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Encyclopedia > King Arthur
A bronze Arthur plate armour with visor raised and with jousting shield wearing Kastenbrust armour (early 15th century) by Peter Vischer, typical of later anachronistic depictions of Arthur
A bronze Arthur plate armour with visor raised and with jousting shield wearing Kastenbrust armour (early 15th century) by Peter Vischer, typical of later anachronistic depictions of Arthur

King Arthur is a fabled British leader and a prominent figure in Britain's legendary history. A real individual may have been the inspiration of the legend, but any core of history is deeply submerged in the later fictional narratives of Arthur. In these he appears as the ideal of kingship both in war and peace; even in modern times he has been ranked as one of the 100 Greatest Britons of all time. Over time, the stories of King Arthur have captured such widespread interest that he is no longer identified as the legendary hero of a single nation. Countless new legends, stories, revisions, books, and films have been produced in Europe and the United States that unabashedly enlarge on and expand the fictional accounts of King Arthur. King Arthur is a legendary king of Britain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Artus2. ... Peter Vischer may refer to one of several people: Peter Vischer the Elder, a German sculptor Peter Vischer the Younger, a German sculptor This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... // In 2002, the BBC conducted a vote to determine whom the general public considers the 100 Greatest Britons of all time. ...


The scarce historical background to Arthur is found in the works of Nennius and Gildas and in the Annales Cambriae. The legendary Arthur developed initially through the pseudo-history of Geoffrey of Monmouth and the Welsh collection of anonymous tales known as the Mabinogion. Chrétien de Troyes began the literary tradition of Arthurian romance, which subsequently became one of the principal themes of medieval literature. Medieval Arthurian writing reached its conclusion in Thomas Mallory's comprehensive Morte D'Arthur, published in 1485. Modern interest in Arthur was revived by Alfred Tennyson in Idylls of the King, and in the paintings of the Pre-Raphaelites. Key modern reworkings of the Arthurian legends include Mark Twain's A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court, T.H. White's The Once and Future King and Richard Wagner's opera Parsifal. Nennius, or Nemnivus, is the name of two shadowy personages traditionally associated with the history of Wales. ... Gildas (c. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Welsh_Annals Annales Cambriae: page view from MS. A Annales Cambriae, or The Annals of Wales, is the name given to a complex of Cambro-Latin chronicles deriving ultimately from a text compiled from diverse sources at St Davids in Dyfed, Wales, not... Geoffrey of Monmouth (in Welsh: Gruffudd ap Arthur or Sieffre o Fynwy) (c. ... The Mabinogion is a collection of prose stories from medieval Welsh manuscripts. ... Chrétien de Troyes was a French poet and trouvère who flourished in the late 12th century. ... Sir Thomas Malory (c. ... Le Morte dArthur (The Death of Arthur)—the title is actually spelled as Le Morte Darthur in the first printing and also in some modern editions—is Sir Thomas Malorys compilation of some French and English Arthurian romances. ... Alfred, Lord Tennyson Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson (6 August 1809 – 6 October 1892) was Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom and is one of the most popular English poets. ... The Idylls of the King (1856 - 1885) are a cycle of poems by Alfred, Lord Tennyson that express the legend of King Arthur in terms of the psychology and concerns of nineteenth-century England. ... Persephone, by Dante Gabriel Rossetti. ... Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humanist,[2] humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthurs Court is an 1889 novel by American humorist and writer Mark Twain. ... Terence Hanbury White (May 29, 1906 - January 17, 1964) was a writer. ... The Once and Future King is an Arthurian fantasy novel written by T.H. White. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... Parsifal is an opera, or music drama, in three acts by Richard Wagner. ...


The central themes of the Arthurian cycle vary depending on which texts are examined. However, they include the establishment of Arthur as king through the sword in the stone episode, the advice of the wizard Merlin, the establishment of the fellowship of knights known as the Round Table and the associated code of chivalry, the defence of Britain against the Saxons, numerous magical adventures associated with particular knights, notably Kay, Gawain, Lancelot, Percival and Galahad, the enmity of Arthur's half-sister Morgan le Fay, the quest for the Holy Grail, the adultery of Lancelot and Arthur's Queen Guinevere, the final battle with Mordred, and the legend of Arthur's future return. The magical sword Excalibur, the castle Camelot and the Lady of the Lake also play pivotal roles. For other uses, see Merlin (disambiguation). ... King Arthur presides the Round Table. ... Bors Dilemma - he chooses to save a maiden rather than his brother Lionel Chivalry[1] is a term related to the medieval institution of knighthood. ... For other uses, see Saxon (disambiguation). ... Sir Kay, son of Sir Ector, was one of the Knights of the Round Table and King Arthurs foster brother. ... Sir Gawain and the Green Knight Gawain (Gwalchmei, Gawan, Gauvain, Walewein etc. ... For other uses, see Lancelot (disambiguation) and Sir Lancelot (disambiguation). ... Percival or Perceval is one of King Arthurs legendary Knights of the Round Table. ... For other uses, see Galahad (disambiguation). ... Morgan le Fay, by Anthony Frederick Sandys (1829 - 1904), 1864 (Birmingham Art Gallery): A spell-brewing Morgaine distinctly of Tennysons generation Morgan le Fay, alternatively known as Morgaine, Morgain, Morgana and other variants, is a powerful sorceress and sometime antagonist of King Arthur and Guinevere in the Arthurian legend. ... For other uses, see Holy Grail (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lancelot (disambiguation) and Sir Lancelot (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Guinevere (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mordred (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Excalibur (disambiguation). ... This article is about the mythical castle. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

Historicity

Main article: Historical basis for King Arthur

The historicity of the King Arthur legend has long been debated by scholars, but a consensus has been reached over the years that King Arthur was in fact fictional. One school of thought, based on references in the Historia Brittonum and Annales Cambriae, would see Arthur as a shadowy historical figure, a Romano-British leader fighting against the invading Anglo-Saxons sometime in the late 5th to early 6th century. The Historia Brittonum ("History of the Britons"), a 9th century Latin historical compilation attributed to the Welsh cleric Nennius, gives a list of twelve battles fought by Arthur, culminating in the Battle of Mons Badonicus, where he is said to have single-handedly killed 960 men. The 10th century Annales Cambriae ("Welsh Annals"), dates this battle to 516, and also mentions the Battle of Camlann, in which Arthur and Medraut were both killed, dated to 537. Neither text refers to Arthur as a king, although this may not be significant as they often name kings without mentioning their title. The Historia Brittonum calls him dux bellorum or "dux (commander) of battles".[1] The late historian John Morris went so far as to make the putative reign of Arthur at the turn of the 5th century the organising principle of his history of sub-Roman Britain and Ireland, The Age of Arthur. Even so, he found little to say of an historic Arthur, save as an example of the idea of kingship, one among such contemporaries as Vortigern, Cunedda, Hengest and Coel. Morris argues that Arthur's power base would have been in the Celtic areas of Wales, Cornwall and the West Country, or the Brythonic "Old North" which covered modern Northern England and Southern Scotland.[2] The historical basis of King Arthur is a source of considerable debate among historians. ... The Historia Britonum, or The History of the Britons, is a historical work that was first written sometime shortly after AD 820, and exists in several recensions of varying difference. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Welsh_Annals Annales Cambriae: page view from MS. A Annales Cambriae, or The Annals of Wales, is the name given to a complex of Cambro-Latin chronicles deriving ultimately from a text compiled from diverse sources at St Davids in Dyfed, Wales, not... Romano-British is a term used to refer to the Romanized Britons under the Roman Empire (and later the Western Roman Empire) and in the years after the Roman departure exposed to Roman culture and Christian religion. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... Nennius, or Nemnivus, is the name of two shadowy personages traditionally associated with the history of Wales. ... Britain, c. ... Commanders King Arthur † Mordred † How Mordred was Slain by Arthur, and How by Him Arthur was Hurt to the Death, by Arthur Rackham “Camlann” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Mordred (disambiguation). ... Dux Bellorum (Duke of Battles) was a Roman military title awarded by the Emperor to great Roman generals. ... The Misspeling of Ducks ... Dr. John Morris was the late 20th century Senior Lecturer in Ancient History at University College, London. ... Sub-Roman Britain is a term derived from an archaeologists label for the material culture of Britain in Late Antiquity. ... Vortigern (also spelled Vortiger and Vortigen, and in Welsh Gwrtheyrn), was a 5th century warlord in Britain, a leading ruler among the Britons (Brythons). ... Cunedda ap Edern (AD 386-460; reigned from the 440s or 450s) (Latin: Cunetacius; English: Kenneth), also known as as Cunedda Wledig (the Imperator), was an important early Welsh leader, and the progenitor of the royal dynasty of Gwynedd. ... Hengest or Hengist (d. ... Old King Cole, according to William Wallace Denslow For other uses of King Cole, see King Cole (disambiguation). ... This article is about the European people. ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... The West Country is an informal term for the area of south-western England roughly corresponding to the modern South West England government region. ... Brython and Brythonic are terms which refer to indigenous, pre-Roman, Celtic speaking inhabitants of most of the island of Great Britain, and their cultures and languages, the Brythonic languages. ... Yr Hen Ogledd or The Old North. Part of northern Britain before the Anglo-Gaelic conquest The Hen Ogledd, or Yr Hen Ogledd, is an Old Welsh term meaning The Old North which refers to the sub-Roman Brythonic kingdoms of what is now northern England and southern Scotland. ... The north, the midlands and the south Northern England, The North or North of England is a rather ill-defined term, with no universally accepted definition. ... This article is about the country. ...


Another school of thought argues that Arthur had no historical existence. Nowell Myres was prompted by the publication of Morris's Age of Arthur to write "no figure on the borderline of history and mythology has wasted more of the historian's time".[3] Gildas' 6th century polemic De Excidio Britanniae ("On the Ruin of Britain"), written within living memory of the Battle of Mons Badonicus, mentions that battle but does not mention Arthur.[4] Some argue that he was originally a half-forgotten Celtic deity that devolved into a personage, citing parallels with the supposed change of the sea-god Lir into King Lear, the Kentish totemic horse-gods Hengest and Horsa, who were historicised by the time of Bede's account and given an important role in the 5th century Anglo-Saxon conquest of eastern Britain, the founder-figure of Caer-fyrddin, Merlin (Welsh Myrddin), or the Norse demigod Sigurd or Siegfried, who was historicised in the Nibelungenlied by associating him with a famous historical 5th century battle between Huns and the Burgundians.[5] Some cite a possible etymology of Arthur's name from Welsh arth, "bear", and propose the Gaulish bear god Artio as a precedent for the legend, although worship of Artio is not attested in Britain.[citation needed] John Nowell Linton Myres CBE (27 December 1902 - 25 September 1989) was a British archaeologist and Bodleys Librarian at the Bodleian Library in Oxford from 1948 until his resignation in 1965; and librarian of Christ Church before then. ... Gildas (c. ... Celtic mythology is the mythology of Celtic polytheism, apparently the religion of the Iron Age Celts. ... This article is about the body of water. ... In Celtic mythology, Lir (the sea) was the god of the sea, father of Manannan mac Lir, Bran, Branwen and Manawydan by Penarddun and a son of Danu and Beli. ... Leir was a legendary king of the Britons as accounted by Geoffrey of Monmouth. ... The Kingdom of Kent was a kingdom of Jutes in southeast England and was one of the seven traditional kingdoms of the so-called Anglo-Saxon heptarchy. ... A totem is any entity which watches over or assists a group of people, such as a family, clan or tribe (Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary [1] and Websters New World College Dictionary, Fourth Edition). ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Hengest or Hengist (d. ... Horsa, according to tradition, was a fifth century warrior and brother of Hengest who took part in the invasion and conquest of Britain from its native Romano-British and Celtic inhabitants. ... For other uses, see Bede (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... Carmarthen (Welsh : Caerfyrddin) is the county town of Carmarthenshire, Wales. ... For other uses, see Merlin (disambiguation). ... Norseman redirects here; for the town of the same name see Norseman, Western Australia. ... Sigurd sculpture in Bremen Sigurd (Old Norse: Sigurðr, German: Siegfried) was a legendary hero of Norse mythology, as well as the central character in the Völsunga saga. ... Siegfried could refer to: The opera by Richard Wagner; see Siegfried (opera). ... The Nibelungenlied, translated as The Song of the Nibelungs, is an epic poem in Middle High German. ... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Etymologies redirects here. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... In Celtic mythology, (specifically known from Switzerland), Artio was a goddess of wildlife, specifically the bear, and was worshipped at Berne, which actually means bear. She was often called Artio of Muri. ...


Historical documents for the period are scarce, so a definitive answer to this question is unlikely. Sites and places have been identified as "Arthurian" since the 12th century,[6] but archaeology can reveal names only through inscriptions. The so-called "Arthur stone" discovered in 1998 in securely dated 6th century contexts among the ruins at Tintagel Castle in Cornwall, a secular, high status settlement of Sub-Roman Britain, created a brief stir.[7] There is no other archaeological evidence for Arthur. The following is a list and assessment of sites and places associated with King Arthur and the Arthurian legend in general. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... The Arthur stone was discovered in 1998 in 6th Century ruins at Tintagel Castle in Cornwall, England. ... Overlooking the ruins of Tintagel Castle. ...


A number of identifiable historical figures have been suggested as the historical basis for Arthur, ranging from Lucius Artorius Castus, a Roman officer who served in Britain in the 2nd century; Roman usurper emperors like Magnus Maximus; and sub-Roman British rulers like Riothamus, Ambrosius Aurelianus,[5] Owain Ddantgwyn[6] and Athrwys ap Meurig.[6] Lucius Artorius Castus (fl. ... An officer is a member of a military, naval, or if applicable, other uniformed services who holds a position of responsibility. ... Magnus Maximus. ... Riothamus (also spelled Riotimus, Rigothamus, Rigotamos), was a military leader and considered King of the Brittones (c. ... Ambrosius Aurelianus, called Aurelius Ambrosius in the Historia Regum Britanniae and elsewhere, was a war leader of the Romano-British who won an important battle against the Anglo-Saxons in the 5th century, according to Gildas. ... Owain Ddantgwyn is the popularly recognised form of the name of a prince of North Wales, probably a King of Rhos in the late 5th century. ... Athrwys (sometimes misspelled as Arthwys) was a prince, possibly a king, from Gwent in Wales, who is generally accepted as having lived in the early 7th century. ...


Arthur's name

The origin of the name Arthur is itself a matter of debate. Some suggest it is derived from the Latin family name Artorius, meaning "ploughman" (the variant "Arturius" is known from inscriptions).[citation needed] Others propose a derivation from Welsh arth (earlier art), meaning "bear", suggesting art-ur, "bear-man", is the original form. Arthur's name appears as Arturus in early Latin Arthurian texts, never as Artorius, although it is possible that Vulgar Latin forms of Artorius, pronounced in Celtic languages, could have yielded both Arthur and Arturus.[citation needed] Look up Arthur in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Artorius was a Roman gens (gens Artoria). ... Vulgar Latin, as in this political graffito at Pompeii, was the speech of ordinary people of the Roman Empire — different from the classical Latin used by the Roman elite. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ...


Toby D. Griffen of Southern Illinois University links the name Arthur to Arcturus, the brightest star in the constellation Boötes, near Ursa Major or the Great Bear. The Classical Latin Arcturus would have become Arturus in Vulgar Latin, and its brightness and position in the sky led people to regard it as the "guardian of the bear" and the "leader" of the other stars in Boötes. Griffin suggests that "Arthur" was not a personal name, but a nom de guerre or an epithet borne by the man who led the Britons against the Saxons, which both Latin and Brythonic-speakers would associate with leadership and bear-like ferocity.[8] A variant of the nom de guerre theory has the name combining the Welsh and Latin words for "bear", art and ursus.[9] The name Arthur and its variants were used as personal names by at least four leaders who lived after the traditional dates of Arthur’s battles, suggesting to Griffen and others that it only began to be used as a personal name after "the" Arthur made it famous. For other uses, see Arcturus (disambiguation). ... Boötes (IPA: Greek: herdsman) is one of the 88 modern constellations and was also one of the 48 constellations listed by Ptolemy. ... This article is about the constellation. ... Classical Latin is the language used by the principal exponents of that language in what is usually regarded as classical Latin literature. ... A pseudonym or allonym is a name (sometimes legally adopted, sometimes purely fictitious) used by an individual as an alternative to their birth name. ... Look up epithet in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Literary traditions

The historical sources for Arthur have been discussed above. The creator of the familiar literary persona of Arthur was Geoffrey of Monmouth, with his pseudohistorical Historia Regum Britanniae ("History of the Kings of Britain"), written in the 1130s. All the textual sources for Arthur are divided into those that preceded Geoffrey and those that followed him, and could not avoid his influence. Geoffrey of Monmouth (in Welsh: Gruffudd ap Arthur or Sieffre o Fynwy) (c. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: History of the Kings of Britain Geoffrey of Monmouths Historia Regum Britanniae (English: The History of the Kings of Britain) is a pseudohistorical account of British history, written around 1136. ...


Pre-Galfridian traditions

The earliest literary references to Arthur are found in Welsh poetry. He is mentioned briefly in the late 6th century Welsh poem cycle The Gododdin, attributed to the poet Aneirin. In one verse, the bravery of one of the warriors is described, "though he was not Arthur".[10] The poems are known only from a manuscript of the 13th century, so it is impossible to determine whether this passage is original or a later interpolation. Several poems attributed to Taliesin, a poet said to have lived in the 6th century, refer to Arthur, including The Chair of the Sovereign, which refers to "Arthur the Blessed",[11] The Treasures of Annwn, which recounts an expedition of Arthur to the Otherworld,[12] and Journey to Deganwy, which contains the passage, "as at the battle of Badon, with Arthur, chief holder of feasts, his tall blades red from the battle all men remember".[citation needed] Y Gododdin (The Gododdin), attributed to the 7th century poet Aneirin, is a series of 99 elegies to the men of the kingdom of Gododdin in north-eastern Britain who fell in the battle of Catraeth, thought to be Catterick in North Yorkshire, against the Angles, ca. ... Aneirin, Aneurin or Neirin mab Dwywei (c. ... Taliesin or Taliessin (c. ... Preiddeu Annwfn (English: The Spoils of Annwfn) is a short, enigmatic poem found in the Welsh Book of Taliesin. ... Deganwy is a small town in the county borough of Conwy. ...


Arthur appears in a number of well known vitae ("Lives") of 6th century saints, most of them written at the monastery of Llancarfan in the 12th century. In the Life of Saint Illtud, apparently written around 1140,[citation needed] Arthur is said to be a cousin of that churchman. According to the Life of Saint Gildas, written in the 11th century by Caradoc of Llancarfan, Arthur killed Gildas' brother Hueil, a pirate on the Isle of Man. In the Life of Saint Cadoc, written around 1100 by Lifris of Llancarfan, the saint gives protection to a man who killed three of Arthur's soldiers, and Arthur demands a herd of cattle as wergeld for his men. Cadoc delivers them as demanded, but when Arthur takes possession of the animals, they transform into bundles of ferns. Similar incidents are described in the late medieval biographies of Carannog, Padern, Goeznovius, and Efflam. For other uses, see Saint (disambiguation). ... Llancarfan is located several miles across the vale from Barry Llancarfan is a village, west of Barry near Cowbridge, north-west of Rhoose, up a bit from Llancadle and a million years behind Llanbethery, in the Vale of Glamorgan, in south Wales. ... Illtud (Illtyd, Eltut, Hildutus) (d. ... Gildas (c. ... Caradoc of Llancarfan, a monk at the monastery of Llancarfan, was the author of a largely fictional Life of Gildas in Latin. ... Look up pirate and piracy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the Cornish king of the same name see King Cadoc Saint Cadoc or Cadog, Abbot of Llancarfan, was one of the 6th century Welsh saints whose life touched King Arthur. ... Weregild (Alternative spellings: wergild, wergeld, weregeld, etc. ...


An early Welsh poem found in the Black Book of Carmarthen, Pa gur yv y porthaur? ("What man is the gatekeeper?"), takes the form of a dialogue between Arthur and the gatekeeper of a castle he wishes to enter, in which Arthur recounts the deeds of his men, notably Cai and Bedwyr. The 10th century Welsh prose tale Culhwch and Olwen, included in the modern Mabinogion collection, includes a list of more than 200 of Arthur's men, Cai and Bedwyr included, and tells of Arthur helping his kinsman Culhwch win the hand of Olwen, daughter of Ysbaddaden the giant, by completing a series of apparently impossible tasks, including the hunt for the great boar Twrch Trwyth. The Historia Brittonum mentions Arthur hunting a boar named Troynt. This may be related to a post-Galfridian tradition of Arthur as leader of the Wild Hunt, first mentioned in the 13th century by Gervase of Tilbury.[13] The Black Book of Carmarthen (Welsh: Llyfr Du Caerfyrddin) is one of the earliest surviving manuscripts written entirely in Welsh. ... Sir Kay, son of Sir Ector, was one of the Knights of the Round Table and King Arthurs foster brother. ... In the tales of King Arthur, Sir Bedivere (born c. ... Culhwch and Olwen (Welsh: Culhwch ac Olwen) is a Welsh tale about a hero connected with Arthur and his warriors that survives in only two manuscripts: a complete version in the Red Book of Hergest, ca. ... The Mabinogion is a collection of prose stories from medieval Welsh manuscripts. ... In Welsh mythology, Culhwch (pronounced Kilhooch, the ch sound being the same as the Scottish Loch) was a hero who rescued Mabon from Annwn. ... In Welsh mythology, Olwen (white track) was a daughter of Ysbaddaden. ... In Welsh mythology, Ysbaddaden was the father of Olwen. ... Twrch Trwyth is the name of the creature Culhwch is instructed to hunt in the Middle Welsh prose tale Culhwch and Olwen. ... The wild hunt: Åsgårdsreien (1872) by Peter Nicolai Arbo The Wild Hunt was a folk myth prevalent in former times across Northern Scandinavia, Germany and Britain. ... Gervase of Tilbury (-c. ...


The Welsh Triads contain a number of traditions of Arthur. Many are derived from Geoffrey of Monmouth and later European traditions (see below), but some are independent of these and may refer to pre-existing Welsh traditions. His court is placed at Celliwig in Cornwall, identified with Callington by the Cornish antiquarians, but Rachel Bromwich, latest editor and translator of the The Welsh Triads, identifies it with Kelly Rounds, a hill fort in the parish of Egloshayle.[14] The Welsh Triads (Welsh, Trioedd Ynys Prydein) is used to describe any of the related Medieval collection of groupings of three that preserve a major portion of Welsh folklore and Welsh literature. ... Celliwig or Kelliwic, is perhaps the earliest named location for the court of King Arthur. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... , Callington (Cornish: ) is a small town and civil parish in southeast Cornwall, UK. The civil parish had a population of 4,783 in 2001, according to the 2001 census, although recent figures show that the population has risen to around 6000. ... An antiquarian or antiquary is one concerned with antiquities or things of the past. ... Rachel Bromwich (born 1915) is a British scholar. ... Mentioned by Craig Weatherhill, in Cornovia: Ancient Sites of Cornwall & Scilly (Cornwall Books - 1985, revised 1997 & 2000) – Kelly Rounds, or Castle Killibury, is a bivallate Iron Age hill fort 230m in diameter. ... A hill fort is a fortified refuge or defended settlement, located to exploit a rise in elevation for military advantage. ... Egloshayle (eglos meaning church and heyl meaning estuary in Cornish) is a small village situated near the banks of the River Camel near Wadebridge in North Cornwall, England. ...


Bewnans Ke, a play in Middle Cornish held by the National Library of Wales, is a recent Arthurian discovery. Bewnans Ke is an Arthurian play, the first addition to the corpus of literature in Middle Cornish since the discovery of John Tregear’s Homilies in 1949. ... For the Cornish-English dialect, see West Country dialects. ... The front of the building The National Library of Wales (Welsh: Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru) is the national legal deposit library of Wales, located in Aberystwyth. ...


Geoffrey of Monmouth

The first narrative account of Arthur's reign is found in Geoffrey of Monmouth's 12th century Latin work Historia Regum Britanniae ("History of the Kings of Britain"), an imaginative and fanciful account of British kings from the legendary Trojan exile Brutus to the 7th century Welsh prince Cadwallader. Geoffrey places Arthur in the same post-Roman period as the Historia Brittonum and Annales Cambriae. He introduces Arthur's father, Uther Pendragon, and his magician advisor Merlin, and the story of Arthur's conception, in which Uther, disguised as his enemy Gorlois by Merlin's magic, fathers Arthur on Gorlois' wife Igerna at Tintagel. On Uther's death, the fifteen-year-old Arthur succeeds him as king and fights a series of battles, similar to those in the Historia Brittonum, culminating in the Battle of Bath, and then defeats the Picts and Scots, conquers Ireland, Iceland, Norway, Denmark and Gaul, and ushers in a period of peace and prosperity which lasts until the Roman emperor Lucius Tiberius demands tribute. Arthur refuses, and war follows. Arthur and his warriors, including Caius, Bedver and Walganus, defeat Lucius in Gaul, but as he prepares to march on Rome, Arthur hears news that his nephew Modredus, whom he had left in charge of Britain, has married his wife Guanhumara and seized the throne. Arthur returns to Britain and defeats and kills Modredus on the river Camblam in Cornwall, but is mortally wounded. He hands the crown to his kinsman Constantine, and is taken to the isle of Avalon to be healed of his wounds, never to be seen again.[15] Geoffrey of Monmouth (in Welsh: Gruffudd ap Arthur or Sieffre o Fynwy) (c. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: History of the Kings of Britain Geoffrey of Monmouths Historia Regum Britanniae (English: The History of the Kings of Britain) is a pseudohistorical account of British history, written around 1136. ... Brutus of Troy or Brutus I of the Britons (Welsh: Bryttys), according to the accounts of the early Welsh historians Nennius and Geoffrey of Monmouth, was the first king of the Britons. ... Cadwaladr ap Cadwallon (c. ... Uther Pendragon (French: Uter Pendragon; Welsh: Wthyr Bendragon, Uthr Bendragon, Uthyr Pendraeg) is a legendary king of sub-Roman Britain and the father of King Arthur. ... For other uses, see Merlin (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Remains of Tintagel Castle Tintagel (pronounced with the stress on the second syllable; Cornish: Dintagell) is a village situated on the Atlantic coast of Cornwall, in England, UK. The village and nearby Tintagel Castle are associated with the legends surrounding King Arthur and the knights of the Round Table. ... For the ancient tribe that inhabited what is now Scotland, see the Picts. ... Scoti or Scotti (Old Irish Scot, modern Scottish Gaelic Sgaothaich) was the generic name given by the Romans to Gaelic raiders from Ireland. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... Lucius Tiberius (sometimes Lucius Hiberius, or just simply Lucius) is a fictional Roman Emperor from Arthurian legend appearing first in Geoffrey of Monmouths Historia Regum Britanniae. ... Sir Kay, son of Sir Ector, was one of the Knights of the Round Table and King Arthurs foster brother. ... In the tales of King Arthur, Sir Bedivere (born c. ... Sir Gawain and the Green Knight Gawain (Gwalchmei, Gawan, Gauvain, Walewein etc. ... For other uses, see Mordred (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Guinevere (disambiguation). ... Constantine III was a legendary king of the Britons as accounted by Geoffrey of Monmouth. ... For other uses, see Avalon (disambiguation). ...


Geoffrey's Historia became very popular and influential, and was translated into Norman French verse by Wace, who introduced the Round Table, and Middle English verse by Layamon. It fed back into Welsh tradition, with three different Welsh prose translations appearing, and material in the Welsh triads deriving from it. Wace (c. ... King Arthur presides the Round Table. ... Layamon, or Laȝamon (using the archaic letter yogh), was a poet of the early 13th century, whose Brut (c. ...


Arthurian romance

The popularity of Geoffrey's Historia and its derivative works led to new Arthurian works being written in continental Europe, particularly in France, in the late 12th and early 13th centuries. Arthur and his retinue appear in some of the Lais of Marie de France, but it was the work of another French poet, Chrétien de Troyes, that had the greatest influence. Chrétien wrote five Arthurian romances between 1170 and 1190. Erec and Enide and Cligès are tales of courtly love with Arthur's court as their backdop, and Yvain, the Knight of the Lion features Yvain and Gawain in a supernatural adventure, but the most significant for the development of the legend are Lancelot, the Knight of the Cart, which introduces Lancelot, one of the most familiar of Arthur's knights, and his adulterous relationship with Arthur's queen, Guinevere, and Perceval, the Story of the Grail, which introduces the Holy Grail and the Fisher King. Perceval, although unfinished, was particularly popular, and four separate continuations of the poem appeared over the next half a century. The Lais of Marie de France are a series of twelve short narrative poems in Anglo-Norman, generally focused on glorifying the concepts of courtly love through the adventures of their main characters. ... Marie de France from an illuminated manuscript Marie de France (Mary of France) was a poet evidently born in France and living in England during the late 12th century. ... Chrétien de Troyes was a French poet and trouvère who flourished in the late 12th century. ... As a literary genre, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. ... Erec and Enide (French: Erec et Enid) is Chrétien de Troyess first romance, completed around 1170. ... Cligès is a poem by the medieval French poet Chrétien de Troyes, dating from around 1176. ... Yvain rescues the lion Yvain, the Knight of the Lion (French: Yvain, le Chevalier au Lion) is a romance by Chrétien de Troyes. ... Sir Yvain is the name of several of King Arthurs knights of the Round Table, the most famous of which are the brothers: Sir Yvain, and Sir Yvain the Bastard There is also Chrétien de Troyes romance Yvain, the Knight of the Lion, about the first of the... Sir Gawain and the Green Knight Gawain (Gwalchmei, Gawan, Gauvain, Walewein etc. ... Lancelot, the Knight of the Cart (French: Lancelot, le Chevalier de la Charrette) is an Old French poem by Chrétien de Troyes. ... For other uses, see Lancelot (disambiguation) and Sir Lancelot (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Guinevere (disambiguation). ... Perceval, the Story of the Grail (French:Perceval, le Conte du Graal) is the unfinished fifth romance of Chrétien de Troyes. ... For other uses, see Holy Grail (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Fisher King from Arthurian legend. ...


In Chrétien's Perceval it is not clear exactly what the Grail is. A few decades later Robert de Boron's poem Joseph d'Arimathe explains that the Grail is the cup used by Joseph of Arimathea to catch Christ's blood during the crucifixion, later brought to Britain by Joseph's family. Robert's work had lasting effect on subsequent stories of the Grail. By contrast, in Wolfram von Eschenbach's Parzival, a Middle High German version of the story, the Grail is a magical stone. Robert de Boron (also spelled in the manuscripts Bouron, Beron) was a French poet of the late 12th and early 13th centuries, originally from the village of Boron, in the arrondissement of Montbéliard. ... Joseph of Arimathea by Pietro Perugino. ... Portrait of Wolfram from the Codex Manesse. ... Parzival is one of the two great epic poems in Middle High German. ... Middle High German (MHG, German Mittelhochdeutsch) is the term used for the period in the history of the German language between 1050 and 1350. ...


A German poet, Ulrich von Zatzikhoven, further developed Lancelot's story in his Lanzelet, which introduces the Lady of the Lake. The Anglo-Norman poet Thomas of Britain and the Norman poet Béroul introduced the story of Tristan and Iseult in the late 12th century, later developed in Middle High German by Gottfried von Strassburg. Lanzelet is a medieval romance written by Ulrich von Zatzikhoven sometime after 1194. ... Lanzelet is a medieval romance written by Ulrich von Zatzikhoven sometime after 1194. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Thomas of Britain is an Anglo-Norman poet of the 12th century. ... Béroul is a juggler and storyteller of trade (trouvere) Norman of XIIe century. ... For other uses, see Tristan and Iseult (disambiguation). ... Gottfried von Strassburg, was one of the chief German poets of the middle ages. ...


The Welsh Mabinogion collection contains three Arthurian romances, similar to those of Chrétien, but with some significant differences. Owain, or the Lady of the Fountain is related to Chrétien's Yvain, Geraint and Enid to Erec and Enide, and Peredur son of Efrawg to Perceval, although the place of the Holy Grail is taken by a severed head on a platter. The Mabinogion is a collection of prose stories from medieval Welsh manuscripts. ... Owain, or the Lady of the Fountain is one of the Three Welsh Romances associated with the Mabinogion. ... Geraint and Enid, also known by the title Geraint, son of Erbin, is a one of the Three Welsh Romances typically associated with the Mabinogion. ... Peredur son of Efrawg is one of the three Welsh Romances associated with the Mabinogion. ...


The Vulgate Cycle

A series of five Middle French prose works, the Estoire del Saint Grail, the Estoire de Merlin, the Lancelot propre, the Queste del Saint Graal and the Mort Artu, written in the 13th century, combine to form the first coherent version of the entire Arthurian legend, known as the Lancelot-Grail cycle, also known as the Prose Lancelot or the Vulgate Cycle. These texts introduce the character of Galahad, expand the role of Merlin, and establish the role of Camelot, first mentioned in passing in Chrétien's Lancelot, as Arthur's primary court. The Suite du Merlin or Vulgate Merlin Continuation adds more material on Merlin and on Arthur's youth, and a later series of texts, known as the Post-Vulgate Cycle, reduces the importance of Lancelot's affair with Guinevere, which was prominent in the Vulgate. The Lancelot-Grail, also known as the prose Lancelot, the Vulgate Cycle, or the Pseudo-Map Cycle, is a major source of Arthurian legend. ... For other uses, see Galahad (disambiguation). ... This article is about the mythical castle. ... The Post-Vulgate Cycle is one of the major Old French prose cycles of Arthurian literature. ...


Thomas Malory

The development of the Arthurian cycle culminated in Le Morte d'Arthur, Thomas Malory's retelling of the entire legend in a single work in English in the late 15th century. Malory based his book on the various previous versions, in particular the Vulgate Cycle, and introduced some material of his own. Le Morte D'Arthur was one of the earliest printed books in England, published by William Caxton in 1485. The Last Sleep of Arthur by Edward Burne-Jones Le Morte dArthur (spelled Le Morte Darthur in the first printing and also in some modern editions, Middle French for la mort dArthur, the death of Arthur) is Sir Thomas Malorys compilation of some French and English Arthurian... Sir Thomas Malory (c. ... “Caxton” redirects here. ...


Arthur's swords

Main article: Excalibur

In the early Welsh sources, Arthur's sword is called Caledfwlch (IPA: /kɑl.'ɛd.vuːlx/) and Kaledvoulc'h in Breton, and is likely related to the phonetically similar Caladbolg (IPA: /'kɑl.ɑd.vɒlɣ/), a sword borne by several figures from Irish mythology. The first two syllables of both derive from Celtic *kaleto-, "hard". Geoffrey of Monmouth calls Arthur's sword Caliburnus. In early French sources this becomes Escalibor, and finally the familiar Excalibur.[16] For other uses, see Excalibur (disambiguation). ... Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken by some of the inhabitants of Brittany (Breizh) in France. ... Caladbolg (hard belly, or possibly hard lightning), sometimes written Caladcholg (hard blade), is the sword of Fergus mac Róich from the Ulster Cycle of Irish mythology. ... The mythology of pre-Christian Ireland did not entirely survive the conversion to Christianity, but much of it was preserved, shorn of its religious meanings, in medieval Irish literature, which represents the most extensive and best preserved of all the branches of Celtic mythology. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ...


In Robert de Boron's Merlin, Arthur obtained the throne by pulling a sword from a stone. In this account, this act could not be performed except by "the true king," meaning the divinely appointed king or true heir of Uther Pendragon. This sword is thought by many to be the famous Excalibur and the identity is made explicit in the later so-called Vulgate Merlin Continuation, part of the Lancelot-Grail cycle. However, in what is sometimes called the Post-Vulgate Merlin, Excalibur was given to Arthur by the Lady of the Lake sometime after he began to reign. According to many sources, Arthur broke the sword pulled from the stone while fighting King Pellinore, and thus Merlin took him to retrieve Excalibur from the lake (as cited in many novels including Howard Pyle's King Arthur and His Knights, King Arthur and the Legend of Camelot, and indeed most modern Arthurian literature). In this Post-Vulgate version, the sword's blade could slice through anything, including steel, and its sheath made the wearer invincible in that the wearer could not die so long as they bore the scabbard. Robert de Boron (also spelled in the manuscripts Bouron, Beron) was a French poet of the late 12th and early 13th centuries, originally from the village of Boron, in the arrondissement of Montbéliard. ... Uther Pendragon (French: Uter Pendragon; Welsh: Wthyr Bendragon, Uthr Bendragon, Uthyr Pendraeg) is a legendary king of sub-Roman Britain and the father of King Arthur. ... The Lancelot-Grail, also known as the prose Lancelot, the Vulgate Cycle, or the Pseudo-Map Cycle, is a major source of Arthurian legend. ... The Lancelot-Grail, also known as the prose Lancelot, the Vulgate Cycle, or the Pseudo-Map Cycle, is a major source of Arthurian legend. ... The Post-Vulgate Cycle is one of the major Old French prose cycles of Arthurian literature. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... King Pellinore is the king of Listenoise or of the Isles (possibly Anglesey, or perhaps the medieval kingdom of the same name), according to the Arthurian legend. ... Howard Pyle (March 5, 1853-November 9, 1911) was an American illustrator and writer, primarily of books for young audiences. ... The Post-Vulgate Cycle is one of the major Old French prose cycles of Arthurian literature. ...


Some stories say that Arthur did indeed pull the sword from the stone (Excalibur), giving him the right to be king, but accidentally killed a fellow knight with it and cast it away. Merlin told him to undertake a quest to find another blade, and it was then that Arthur received his sword from the hand in the water, and named it Excalibur, after his original sword.


The Alliterative Morte Arthure, a Middle English poem, gives mention of Clarent, a sword of peace meant for knighting and ceremonies as opposed to battle, which is stolen and then used to kill Arthur. The Alliterative Morte Arthure is a 4346 line Middle English poem, retelling the latter part of the legend of King Arthur. ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... Clarent is one of King Aurthurs two magic swords. ...


King Arthur today

The legend of King Arthur has remained popular into the 21st century. Though the popularity of Arthurian literature waned somewhat after the end of the Middle Ages, it experienced a revival during the 19th century, especially after the publication of Alfred Lord Tennyson's Idylls of the King. The subsequent period saw the creation of hundreds, perhaps thousands of books, poems, and films about King Arthur, both new works of fiction and analyses of the relevant historical and archaeological data. The Arthurian legend is one of the most popular literary subjects of all time, and has been adapted numerous times in every form of media. ... Alfred, Lord Tennyson Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson (6 August 1809 – 6 October 1892) was Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom and is one of the most popular English poets. ... The Idylls of the King (1856 - 1885) are a cycle of poems by Alfred, Lord Tennyson that express the legend of King Arthur in terms of the psychology and concerns of nineteenth-century England. ...


King Arthur's constant characteristics in various stories

Many authors throughout history have written stories and poems about the Arthurian legend. Each story builds on its predecessor and the overall image and character of King Arthur remains consistent. The king of Camelot is the perfect example of a chivalrous king and knight. He is also often shown as an equal to his knights rather than a ruler. In Tennyson’s Idylls of the King, Arthur is depicted as the perfect king in his rule as well as his marriage.[17] Even when his wife, Guinevere, commits adultery with Arthur’s best knight, Lancelot, and destroys his court, he is able to forgive her for the sins she committed. Even as a young king in the story “Sir Gawain and the Green Knight,” Arthur has the image of the perfect, selfless king. During the feast, he refuses to eat until all of his subjects have taken their fill. Also, when the Green Knight confronts him and his court, Arthur accepts the deadly challenge until Gawain insists he must bear it. At the end of Gawain’s quest, Arthur and his knights decide to wear the green girdle, which for Gawain represents his failure and weakness. Although he is their king, he still sees himself an equal to his knights and wears the girdle as a sign of their equality. The Idylls of the King (1856 - 1885) are a cycle of poems by Alfred, Lord Tennyson that express the legend of King Arthur in terms of the psychology and concerns of nineteenth-century England. ...


See also

The Arthurian legend featured many characters, whose names often differed from version to version, and language to language. ... This is a list of books about King Arthur, or his related world, family, friends or enemies. ... // For historical kings who used or upon whom was bestowed (often retrospectively) the title King of the Britons, see King of the Britons. ... A mythological king is an archetype in mythology. ... A king in the mountain, king under the mountain or sleeping hero is a prominent motif in folklore, that is found in many folktales and legends. ... Oldest known sculptures of the Nine Worthies at the old city hall Cologne, Germany. ... The following is a list and assessment of sites and places associated with King Arthur and the Arthurian legend in general. ... 2597 Arthur is a small main belt asteroid, which was discovered by Edward L. G. Bowell in 1980. ... 2598 Merlin is a small main belt asteroid, which was discovered by Edward L. G. Bowell in 1980. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Historia Brittonum 56; Annales Cambriae 516, 537
  2. ^ John Morris, The Age of Arthur: A History of the British Isles from 450–650, 1973
  3. ^ Myres, J.N.L., The English Settlements", OUP, 1989, ISBN 0-19-282235-7, p 16.
  4. ^ Gildas, De Excidio Britanniae
  5. ^ a b Green, Thomas (2006). The Historicity and Historicisation of Arthur. Arthurian Resources. Retrieved on 2007-06-22.
  6. ^ a b c Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of King Arthur, Robinson Books, London, 2005.
  7. ^ "Early Medieval Tintagel: An Interview with Archaeologists Rachel Harry and Kevin Brady", The heroic Age, 1999
  8. ^ Griffen, Toby D. (1994-04-08). Arthur's Name. Celtic Studies Association of North America. Retrieved on 2007-06-22.
  9. ^ Graham Phillips and Martin Keatman, King Arthur: The True Story, Arrow Books, 1993
  10. ^ The Gododdin, from Joseph P. Clancy (ed. & trans.), Earliest Welsh Poetry, Macmillan, London & New York, 1970
  11. ^ Taliesin, The Chair of the Sovereign, translated by W. F. Skene
  12. ^ Taliesin, The Raid on the Otherworld, translated by W. F. Skene]
  13. ^ The Wild Hunt
  14. ^ Rachel Bromwich, Trioedd Ynys Prydein: the Welsh Triads (Cardiff: University of Wales, 1978), p. 275
  15. ^ Geoffrey of Monmouth, Historia Regum Britanniae 8.19-24, 9, 10, 11.1-2
  16. ^ James MacKillop, Dictionary of Celtic Mythology, Oxford University Press, 1998, pp. 64-65, 174
  17. ^ Reid, Margaret J.C. "The Arthurian Legend." New York: Barnes & Noble, Inc., 1938

The Historia Britonum, or The History of the Britons, is a historical work that was first written sometime shortly after AD 820, and exists in several recensions of varying difference. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Welsh_Annals Annales Cambriae: page view from MS. A Annales Cambriae, or The Annals of Wales, is the name given to a complex of Cambro-Latin chronicles deriving ultimately from a text compiled from diverse sources at St Davids in Dyfed, Wales, not... Dr. John Morris was the late 20th century Senior Lecturer in Ancient History at University College, London. ... Gildas (c. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Taliesin or Taliessin (c. ... Geoffrey of Monmouth (in Welsh: Gruffudd ap Arthur or Sieffre o Fynwy) (c. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: History of the Kings of Britain Geoffrey of Monmouths Historia Regum Britanniae (English: The History of the Kings of Britain) is a pseudohistorical account of British history, written around 1136. ...

References

  • Leslie Alcock. Arthur's Britain: History and Archaeology AD 367 – 634. Allen Lane, The Penguin Press. London. 1971. ISBN 0-7139-0245-0
  • Mike Ashley, The Mammoth Book of King Arthur, Robinson Books, London, 2005.
  • Chris Barber & David Pykitt. Journey to Avalon. 1993.
  • Richard Barber, King Arthur in Legend and History, Boydell Press, Woodbridge 2004, ISBN 0-85115-254-6 [1]
  • Rachel Bromwich, "Concepts of Arthur", Studia Celtica, 9/10 (1976), pp.163–81.
  • Ronan Coghlan, Encyclopaedia of Arthurian Legends, Element, Shaftesbury, 1991.
  • David N. Dumville, "Sub-Roman Britain: History and Legend", History 62 (1977), pp. 173–92.
  • Adrian Gilbert, Baram Blackett & Alan Wilson. The Holy Kingdom. 1998.
  • Norma Lorre Goodrich: "King Arthur", 1986 New York/London: Franklin Watts ISBN 0-531-09701-3
  • Phyllis Ann Karr: "The Arthurian Companion", 2001 Oakland: Green Knight Publishing ISBN 1-928999-13-1
  • Longford, Elizabeth (Editor) "Arthur" chapter in The Oxford Book of Royal Anecdotes. 1989. Oxford University Press, Oxford & New York
  • Roger S. Loomis, "The Arthurian Legend before 1139", The Romanic Review, 32 (1941), 3–38.
  • Daniel Mersey. Arthur King of the Britons: From Celtic Hero To Cinema Icon. Summersdale. Chichester. 2004. ISBN 1-84024-403-8
  • John Morris. "The Age of Arthur." New York: Scribner, 1973. SBN 684 13313 X
  • Thomas Jones, "The Early Evolution of the Legend of Arthur", Nottingham Medieval Studies, 8 (1964), pp. 3–21.
  • Derek Pearsall, Arthurian Romance: a short introduction, Blackwell, Oxford 2005 ISBN 0-631-23319-9
  • Graham Phillips & Martin Keatman. King Arthur: The True Story. 1992.
  • Robert Rouse and Cory Rushton, The Medieval Quest for Arthur, Tempus, Stroud, 2005 ISBN 0-7524-3343-1
  • King Arthur, General of the Britons, Ford, David Nash. Britannia.com

Mancoff, DEbra N. The Arthurian Revival - Essays on Form, Tradition and Transformation Garland Publishing, New York and London 1992. ISBN 0-8153-0060-3

  • Reid, Margaret J.C. "The Arthurian Legend." New York: Barnes & Noble, Inc., 1938 p.49

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
King Arthur
Preceded by
Uther Pendragon
Mythical British Kings Succeeded by
Constantine III

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Uther Pendragon (French: Uter Pendragon; Welsh: Wthyr Bendragon, Uthr Bendragon, Uthyr Pendraeg) is a legendary king of sub-Roman Britain and the father of King Arthur. ... // For historical kings who used or upon whom was bestowed (often retrospectively) the title King of the Britons, see King of the Britons. ... Constantine III was a legendary king of the Britons as accounted by Geoffrey of Monmouth. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... The Arthurian legend featured many characters, whose names often differed from version to version, and language to language. ... Sir Ector (sometimes Hector, Antor, or Ectorius) is the father of Sir Kay and the foster father of King Arthur in the Arthurian legend. ... For other uses, see Guinevere (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Merlin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mordred (disambiguation). ... Morgan le Fay, by Anthony Frederick Sandys (1829 - 1904), 1864 (Birmingham Art Gallery): A spell-brewing Morgaine distinctly of Tennysons generation Morgan le Fay, alternatively known as Morgaine, Morgain, Morgana and other variants, is a powerful sorceress and sometime antagonist of King Arthur and Guinevere in the Arthurian legend. ... In Arthurian legend, Morgause or Morgase (also known as Anna-Morgause or Ann-Morgause) is the half-sister of King Arthur who slept with him and produced Mordred, the incestuous heir that would lead to Camelots downfall. ... Uther Pendragon (French: Uter Pendragon; Welsh: Wthyr Bendragon, Uthr Bendragon, Uthyr Pendraeg) is a legendary king of sub-Roman Britain and the father of King Arthur. ... For the film, see Knights of the Round Table (film). ... King Arthur presides the Round Table. ... Sir Agravain or Sir Agravaine was a knight of the Round Table in Arthurian legend. ... How Sir Bedivere Cast the Sword Excalibur into the Water. ... In Arthurian Legend, Sir Bors was a Knight of the Round Table. ... Sir Calogrenant, sometimes known in English as Colgrevance, is a Knight of the Round Table in Arthurian legend. ... Gaheris is a figure of Arthurian legend, a knight of the Round Table, and a son of Morgause and King Lot of Orkney and Lothian. ... For other uses, see Galahad (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gareth (disambiguation). ... Sir Gawain and the Green Knight Gawain (Gwalchmei, Gawan, Gauvain, Walewein etc. ... Geraint, with his wife Enid, from The Idylls of the King Geraint is a character from Welsh folklore and Arthurian legend, a king of Dumnonia and a valiant warrior. ... Sir Kay, son of Sir Ector, was one of the Knights of the Round Table and King Arthurs foster brother. ... Sir Lamorak was the son of King Pellinore and the brother of Sir Tor, Sir Aglovale, Sir Dornar, Sir Percival, and Dindrane. ... For other uses, see Lancelot (disambiguation) and Sir Lancelot (disambiguation). ... Palamedes, (also called Palamede, Palomides or some other variant) was a Knight of the Round Table in Arthurian legend. ... Percival or Perceval is one of King Arthurs legendary Knights of the Round Table. ... Sir Sagramore is a Knight of the Round Table in the Arthurian legend. ... This article is about the Knight of the Round Table. ... Ywain rescues the lion Sir Ywain (also called Owain, Yvain, Ewain or Uwain) is a Knight of the Round Table and the son of King Urien in Arthurian legend. ... For other uses, see Excalibur (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Holy Grail (disambiguation). ... King Arthur presides the Round Table. ... The following is a list and assessment of sites and places associated with King Arthur and the Arthurian legend in general. ... For other uses, see Avalon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the mythical castle. ... Corbenic (also Carbonek and Corbin) is the name of the castle of the Holy Grail in the Lancelot-Grail cycle and Thomas Malorys Le Morte dArthur. ... The Arthurian legend is one of the most popular literary subjects of all time, and has been adapted numerous times in every form of media. ... This is a list of books about King Arthur, or his related world, family, friends or enemies. ... Films based on the Arthurian legend are many and varied. ... Celtic mythology is the mythology of Celtic polytheism, apparently the religion of the Iron Age Celts. ... Welsh mythology, the remnants of the mythology of the pre-Christian Britons, has come down to us in much altered form in medieval Welsh manuscripts such as the Red Book of Hergest, the White Book of Rhydderch, the Book of Aneirin and the Book of Taliesin. ... Cad Goddeu (Welsh: The Battle of the Trees) is a sixth-century Welsh poem from the Book of Taliesin. ... The Mabinogion is a collection of prose stories from medieval Welsh manuscripts. ... The Welsh Triads (Welsh, Trioedd Ynys Prydein) is used to describe any of the related Medieval collection of groupings of three that preserve a major portion of Welsh folklore and Welsh literature. ... In Welsh mythology, Amaethon was a god of agriculture, a son of the goddess Don. ... In Welsh mythology, Arawn was the Lord of the Underworld, which was called Annwn. ... In Welsh mythology, Arianrhod (silver wheel) was a daughter of Beli and Don. ... According to one Welsh tradition, Afallach was the father of Modron. ... Beli Mawr (Beli the Great) was a Welsh ancestor deity. ... In Welsh mythology, Blodeuwedd is the later name of Blodeuedd, a woman made from flowers by Math and Gwydion. ... Bran the Blessed, also known as Bran Vendigaid, Bendigeidfran or Branovices, is a giant and king of Britain in Welsh mythology. ... In Welsh mythology, Branwen was a daughter of Llyr and Penarddun and has been interpreted as a goddess of love and beauty. ... Cassivellaunus was a historical British chieftain who led the defence against Julius Caesars second expedition to Britain in 54 BC. He also appears in British legend as Cassibelanus, one of Geoffrey of Monmouths kings of Britain, and in the Mabinogion and Welsh Triads as Caswallawn, son of Beli... In Welsh mythology, Ceridwen was a magician, mother of Taliesin, Morfran, and a beautiful daughter. ... In Welsh mythology, Cigva (or Cigfa) was the wife of King Pryderi of Dyfed. ... In Welsh mythology, Creiddylad was a goddess, daughter of Llyr. ... In Welsh mythology, Culhwch (pronounced Kilhooch, the ch sound being the same as the Scottish Loch) was a hero who rescued Mabon from Annwn. ... The cyhyraeth (IPA: [kahiːrɪθ]), also spelled as cyheuraeth (probably from the noun cyhyr muscle, tendon; flesh + the termination -aeth; meaning skeleton, a thing of mere flesh and bone; spectre, death-portent, wraith),[1] is a ghostly spirit in Welsh mythology, a disembodied moaning voice that sounds before a person... Dôn was a Welsh mother goddess, equivalent of the Irish Danu. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In Welsh mythology, Efnysien or Efnisien was the son of Penarddun and Euroswydd. ... In Welsh mythology (mentioned in the Mabinogion), Elen was a heroine who magically built highways across her country so that the soldiers could more easily defend it from attackers. ... In Welsh mythology, Euroswydd is the father of Nisien and Efnysien by Penarddun, daughter of Beli Mawr. ... In Welsh mythology, Gilfaethwy was a son of the goddess Don. ... In the Welsh mythology, Govannon of Gofannon was a smith and the son of the goddess Don. ... In Welsh mythology, Gwawl was Rhiannons fiance. ... In Welsh mythology, Gwydion is a magician appearing prominently in the Fourth branch of the Mabinogi and the ancient poem Cad Goddeu. ... In Welsh mythology, Gwyn or Gwynn ap Nudd was the ruler of Annwn (the Underworld). ... In Welsh mythology, Hafgan was a rival of Arawns for the position of the god of the underworld. ... Llefelys (also Llevelys, Lleuelys) is a character in Welsh mythology, namely the story of Lludd and Llefelys. Llefelys is king of France while his brother Lludd is king of Britain. ... In Welsh mythology, Lleu Llaw Gyffes (sometimes called Llew Llaw Gyffes) is a character appearing in the fourth of the Four Branches of the Mabinogion, the tale of Math fab Mathonwy. ... In Welsh mythology, Llŷr is the father of Bran, Branwen and Manawydan by Penarddun. ... Lludd Llaw Eraint, Lludd of the Silver Hand, son of Beli Mawr, is a legendary hero from Welsh mythology. ... Llwyd of Cil Coed is a character in Welsh mythology, specifically in the story of Manawydan ap Llŷr. Spoiler warning: Llwyd, a lord in Annwfn, is an ally of Gwawl ap Clud. ... In Welsh mythology, Mabon (divine son) was the son of Modron (divine mother). He was a hunter god who was stolen from his mother three days after his birth. ... Magnus Maximus. ... In Welsh mythology, Manawydan, son of Llyr, is the equivalent of the Irish Manannan mac Lir and a presumed sea god. ... In Welsh mythology, Math fab Mathonwy, also called Math ap Mathonwy (Math, son of Mathonwy) was a king of Gwynedd who needed to rest his feet in the lap of a virgin unless he was at war, or he would die. ... Matholwch was an Irish lord in Welsh mythology. ... In Welsh mythology, Modron (divine mother) was a daughter of Avalloc, derived from the Gaul goddess Dea Matrona. ... In Welsh mythology, Nisien was the son of Penarddun and Eurosswydd and twin of Efnisien. ... In Welsh mythology, Olwen (white track) was a daughter of Ysbaddaden. ... In Welsh mythology, Penarddun was the wife of Llyr. ... In Welsh mythology, King Pryderi of Dyfed was the son of Pwyll and Rhiannon. ... This article is about the Welsh hero; for the impact crater on Europa, see Pwyll (crater). ... For the Stevie Nicks/Fleetwood Mac song, see Rhiannon (Will You Ever Win). ... Taliesin or Taliessin (c. ... In Welsh mythology, Ysbaddaden was the father of Olwen. ... Annwn or Annwfn (Middle Welsh Annwvn, sometimes inaccurately written Annwyn, Annwyfn or Annwfyn) was the Otherworld in Welsh mythology. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... Celliwig or Kelliwic, is perhaps the earliest named location for the court of King Arthur. ... Dyfed was one of the ancient kingdoms (or principalities) of Wales prior to the Norman Conquest. ... map of Narberth from 1952 Narberth (Welsh: Arberth) is a town in Pembrokeshire, Wales. ... Grassholm (Welsh: Ynys Gwales) is a tiny, uninhabited island off south west Pembrokeshire in Wales, lying west of Skomer. ... This article is about the county of Wales. ... Aberffraw is a small village on the south west coast of Anglesey (Welsh: ), by the west bank of the River Ffraw, at grid reference SH354693. ... The ancient Welsh cantref of Arfon in north-west Wales was part of the kingdom of Gwynedd for much of its history until it was included in the new county of Caernarfonshire, together with Llŷn and Arllechwedd under the terms of the Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284. ... Ardudwy is an area Gwynedd in Wales, lying between Tremadog Bay and the Rhinogs. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Ludgate was the westernmost gate in London Wall. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
King Arthur (2004) (668 words)
Jerry Bruckheimer's KING ARTHUR is a shining example of that new breed of mythology adaption.
It is similar to Wolfgang Petersen's TROY, in that it dispenses with the supernatural splendour and phantasmagorical intrigue characteristic of traditional tales, and presents the story as (relatively) realistic historical fiction, attempting to convey the "magic" of the story through drama, rather than gaudy special effects.
Despite the lukewarm reception to which it was subjected, KING ARTHUR is a finely crafted and memorable item of film-making.
In Search of Myths & Heroes . King Arthur | PBS (469 words)
Arthur, a Celtic king born of deceit and adultery, grew to become one of the most famous rulers of Britain.
King Arthur marries Guinevere, daughter of the King of Scotland.
Arthur returns to Britain and a terrible battle ensures, during which most of his knights die and he is grievously wounded.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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