 is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events March 14 - Battle of Ivry - Henry IV of France again defeats the forces of the Catholic League under the Duc de Mayenne. ... Former Royal Yacht Britannia is permanently moored at Leith harbour. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... Princes Street Gardens is in Edinburgh, Scotland in the shadow of Edinburgh Castle which was once the sewage system, called the Nor Loch, for the city whos population lived in what modern times would call highrise flats (apartments). ...


At first, James and his new queen were close, but they gradually drifted apart. The couple produced eight children, three of whom survived infancy and one was stillborn. They decided to live apart after the death of their daughter Sophia. The expected result of pregnancy is the birth of a living child. ...


James faced a Roman Catholic uprising in 1588; he was forced to reconcile with the Church of Scotland, and at length agreed to the repeal of the Black Acts in 1592. James, fearing that dealing too harshly with the Catholic rebels might anger many English Catholics, agreed to pardon some of his opponents, thereby angering the Protestant Church. He faced in 1600 a conspiracy formed by John Ruthven, 3rd Earl of Gowrie (son of the Earl of Gowrie executed in 1584); upon the failure of the plot, Lord Gowrie and his associates were killed, and even Protestant nobles came to be repressed by the King. Events May 12 - Day of the Barricades in Paris. ... Events January 30 - The death of Pope Innocent IX during the previous year had left the Papal throne vacant. ... Events January January 1 - Scotland adopts January 1st as being New Years Day February February 17 - Giordano Bruno burned in a stake for heresy July July 2 - Battle of Nieuwpoort: Dutch forces under Maurice of Nassau defeat Spanish forces under Archduke Albert in a battle on the coastal dunes. ... John Ruthven, 3rd Earl of Gowrie (c. ...


Upon the death of Elizabeth I in 1603, the Crown should have passed (under the will of Henry VIII) to the Lady Anne Stanley. Nevertheless, James was the only serious claimant to the English Crown; all the others, including the Lady Anne, were not powerful enough to defend their claims. Thus, an Accession Council met and proclaimed James King of England. He and his wife were crowned on 25 July at Westminster Abbey. Scotland and England were not, however, united into one country; it was only in 1707 that the Act of Union brought about the merger of these two nations into Great Britain. Events March 24 - Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James VI of Scotland, uniting the crowns of Scotland and England April 28 – Funeral of Elizabeth I of England in Westminster Abbey July 17 or July 19 - Sir Walter Raleigh arrested for treason. ... Lady Anne Stanley - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... In the United Kingdom, the Accession Council proclaims a new monarch upon the death of a previous monarch. ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... The Abbey at night, from Deans Yard. ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Act of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... The Acts of Union were twin Acts of Parliament passed in 1707 (taking effect on 26 March) in the Scottish and the English Parliaments. ...


Early reign in England

James's chief advisor was Robert Cecil, 1st Baron Cecil of Essendon (the younger son of Elizabeth I's favoured minister, Lord Burghley), who became Earl of Salisbury in 1605. James was an extravagant spender; only the skill of the Earl of Salisbury could avert financial disaster. He also created numerous peerage dignities to reward his courtiers. In total, sixty-two individuals were raised to the English Peerage by James—his predecessor, Elizabeth I, had only created eight new peers during a reign which lasted for almost fifty years. Furthermore, James embroiled himself in numerous conflicts with Parliament. Before his succession to the throne, he had written The True Law of Free Monarchies, where he argued that the divine right of kings was sanctioned by the apostolic succession, and, being accustomed to a timid Scottish Parliament, he did not like working with the more assertive English Parliament. Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury (June 1, 1563 -May 24, 1612), son of William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley and half-brother of Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter, statesman, spymaster and minister to Elizabeth I of England and James I of England. ... William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley (13 September 1521–4 August 1598), was an English politician, the chief advisor of Queen Elizabeth I for most of her reign. ... The title Marquess of Salisbury is a British title of Peerage, created in 1789 for James Cecil, 7th Earl of Salisbury. ... Events April 13 - Tsar Boris Godunow dies - Feodor II accedes to the throne May 16 - Paul V becomes Pope June 1 - Russian troops in Moscow imprison Feodor II and his mother. ... The True Law of Free Monarchies is a book of political theory attributed to James I of England. ... This article is about the doctrine; The Divine Right of Kings is also the title of a short poem by Edgar Allan Poe. ... In Christianity, the doctrine of apostolic succession maintains that the Christian Church is the spiritual successor of the Apostles. ...


One of James's first acts was to end England's involvement in the Eighty Years' War, with the signing of the Treaty of London in 1604. He was almost immediately faced by religious conflicts in England; upon his arrival, he was presented with a petition requesting the tolerance of Puritans. In 1604, at the Hampton Court Conference, James was found to be unwilling to agree to the demands of the Puritans. He did, however, agree to fulfil one request by authorising an official translation of the Bible, which came to be known as the King James Version. Also in 1604 he broadened Elizabeth's Witchcraft Act to bring the penalty of death without benefit of clergy to any one who invoked evil spirits or communed with familiar spirits. The Eighty Years War, or Dutch Revolt from 1568 to 1648 was the secession war in which the proto-Netherlands first became an independent country and in which the region now known as Belgium became established. ... This Treaty of London (among many others) ended hostilities between England and Spain. ... Events January 14 – Hampton Court conference with James I of England, the Anglican bishops and representatives of Puritans September 20 - Capture of Ostend by Spanish forces under Ambrosio Spinola after a three year siege. ... The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. ... The Hampton Court Conference was a meeting in 1604, convened at Hampton Court Palace between King James I of England and representatives of the English Puritans. ... The Bible (From Greek (τα) βιβλια, (ta) biblia, (the) books, plural of βιβλιον, biblion, book, originally a diminutive of βιβλος, biblos, which in turn is derived from βυβλος—byblos, meaning papyrus, from the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos which exported this writing material), is a word applied to sacred scriptures. ... The King James Version (KJV) is an English translation of the Holy Bible, commissioned for the benefit of the Church of England at the behest of King James I of England. ... In England, a succession of Witchcraft Acts have governed witchcraft and provided penalties for its practice. ...


James also incurred the wrath of Roman Catholics. Though he was careful to accept Catholism, his Protestant subjects ensured that they would not get equal rights. Thus, in the early years, when many of his subjects did not know James' policies—only that he had an extreme Protestant background—there were a number of plots to remove James from power, such as the Bye Plot and the Main Plot. In 1605, a group of Catholic extremists led by Guy Fawkes developed a plan, known as the Gunpowder Plot, to cause an explosion in the chamber of the House of Lords, where the King and members of both Houses of Parliament would be gathered for the State Opening. The conspirators sought to replace James with his daughter, Elizabeth, whom, they hoped, could be forced to convert to Catholicism. One of the conspirators, however, leaked the information regarding the plot, which was consequently foiled. Terrified, James refused to leave his residence for many days. Guy Fawkes was put to death, and there is now an annual "Guy Fawkes day" in the United Kingdom to remember the failed Plot. James' care not to strongly enforce anti-Catholic doctrine ensured that there were no more plots after 1605. The Bye Plot was a conspiracy by English Catholics to kidnap King James I of England and force him to repeal anti-Catholic legislation. ... The Main Plot was a conspiracy by English Catholics, allegedly led by lay Catholic Lord Cobham, to remove King James I of England from the English throne, replacing him by aid of Spain with his cousin Arabella (or Arbella) Stuart. ... Events April 13 - Tsar Boris Godunow dies - Feodor II accedes to the throne May 16 - Paul V becomes Pope June 1 - Russian troops in Moscow imprison Feodor II and his mother. ... Guy Fawkes Guido Fawkes (April 13, 1570—January 31, 1606), most commonly called Guy Fawkes and sometimes rendered as Faukes, who also used the pseudonym John Johnson, was a member of a group of Roman Catholic conspirators who attempted to assassinate King James I and all the members of both... The Gunpowder Plot of 1605 involved a desperate but failed attempt by a group of provincial English Catholic extremists to kill King James I of England, his family, and most of the Protestant aristocracy in one fell swoop by blowing up the Houses of Parliament during the State Opening. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... In the United Kingdom, the State Opening of Parliament is an annual event held usually in October or November that marks the commencement of a session of Parliament. ... Elizabeth of Bohemia Elizabeth of Bohemia (August 19, 1596 – February 13, 1662), born Princess Elizabeth Stuart, was daughter to King James VI of Scotland and his Queen consort Anne of Denmark. ...


Conflict with Parliament

Parliament met in a state of anti-Catholic paranoia after the failed Gunpowder Plot. It voted four subsidies to the King, who still remained unsatisfied with his revenues. James imposed customs duties without parliamentary consent, although no monarch had taken so bold a step since the reign of Richard II. The legality of such an action was challenged in 1606 by the merchant John Bates; the Court of Exchequer, however, ruled in the King's favour. The decision of the court was denounced by Parliament. Relations between James I and Parliament were also soured by the latter's refusal to pass the King's plan to allow free trade between England and Scotland. Richard II (January 6?, 1367 – February 14, 1400) was the son of Edward the Black Prince, Prince of Wales, and Joan The Fair Maid of Kent. He was born at Bordeaux and became his fathers heir when his elder brother died in infancy. ... Events January 27 - The trial of Guy Fawkes and other conspirators begins ending in their execution on January 31 May 17 - Supporters of Vasili Shusky invade the Kremlin and kill pretender Dmitri December 26 - Shakespeares King Lear performed in court Storm buries a village of St Ismails near... The Exchequer was that part of the government responsible for the management and collection of the royal revenues of the King of England. ...


In the last session of the first Parliament of his reign (which began in 1610), Lord Salisbury proposed the Great Contract, which would have led to the Crown giving up feudal dues in return for an annual parliamentary subsidy. The plan, however, failed because of factionalism in Parliament. Frustrated by the members of the House of Commons and by the collapse of the Great Contract, James dissolved Parliament in 1611. Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... Events November 1 - At Whitehall Palace in London, William Shakespeares romantic comedy The Tempest is presented for the first time. ...


The Crown deep in debt, James blatantly sold honours and titles to raise funds. In 1611, he used letters patent to invent a completely new dignity—that of Baronet; one could become a Baronet upon the payment of £1,080. A Barony could be sold for about £5,000, a Viscountcy for about £10,000, and an Earldom for about £20,000. Letters Patent by Queen Victoria creating office of Governor-General of Australia Letters patent are a type of legal document which is an open letter issued by a monarch or government granting a right, monopoly, title, or status to someone or some entity such as a corporation. ... A baronet (traditional abbreviation Bart, modern abbreviation Bt) is the holder of a title, similar to a knighthood except that it is hereditary, known as a baronetcy. ...


Lord Salisbury died in 1612; another of the King's closest advisors, Robert Carr, 1st Earl of Somerset, was forced to leave office after being disgraced by the Overbury Scandal. Following the loss of the aforementioned advisors, James began to involve himself in matters previously handled by his ministers. James's personal government was disastrous for his finances, and a new Parliament had to be called in 1614 in order to obtain the imposition of new taxes. This Parliament, the second of James's reign, was known as the Addled Parliament because it failed to pass any legislation or impose any taxes. James angrily dissolved Parliament shortly after he summoned it after it became clear that no progress could be made. Events January 20 - Mathias becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... Robert Carr, Earl of Somerset (sometimes spelt Ker) (c. ... Thomas Overbury Sir Thomas Overbury (1581 - September 15, 1613), English poet and essayist, and the victim of one of the most sensational crimes in English history, was the son of Nicholas Overbury, of Bourton-on-the-Hill, and was born at Compton Scorpion, near Ilmington, in Warwickshire. ... Events April 5 - In Virginia, Native American Pocahontas marries English colonist John Rolfe. ... The Addled Parliament was the second Parliament of the reign of James I of England, which sat in 1614. ...


Later years

Following the dissolution of the Addled Parliament, James ruled without a Parliament for about seven years. Faced with financial difficulties due to the failure of Parliament to approve new taxes, James sought to enter into a profitable alliance with Spain by marrying his eldest son, Charles, Prince of Wales, off to the daughter of the King of Spain. The proposed alliance with a Roman Catholic kingdom was not well-received in Protestant England; James's unpopularity, furthermore, was augmented by the execution of Sir Walter Raleigh. In Scotland, James was despised for his insistence on the passage of the Five Articles of Perth, which were seen as attempts to introduce Roman Catholic and Anglican practices into Presbyterian Scotland. Alternatively, Professor Walter Raleigh was a scholar and author circa 1900. ...


From 1618 onwards, the religious conflict known as the Thirty Years' War convulsed Europe. James I was forced to become involved because his daughter, Elizabeth, was married to the Protestant Frederick V, Elector Palatine, one of the war's chief participants. During the conflict between Protestants and Catholics, James's attempt to ally himself with Catholic Spain fostered much distrust. Events March 8 - Johannes Kepler discovers the third law of planetary motion (he soon rejects the idea after some initial calculations were made but on May 15 confirms the discovery). ... The victory of Gustavus Adolphus at the Battle of Breitenfeld (1631) The Thirty Years War was a conflict fought between the years 1618 and 1648, principally in the Central European territory of the Holy Roman Empire, but also involving most of the major continental powers. ... Frederick V, Elector Palatine Frederick V, Elector Palatine and King of Bohemia (August 16, 1596 -November 29, 1632) was, as the son and heir of Frederick IV, Elector Palatine, the Elector of the Rhine Palatinate in the Holy Roman Empire upon his fathers death in 1610. ...


Queen Anne died on 4 March 1619 at Hampton Court Palace and was buried at Westminster Abbey. Rumours were later spread that James was little moved by the death due to his supposed affections for George Villiers. The two met in 1614 and James is said to have nicknamed the young man "Steenie" and bestowed honour upon honour to him, ending with the dukedom of Buckingham in 1623. George Villiers was the first non-royal duke to be created for over a century. March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (64th in leap years). ... Events May 13 - Dutch statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt is executed in The Hague after having been accused of treason. ... The clock tower straddles the entrance between the inner and outer courts Hampton Court Palace is a former royal place on the north bank of the River Thames in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames about 12 miles (19 km) southwest and upstream of Central London, nowadays open to... George Villiers (August 28, 1592 - August 23, 1628) was the 1st Duke of Buckingham of the second creation (1623) of that title and a favourite of King James I of England and then of Charles I. He was born in Brooksby, Leicestershire, the son of the minor noble Sir George... Events April 5 - In Virginia, Native American Pocahontas marries English colonist John Rolfe. ... Events August 6 - Pope Urban VIII is elected to the Papacy. ...

James I wore the insignia of the Order of the Garter for the above portrait by Daniel Mytens (1621).

The third and penultimate Parliament of James's reign was summoned in 1621. The House of Commons agreed to grant James a small subsidy to signify their loyalty, but then, to the displeasure of the King, moved on to other matters. James's primary advisor, George Villiers, 1st Marquess of Buckingham (afterwards Duke of Buckingham), was attacked for his plan to have the Prince of Wales marry a Spanish Infanta. The practice of selling monopolies and other privileges was also deprecated. The House of Commons sought to impeach Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Albans, who was implicated in the sale of such privileges during his service as Lord Chancellor, on charges of corruption. The House of Lords convicted Lord St Albans, who was duly removed from office. Although the impeachment was the first in centuries, it occasioned no opposition from James, who believed that sacrificing Lord St Albans could help deflect his parliamentary opposition. In any event, James released Lord St Albans from prison and granted him a full pardon. Download high resolution version (800x1170, 197 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (800x1170, 197 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... A garter is one of the Orders most recognisable insignia. ... Events February 9 - Gregory XV is elected pope. ... In the Spanish and former Portuguese monarchies, Infante (masc. ... In economics, a monopoly (from the Greek monos, one + polein, to sell) is defined as a persistent market situation where there is only one provider of a kind of product or service. ... Sir Francis Bacon Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Albans (January 22, 1561 – April 9, 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, spy, freemason and essayist. ... The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor and in former times Chancellor of England, is one of the most senior and important functionaries in the government of the United Kingdom. ...


A new constitutional dispute arose shortly thereafter. James was eager to aid his son-in-law, the Elector-Palatine, and requested Parliament for a subsidy. The House of Commons, in turn, requested the King to abandon the alliance with Spain. When James declared that the lower House had overstepped its bounds by offering unsolicited advice, the House of Commons passed a protest claiming that it had the right to debate any matter relating to the welfare of the Kingdom. An angry James I ordered the protest torn out of the Commons Journal and dissolved Parliament.


In 1623, the Duke of Buckingham and the Prince of Wales travelled to Madrid in an attempt to secure a marriage between the latter and the daughter of the King of Spain. They were snubbed, however, by the Spanish courtiers, who demanded that the Prince of Wales convert to Roman Catholicism. They returned to England humiliated, and called for war with Spain. The Protestants backed them and James summoned Parliament, which granted some funding for the war. Parliament was prorogued, on the understanding that it would later return to grant more funds. Events August 6 - Pope Urban VIII is elected to the Papacy. ... Coat of arms The Plaza de España square Madrid, the capital of Spain, is located in the center of the country at 40°25′ N 3°45′ W. Population of the city of Madrid proper was 3,093,000 (Madrilenes, madrileños) as of 2003 estimates. ...


Parliament, however, never actually met when scheduled. The Prince of Wales had promised that, even if he would marry a Roman Catholic, he would not repeal political restrictions which applied to Roman Catholics. When, however, he agreed to marry the Catholic French Princess, Henrietta Maria, he reneged on his earlier promise and undertook to abolish the same religious qualifications. The Prince of Wales then ensured that Parliament did not actually meet, in order to avoid a confrontation over the diverging promises. Henrietta Maria Henrietta Maria (November 25, 1609 - September 10, 1669) was Queen Consort of England, Scotland and Ireland (June 13, 1625 - January 30, 1649) through her marriage to Charles I. The U.S. state of Maryland (in Latin, Terra Maria) was so named in her honour by Cæcilius Calvert...


James lapsed into senility during the last year of his reign. Real power passed to Charles, Prince of Wales and to the Duke of Buckingham, although James kept enough power to ensure that the prospected war did not happen while he was King. James died in 1625 of ague, probably brought upon by kidney failure and stroke, and was buried in the Henry VII Lady Chapel in Westminster Abbey. Charles, Prince of Wales succeeded him as Charles I. James had ruled in Scotland for almost sixty years; no English, Scottish or British monarch, with the exceptions of Victoria and George III, has surpassed his mark. Ague is an archaic term for fever. ... Renal failure is when the kidneys fail to function properly. ... A stroke or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) occurs when the blood supply to a part of the brain is suddenly interrupted by occlusion (an ischemic stroke- approximately 90%of strokes) or by hemorrhage (a hemorrhagic stroke - approximately 10% of strokes). ... The Henry VII Lady Chapel is a large chapel at the far eastern end of Westminster Abbey. ... The Abbey at night, from Deans Yard. ... Charles I (19 November 1600–30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625, until his death. ... Her Majesty Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom from 20 June 1837, and Empress of India from 1876 until her death. ... George III (George William Frederick) (4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain, and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until 1 January 1801, and thereafter King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death. ...


Homosexuality

One area of James I's life that for many years remained clouded in controversy were allegations that James was in fact homosexual. When James inherited the English Throne in 1603, it was openly joked in London that Rex fuit Elizabeth: nunc est regina Jacobus (Elizabeth was King: now James is Queen). Homosexuality may refer to: A sexual orientation characterized by aesthetic attraction, romantic love, and sexual desire exclusively or nearly exclusively for members of the same sex or with the same gender identity (e. ... Events March 24 - Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James VI of Scotland, uniting the crowns of Scotland and England April 28 – Funeral of Elizabeth I of England in Westminster Abbey July 17 or July 19 - Sir Walter Raleigh arrested for treason. ...


Those who support this claim point out that the King often lavished favours on male courtiers. Page-boy-turned-Earl of Somerset Robert Carr and royal-cupbearer-turned-Duke of Buckingham George Villiers, are often mentioned as examples. His close association as a teenager with Esmé Stuart, Seigneur d'Aubigny, Earl of Lennox was criticised by Scottish church leaders, who wished, for religious reasons, to keep the young King and the French courtier apart. Lennox, facing threats of death, was forced to leave Scotland. The Duke of Somerset is a title in the peerage of England that has been created several times. ... Robert Carr, Earl of Somerset (sometimes spelt Ker) (c. ... The titles Marquess and Duke of Buckingham have been created several times in the peerages of England, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom. ... George Villiers (August 28, 1592 - August 23, 1628) was the 1st Duke of Buckingham of the second creation (1623) of that title and a favourite of King James I of England and then of Charles I. He was born in Brooksby, Leicestershire, the son of the minor noble Sir George... Aubigny is the name of several communes in France: Aubigny, in the Allier département Aubigny, in the Calvados département Aubigny, in the Deux-Sèvres département Aubigny, in the Somme département Aubigny, in the Vendée département It is also part of the name of several communes: Aubigny-au-Bac, in the... The Peerage title of Earl of Lennox has been created six times in British history, becoming extinct every time. ... Courtiers follow an ancient profession. ...


Historians have debated the impact of James' favouritism on England and whether the choices were unwise; in particular, there is much disagreement over whether Buckingham's influence was positive or negative. At the time James' involvement with Buckingham, and the influence it brought, came to the attention of the Privy Council, who discussed it at length. The King defended his relationship in typical short style

Jesus had his John, and I have my George

Other historians, however, claim that allegations of the King's homosexuality are merely the products of rumours spread by Englishmen. Such historians point out that it was also claimed at the time that the King was a paedophile, that he drank excessively, and that he exuded foul odours. They also allege that these rumours may have been created by Englishmen who despised a Scottish monarch, or by those who lost their public offices to the King's Scottish advisors. The neutrality and accuracy of this article are disputed. ... John the Apostle (יוחנן The LORD is merciful, Standard Hebrew Yoḥanan, Tiberian Hebrew Yôḥānān) was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus. ... Pedophilia (American English) or paedophilia / pædophilia (British English), from the Greek παιδοφιλια (paidophilia) < παις (pais) boy, child and φιλια (philia) friendship, (ICD-10 F65. ...


Legacy

Almost immediately after James I's death, Charles I became embroiled in disputes with Parliament. The disputes escalated until the English Civil War began during the 1640s; the monarchy was overthrown, and a military dictatorship established. The Stuart dynasty, however, was later restored in 1660. Some historians blame James for the Civil War. However, the general view now is that Charles I was more responsible for the state of affairs in 1640 than his predecessor. Centuries: 16th century - 17th century - 18th century Decades: 1590s 1600s 1610s 1620s 1630s - 1640s - 1650s 1660s 1670s 1680s 1690s Years: 1640 1641 1642 1643 1644 1645 1646 1647 1648 1649 Events and Trends The personal union of the crowns of Spain and Portugal ends due to a revolution in the... Events Expulsion of the Carib indigenous people from Martinique by French occupying forces. ...


Style and arms

Formally, James was styled "James, King of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc." (The claim to the Throne of France, which had been maintained since the reign of Edward III, was merely nominal.) By a proclamation of 1604, James assumed the style "James, King of Great Brittaine, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc." for non-statutory use. The precise style of British Sovereigns has varied over the years. ... England was first unified as a state by Alfred the Great of Wessex. ... Scotland (Alba, Scotia) was first united as a state by Kenneth I in the 9th century. ... Defenders of the Faith. ... Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377) was one of the most successful English Kings of medieval times. ... Events January 14 – Hampton Court conference with James I of England, the Anglican bishops and representatives of Puritans September 20 - Capture of Ostend by Spanish forces under Ambrosio Spinola after a three year siege. ... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain...


James's arms, whilst he was King of England and Scotland, were: Quarterly, I and IV Grandquarterly, Azure three fleurs-de-lis Or (for France) and Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England); II Or a lion rampant within a tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); III Azure a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland). James also introduced the unicorn, a symbol of Scotland, as an heraldic supporter in his armorial achievement; the other supporter remained the English lion. Heraldry is the science and art of describing coats-of-arms, also referred to as achievements or armorial bearings. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831 377/km² Religion... Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: Alba) is a country in northwest Europe, occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain. ... The gentle and pensive virgin has the power to tame the unicorn, in this fresco in Palazzo Farnese, Rome, probably by Domenichino, ca 1602 The unicorn is a legendary creature shaped like a horse, but slender and with a single — usually spiral — horn growing out of its forehead. ... In heraldry, supporters are figures placed on either side of the shield and depicted holding it up. ... Binomial name Panthera leo (Linnaeus, 1758) The Lion (Panthera leo) is a mammal of the family Felidae. ...


Issue

Name Birth Death Notes
Henry, Prince of Wales 19 February 1594 6 November 1612  
Elizabeth Stuart 19 August 1596 13 February 1662 married 1613, Frederick V, Elector Palatine; had issue
Margaret Stuart 24 December 1598 March 1600  
HM King Charles I 19 November 1600 30 January 1649 married 1625, Henrietta Maria; had issue
Robert, Duke of Kintyre and Lorne 18 February 1602 27 May 1602  
Unnamed son May 1603 May 1603  
Mary Stuart 8 April 1605 16 December 1607  
Sophia Stuart 22 June 1606 28 June 1606  

For other people known as Henry, Prince of Wales see Henry, Prince of Wales (disambiguation) Henry Frederick Stuart, Prince of Wales ( February 19, 1594 - November 6, 1612) was the eldest son of King James VI of Scotland/ James I of England and Anne of Denmark. ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events February 27 - Henry IV is crowned King of France at Rheims. ... November 6 is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 55 days remaining. ... Events January 20 - Mathias becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ... Elizabeth of Bohemia Elizabeth of Bohemia (August 19, 1596 – February 13, 1662), born Princess Elizabeth Stuart, was daughter to King James VI of Scotland and his Queen consort Anne of Denmark. ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events February 5 - 26 catholics crucified in Nagasaki, Japan. ... February 13 is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events March 18 – Short-timed experiment of the first public buses holding 8 passengers begins in Paris May 3/May 2 - Catherine of Braganza marries Charles II of England – as part of the dowry, Portugal cedes Bombay and Tangier to England May 9 - Samuel Pepys witnessed a Punch and Judy... Events January - Galileo observes Neptune, but mistakes it for a star and so is not credited with its discovery. ... Frederick V, Elector Palatine Frederick V, Elector Palatine and King of Bohemia (August 16, 1596 -November 29, 1632) was, as the son and heir of Frederick IV, Elector Palatine, the Elector of the Rhine Palatinate in the Holy Roman Empire upon his fathers death in 1610. ... December 24 is the 358th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (359th in leap years). ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... For alternative meanings, see March (disambiguation). ... Events January January 1 - Scotland adopts January 1st as being New Years Day February February 17 - Giordano Bruno burned in a stake for heresy July July 2 - Battle of Nieuwpoort: Dutch forces under Maurice of Nassau defeat Spanish forces under Archduke Albert in a battle on the coastal dunes. ... Charles I (19 November 1600–30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625, until his death. ... November 19 is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events January January 1 - Scotland adopts January 1st as being New Years Day February February 17 - Giordano Bruno burned in a stake for heresy July July 2 - Battle of Nieuwpoort: Dutch forces under Maurice of Nassau defeat Spanish forces under Archduke Albert in a battle on the coastal dunes. ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... Events March 27 - Prince Charles Stuart becomes King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... Henrietta Maria Henrietta Maria (November 25, 1609 - September 10, 1669) was Queen Consort of England, Scotland and Ireland (June 13, 1625 - January 30, 1649) through her marriage to Charles I. The U.S. state of Maryland (in Latin, Terra Maria) was so named in her honour by Cæcilius Calvert... Robert Bruce Stuart, Duke of Kintyre (18 January 1602—27 May 1602) was the fifth child of King James I of England and Anne of Denmark. ... February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events February 14 - William Shakespeare First performance of Twelfth Night on Candlemas March 20 - The Dutch East India Company is established as The United East India Company by the Dutch States-General May 15 - Bartolomew Gosnold becomes the first European to discover Cape Cod. ... May 27 is the 147th day (148th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 218 days remaining. ... Events February 14 - William Shakespeare First performance of Twelfth Night on Candlemas March 20 - The Dutch East India Company is established as The United East India Company by the Dutch States-General May 15 - Bartolomew Gosnold becomes the first European to discover Cape Cod. ... This article is about the month of May. ... Events March 24 - Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James VI of Scotland, uniting the crowns of Scotland and England April 28 – Funeral of Elizabeth I of England in Westminster Abbey July 17 or July 19 - Sir Walter Raleigh arrested for treason. ... This article is about the month of May. ... Events March 24 - Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James VI of Scotland, uniting the crowns of Scotland and England April 28 – Funeral of Elizabeth I of England in Westminster Abbey July 17 or July 19 - Sir Walter Raleigh arrested for treason. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (99th in leap years). ... Events April 13 - Tsar Boris Godunow dies - Feodor II accedes to the throne May 16 - Paul V becomes Pope June 1 - Russian troops in Moscow imprison Feodor II and his mother. ... December 16 is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events January 20 - Tidal wave swept along the Bristol Channel, killing 2000 people. ... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... Events January 27 - The trial of Guy Fawkes and other conspirators begins ending in their execution on January 31 May 17 - Supporters of Vasili Shusky invade the Kremlin and kill pretender Dmitri December 26 - Shakespeares King Lear performed in court Storm buries a village of St Ismails near... (Some entries on this page have been duplicated on August 1. ... Events January 27 - The trial of Guy Fawkes and other conspirators begins ending in their execution on January 31 May 17 - Supporters of Vasili Shusky invade the Kremlin and kill pretender Dmitri December 26 - Shakespeares King Lear performed in court Storm buries a village of St Ismails near...

References

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Wikiquote quotations related to:
James I of England
  • Chambers, Robert. (1856). Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen. "James VI." London: Blackie and Son. (http://www.electricscotland.com/history/other/james6.htm)
  • The descendents of James I & VI of England & Scotland. (http://www.richhillsoftware.com/dave/genealogy)
  • Fraser, Antonia. (1974). King James VI of Scotland and James I of England London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
  • Lee, Maurice. (1990). England's Solomon: James VI and I in his Three Kingdoms Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
  • Williamson, D. (1998). The Kings and Queens of England. New York: National Portrait Gallery.


File links The following pages link to this file: Charles Farrar Browne Definitions of music Edmund Spenser Floccinaucinihilipilification Main Page James Cagney Plautus Rosencrantz & Guildenstern are Dead Thomas J. Watson William Penn Pericles Hyman G. Rickover Julian of Norwich Wikipedia:About Eric Gill Main Page/Temp Virginia Satir Raymond Williams... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... 1974 is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). ... 1990 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1998 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ...

Preceded by:
Elizabeth I
King of England
1603-1625
Succeeded by:
Charles I
King of Ireland
1603-1625
Preceded by:
Mary I
King of Scots
1567-1625


Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... Charles I (19 November 1600–30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625, until his death. ... Henry VIII, became the first King of Ireland in 1541. ... Mary I of Scotland (Mary Stuart or Stewart) (December 8, 1542 – February 8, 1587), better known as Mary, Queen of Scots, was the ruler of Scotland from December 14, 1542 – July 24, 1567. ... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
James I of England: Biography and Much More from Answers.com (6014 words)
King of England (1603–1625) and of Scotland as James VI (1567–1625).
James I, 1566–1625, king of England (1603–25) and, as James VI, of Scotland (1567–1625).
King of Scots, King of England, and King of Ireland
James I of England Summary (407 words)
James I (1394-1437) was king of Scotland from 1406 to 1437.
James I (1566-1625) reigned as king of England from 1603 to 1625.
James I of England: James VI and I King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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