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Encyclopedia > Kinescope

Kinescope (IPA: /ˈkɪnɨskoʊp/) originally referred to the cathode ray tube used in television monitors. Today it usually means a kinescope recording (kine [ˈkɪni] for short). The process is known as telerecording in the UK. This is a recording of a television program made by filming the picture from a video monitor. The word can be a verb meaning the process, or a noun referring to the equipment used for the procedure: a 16 mm or 35 mm movie camera mounted in front of a video monitor, and synchronized to the monitor’s scanning rate. Cathode ray tube employing electromagnetic focus and deflection Cutaway rendering of a color CRT: 1. ... Telerecording (known as kinescoping in the USA) is the British name for a process pioneered during the 1940s for the storing of electronically-shot television programmes on film, which was used for the preservation, re-broadcasting and sale of television programmes before the use of commercial broadcast-quality videotape became... (Redirected from 16 mm) 16mm film was initially created in the 1920s as an inexpensive amateur alternative to the conventional 35 mm film format. ... Simulated 35 mm film with soundtracks _ The outermost strips (on either side) contain the SDDS soundtrack as an image of a digital signal. ... The Arricam ST, a popular 35 mm film camera currently used on major productions. ...

Contents

History

In September 1947, Kodak introduced the Eastman Television Recording Camera, in cooperation with DuMont Laboratories, Inc. and NBC, for recording images from a television screen under the trademark "Kinephoto". Even though their quality left much to be desired, kinescopes were initially the only way to nationally broadcast the live performances of early television from New York or other originating cities to stations not connected to the network. Television programs of all types, from prestigious dramas to regular news shows, were handled in this manner. Eastman Kodak Company (NYSE: EK) is a large multinational public company producing photographic equipment. ... Dr. Allen Balcom DuMont (January 29, 1901 - November 14, 1965) was an American scientist and inventor best known for improvements to the cathode ray tube in 1931 for use in television receivers. ... This article is about the television network. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


As television progressed, and the coaxial cable carrying programs to the west coast was completed, CBS and NBC instituted a "hot kinescope" process in which shows were filmed (kinescoped) as they aired, rushed to film processing, and then reaired three hours later. CBS filmed the programs on the west coast through microwave links from the east coast, while NBC filmed on the east coast and then rebroadcast the film to the west. The use of this crude and expensive method of time-shifting meant that the television industry’s film consumption eventually surpassed that of all of the Hollywood studios combined.[1] This article is about the broadcast network. ... American cinema has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century. ...


Filmed programs were also used in television’s early years, although they were generally considered inferior to the big-production "live" programs because of their lower budgets and loss of immediacy. This, however, was about to change.


In 1951, the stars and producers of I Love Lucy, Desi Arnaz and Lucille Ball, decided to shoot their show directly onto 35 mm film using the three-camera system, instead of broadcasting it live. As an article in American Cinematographer explained, I Love Lucy is a television situation comedy, starring Desi Arnaz and Lucille Ball, also featuring Vivian Vance and William Frawley. ... Desi Arnaz (born Desiderio Alberto Arnaz y de Acha III) (March 2, 1917 – December 2, 1986) was a Cuban musician, actor, comedian and television producer. ... Lucille Désirée Ball (August 6, 1911 – April 26, 1989) was an iconic American comedian, actress and star of the landmark sitcoms I Love Lucy, The Lucy Show, and Heres Lucy. ... Pioneered by Desi Arnaz with three cameras, commonly now four, the multicamera setup is used to shoot most studio-produced television programs such as situation comedies, soap operas, news programs, game shows, and talk shows. ... American Cinematographer is a monthly journal published by the American Society of Cinematographers. ...

In the beginning there was a very definite reason for the decision of Desilu Productions to put I Love Lucy on film instead of doing it live and having kinescope recordings carry it to affiliate outlets of the network. The company was not satisfied with the quality of kinescopes. It saw that film, produced especially for television, was the only means of [ensuring] top quality pictures on the home receiver as well as [ensuring] a flawless show.

The I Love Lucy decision introduced reruns to most of the American television audience, and set a pattern for the syndication of TV shows after their network runs (and later, for first-run airings via syndication) that continues to this day. The Desilu logo, used in the 1960s. ... Rerun van Pelt is the name of Linus and Lucys younger brother in the comic strip Peanuts. ... In the television industry (as in radio), syndication is the sale of the right to broadcast programs to multiple stations, without going through a broadcast network. ...


The program director of the short-lived DuMont Television Network, James Caddigan, devised an interesting but somewhat impractical alternative—the Electronicam. In this system, all the studio TV cameras had built-in 35 mm film cameras which shared the same optical path. An Electronicam technician threw switches to mark the film footage electronically, identifying the camera "takes" called by the director. The corresponding film segments from the various cameras then were combined by a film editor to duplicate the live program. The 39 syndicated episodes of The Honeymooners were filmed using Electronicam, but with the introduction of a practical videotape recorder only one year away, the Electronicam system never saw widespread use. The DuMont network did not survive into the era of videotape, and in order to gain clearances for its programs, was heavily dependent on kinescopes, which it called teletranscriptions. The DuMont Television Network was the worlds first commercial television network, beginning operation in the United States in 1946. ... Electronicam was a television recording system, based on a camera that shot film and television at the same time through a common lens. ... For the 2005 film, see The Honeymooners (film). ... Bottom view of VHS videotape cassette with magnetic tape exposed Videotape is a means of recording images and sound onto magnetic tape as opposed to movie film. ...


As new technologies for storing video became available, kinescopes slowly began to fade in importance: In 1951, singer Bing Crosby’s company Bing Crosby Enterprises made the first experimental magnetic video recordings; however, the poor picture quality and very high tape speed meant it would be impractical to use. In 1956, Ampex introduced the first commercial Quadruplex videotape recorder, followed in 1958 by a color model. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Harry Lillis Bing Crosby (May 3, 1903 – October 14, 1977) was an American singer and actor whose career lasted from 1926 until his death in 1977. ... Harry Lillis Bing Crosby (May 3, 1903 – October 14, 1977) was an American singer and actor whose career lasted from 1926 until his death in 1977. ... Ampex is based in Redwood City, California. ... 2 inch Quadruplex (also called 2″ Quad, or just quad, for short) was the first practical and commercially successful videotape format. ... Bottom view of VHS videotape cassette with magnetic tape exposed Videotape is a means of recording images and sound onto magnetic tape as opposed to movie film. ...


The networks continued to make kinescopes of their daytime dramas available as late as 1969 for their smaller network affiliates that did not yet have videotape capability but wished to time shift the network programming. Some of these programs aired up to two weeks after their original dates, particularly in Alaska and Hawaii. Many episodes of programs from the 1960s survive only through kinescoped copies. The last 16 mm kinescopes of television programs ended in the late 1970s, as video tape recorders became more affordable. An affiliate is an entity with a relationship with a peer or a larger entity. ... Official language(s) None[1] Spoken language(s) English 85. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ...


Image quality

A kinescope image looks less fluid than an original live or videotaped program, because normal film has only 24 frames per second, as opposed to the 60 NTSC or 50 PAL fields used by video. Some kinescopes filmed the television pictures at the same frame rate of 30 full frames[citation needed] per second, resulting in more faithful picture quality than those that recorded at 24 frames per second. The standard was later changed for color TV to 59.94 fields/sec. or 29.97 frames/sec. when color TV was invented. Frame rate, or frame frequency, is the measurement of the frequency (rate) at which an imaging device produces unique consecutive images called frames. ...


NOTE: If electrical interference was present in the old 30 frames/sec., 60 fields/sec. black-and-white format, a hum bar would appear horizontally across the screen and not move due to U.S. electrical standards having the same Hertz rate as the fields refresh rate in the picture. When color TV was released, the frame rate was shifted to 29.97 and the field rate shifted to 59.94 to allow a frequency shift not only to introduce the luminence/chrominance delay needed to share the information on the screen, but also to move the hum bar from a stationary position.


In recent years, the BBC has introduced a video process called VidFIRE, which can restore kinescope recordings to their original frame rate by interpolating video fields between the film frames. For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... VidFIRE, short for Video Field Interpolation Restoration Effect, is a restoration technique developed by Peter Finklestone. ...


Status of kinescopes today

Kinescopes were intended to be used for immediate rebroadcast, or for an occasional repeat of a prerecorded program, thus only a small fraction of kinescope recordings remain today. Many television shows are represented by only a handful of episodes, such as with the early television work of comedian Ernie Kovacs, and the original version of Jeopardy! hosted by Art Fleming. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “Jeopardy” redirects here. ... Fleming introduces a 1974 episode of Jeopardy! Art Fleming (born Arthur Fleming Fazzin in New York City May 1, 1924; died April 25, 1995, in Crystal River, Florida) was the original host of the TV game show Jeopardy! // Flemings parents, William and Marie Fazzin, had emigrated to the United...


Certain performers or production companies would require that a kinescope be made of every television program. Such is the case with performers Jackie Gleason and Milton Berle, for whom nearly complete program archives exist. As Jackie Gleason’s program was broadcast live in New York, the show was kinescoped for later rebroadcast for the West Coast. After these programs were shown, the kinescopes would be returned to Gleason, who kept them in his vault, and only released them to the public shortly before his death in 1987. Herbert John Jackie Gleason (February 26, 1916 – June 24, 1987) was an American comedian, actor, and musician. ... Milton Berle (July 12, 1908 - March 27, 2002) was an Emmy-winning American comedian who was born Milton Berlinger. ...


Milton Berle sued NBC late in his life, believing the kinescopes of a major portion of his programs were lost. However, the programs were later found in a warehouse in Los Angeles. This article is about the television network. ...


Mark Goodson-Bill Todman Productions, the producers of such TV game shows as What’s My Line?, had their entire output recorded on both videotape and kinescopes. These programs are rebroadcast on the American cable TV’s Game Show Network. Mark Goodson (January 14, 1915 – December 18, 1992) was an accomplished American television producer, specializing in game shows. ... Whats My Line? was a weekly panel game show originally produced by Mark Goodson and Bill Todman for CBS television. ... “GSN” redirects here. ...


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Kinescope (0 words)
Kinescopes are usually created by placing a motion picture camera in front of a television monitor and recording the image off the monitor's screen while the program is being aired.
Actually, kinescope is the name for the cathode ray tube in a television receiver which translates electrical signals into a picture on a lighted screen.
The kinescope, the one and perhaps only method of television recording technology to be completely obsolete in the industry today, is now of use only in archives and museums where the fuzzy, grainy texture often only adds to their charm as artifacts and antiquities.
Zworykin Kinescope Early Television Apparatus in 1929 (242 words)
The first was the Iconoscope, which essentially was a rudimentary video camera, and the second was the kinescope, precursor to the modern television tube.
Zworykin was working for Westinghouse at the time, and when RCA broke away from Westinghouse and GE, he went to work for RCA with the encouragement of its leader David Sarnoff.
The Kinescope was a modification of the Cathode Ray Tube or CRT, which itself was a descendant of the Crookes Tube.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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