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Encyclopedia > Kinesthetic

Proprioception (from Latin proprius, meaning "one's own") is the sense of the position of parts of the body, relative to other neighbouring parts of the body. Unlike the five exteroception human senses of sight, taste, smell, touch, and hearing, that advise us of the outside world, proprioception is a sense that provides feedback solely on the status of the body internally. It is the sense that indicates whether or not your body is moving with required effort as where the various parts of the body are located in relation to each other. Latin is the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Senses are the physiological methods of perception. ... Senses are the physiological methods of perception. ... Senses are the physiological methods of perception. ... Visual perception is one of the senses, consisting of the ability to detect light and interpret (see) it as the perception known as sight or naked eye vision. ... Taste is one of the most common and fundamental of the senses in life on Earth. ... Olfaction, the sense of smell, is the detection of chemicals dissolved in air (or, by animals that breathe water, in water). ... Touching is having or getting a zero distance; in geometry it refers especially to a tangent line or curve (cf. ... Hearing is one, the auditory, of the traditional five senses, and refers to the ability to detect sound. ...


Kinesthesia is another term that is often used interchangeably with proprioception. Some users differentiate the kinesthetic sense from proprioception by excluding the sense of equilibrium or balance from kinesthesia. An inner ear infection, for example, might impact the sense of balance. This would impact the proprioceptive sense, but not the kinesthetic sense. The infected person would be able to walk, but only by using the person's sense of sight to maintain balance; the person would be unable to walk with his/her eyes closed. For an alternative meaning, see ear (botany). ...


Kinesthesia is a key component in muscle memory and hand-eye coordination, and training can improve this sense. The ability to effortlessly swing a golf club, or catch a baseball requires a finely tuned sense of the position of the joints, so that the eyes can concentrate on the ball and let the kinesthetic sense handle moving the body as needed to meet the ball. Golfer teeing off at the start of a hole Golf is an outdoor sport where individual players or teams play a small ball into a hole using various clubs. ... Baseball is a team sport, in which a fist-sized ball is thrown by a defensive player called a pitcher and hit by an offensive player called a batter with a round, smooth stick called a bat. ...

Contents


Basis

The proprioceptive sense is believed to be composed of information from sensory neurons located in the inner ear (motion and orientation) and in the joints and muscles (stance). There are specific nerve receptors for this form of perception, just like there are specific receptors for pressure, light/dark, temperature, sound, and other sensory experiences. Information is a term with many meanings depending on context, but is as a rule closely related to such concepts as meaning, knowledge, instruction, communication, representation, and mental stimulus. ... Senses are the physiological methods of perception. ... Neurons (also spelled neurones or called nerve cells) are the primary cells of the nervous system. ... See also Labyrinth, an article treating the mythical maze that imprisoned the Minotaur. ... A muscle spindle is a specialized muscle structure innervated by both sensory and motor neuron axons. ...


Applications

Proprioception is tested by police officers using the field sobriety test where the subject is required to touch his nose with his eyes closed. People with normal proprioception may make an error of no more than 2 cm. People with severely impaired proprioception may have no clue as to where their hands (or noses) are without looking.


Proprioception is what allows someone to learn to walk in complete darkness without bumping into the furniture. During the learning of any new skill, sport, or art, it is usually necessary to become familiar with some proprioceptive concerns specific to that activity. Without the appropriate integration of proprioceptive input, an artist would not be able to brush paint onto a canvas without looking at the hand as it moved the brush over the canvas; it would be impossible to drive an automobile because a motorist would not be able to steer or use the foot pedals while looking at the road ahead; we could not touch type or perform ballet; and one would not even be able to walk without literally "watching where you put your feet". For information on the U.S. borough, see Paint, Pennsylvania. ... A small variety of cars, the most popular kind of automobile. ... Touch typing is typing using the sense of touch rather than sight to find the keys. ...


The proprioceptive sense can be sharpened through study of many disciplines. The Alexander Technique and related methods use the study of mannerisms to directly enhance kinesthetic judgment of effort and location. Juggling trains reaction time and spatial location. Standing on a wobble board is often used to increase proprioception, particularly as physical therapy for ankle or knee injuries. Standing on one leg (stork standing) and various other body position challenges are also used. Several studies have shown that the efficacy of these types of training is increased by closing the eyes. The Alexander Technique is a method designed to allow a person to understand and coordinate the effects of their own mannerisms and reactions. ... The cascade pattern juggled with three fire torches (time-lapse photograph) In its general sense, juggling can refer to all forms of artful or skillful object manipulation. ...


Oliver Sacks once reported the case of a young woman who lost her proprioception due to a viral infection of her spinal cord. At first she was not able to move properly at all. Later she relearned by using her sight (watching her feet) and vestibulum (or inner ear) only. She eventually acquired a stiff and slow movement, which is believed to be the best possible in the absence of this sense. Oliver W. Sacks (born July 9, 1933, London) is a neurologist who has written popular books about his patients. ... The spinal cord is a part of the vertebrate nervous system that is enclosed in and protected by the vertebral column (it passes through the spinal canal). ... Vestibule can have the following meanings: A large entrance, reception area, antechamber, or room A small room or passage that connects the outer door of a building to the interior of the building An area in a train where people get on and off. ... For an alternative meaning, see ear (botany). ...


Impairment

Apparently, temporary loss or impairment of proprioception may happen periodically during growth, mostly during adolescence. Possible experiences include: suddenly feeling that feet or legs are missing from your mental self-image; the need to look down at arms, hands, legs, etc. to convince yourself that they are still there; falling down while walking, especially when attention is focused upon something other than the act of walking (e.g., looking at a person who started talking or reading a billboard).


The proprioceptive sense can become confused because humans will adapt to a continuously-present stimulus; this is called habituation or desensitization. The effect is that it seems as though proprioceptive sensory impressions disappear, just as a scent seems to disappear when a person smells it for a prolonged period of time. One practical advantage of this is that unnoticed actions or sensation continue in the background while an individual's attention can move to another concern. Alexander Technique addresses these issues. Habituation is an example of non-associative learning in which there is a progressive diminution of behavioral response probability with repetition of a stimulus. ... Desensitization is a method to reduce or eliminate an organisms negative reaction to a substance or stimulus. ... The Alexander Technique is a method designed to allow a person to understand and coordinate the effects of their own mannerisms and reactions. ...


People who have a limb amputated may still have a sense of that limb; this is termed a phantom limb. This phenomenon is not limited to one sensation, however. Phantom sensations can occur that are perceived as movement, pressure, pain, itching, or hot/cold as well. (Note: The work of V. S. Ramachandran indicates that despite popular belief, the phantom limb phenomenon is actually the result of neural signal bleed through the brain's sensory maps, rather than from stimulation of nerves.) Amputation is the removal of a body extremity by trauma or surgery. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


There is one known case of a person losing her entire proprioceptive sense, which is one of the cases discussed in Oliver Sacks' book The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat. Oliver W. Sacks (born July 9, 1933, London) is a neurologist who has written popular books about his patients. ... The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat is a book by Oliver Sacks describing the case studies of some of Dr Sackss patients. ...


Temporary impairment has also been known to occur due to an overdose of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine and pyridoxamine). Most of the impaired function discontinues shortly after the intake of vitamins returns to normal. Impairment can also be caused by cytotoxic factors such as chemotherapy. The two major forms of vitamin B6 are pyridoxine and pyridoxamine. ... Cytotoxicity is the quality of being poisonous to cells. ... Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ...


It has been proposed that even common Tinnitus and the attendant hearing frequency-gaps masked by the perceived sounds may cause erroneous proprioceptive information to the balance and comprehension centers of the brain, and precipitating mild confusion. Tinnitus is a phenomenon of the nervous system connected to the ear, characterized by perception of a ringing or beating sound (often perceived as sinusoidal) with no external source. ...


Permament impairment: Proprioception is also reduced in patients who suffer from joint hypermobility or Ehlers-Danlos_Syndrome (a genetic condition that results in weak connective tissue throughout the body). Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a group of rare genetic disorders that diminish the bodys ability to make connective tissues. ...


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Kinesthetic Math and Language Lessons by Susan Kramer (166 words)
Kinesthetic Math and Language Lessons by Susan Kramer
Kinesthetic Math and Language Lessons by Susan Kramer susan@susankramer.com SusanKramer.com Publishing - http://www.susankramer.com/books.html
About the author - Susan Kramer has been teaching academics kinesthetically as a dance specialist since 1965 and maintains a large educational web site at susankramer.com.
Kinesthetic learning - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (249 words)
Kinesthetic learning is a teaching and learning style in which learning takes place by the student actually carrying out a physical activity, rather than listening to a lecture or merely watching a demonstration.
Pedagogical theorists such as Howard Gardner, however, assert that understanding of space and motion well is a distinct kind of intelligence in itself, useful in such various fields as engineering, database design, and athletics such as sport, martial arts or dance.
Some proponents of kinesthetic learning see it primarily as a way to increase association through repetition, but some proponents of "educational kinesthetics" such as Brain Gym asserts that certain physical motions increase the density of neurological networks within the brain itself, especially when practiced by growing children.
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