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Encyclopedia > Kim Philby
Kim Philby

Harold Adrian Russell "Kim" Philby or H.A.R. Philby (OBE: 1946-1965), (1 January 191211 May 1988) was a high-ranking member of British intelligence, a communist, and spy for the Soviet Union's NKVD and KGB. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Obe can mean: Obe, in Afghanistan Ebenezer Obe, a Nigerian musician. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Military intelligence (abbreviated MI, int. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The KGB emblem and motto: The sword and the shield KGB (transliteration of КГБ) is the Russian-language abbreviation for Committee for State Security, (Russian: ; Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti). ...


In 1963, Philby was revealed as a member of the spy ring known as the Cambridge Five, along with Donald Maclean, Guy Burgess, Anthony Blunt and John Cairncross. Of the five, Philby is believed to have done the most damage to British and American intelligence, providing classified information to the Soviet Union that caused the deaths of scores of agents. The Cambridge Five (also sometimes known as the Cambridge Four) was a ring of British spies who passed information to the Soviet Union during World War II and into the early 1950s. ... Donald Duart Maclean Donald Duart Maclean (25 May 1913 – 6 March 1983) was a career British diplomat turned Soviet intelligence agent. ... Guy Francis De Moncy Burgess (16 April 1911 – 30 August 1963) was a British-born intelligence officer and double agent who worked for the Soviet Union and was part of the Cambridge Five spy ring that betrayed allied secrets to the Soviets before and during the Cold War. ... Anthony Frederick Blunt (26 September 1907 – 26 March 1983) was an English art historian and the Fourth Man of the Cambridge Five, a group of spies working for the Soviet Union during the Cold War. ... John Cairncross (July 25, 1913 – October 8, 1995) was a British intelligence officer during World War II who, along with four other men (Kim Philby, Donald Maclean, Guy Burgess and Anthony Blunt) passed secrets to the Soviet Union during the war. ...

Contents

Early life

Born in Ambala, Haryana, India, Philby was the son of St. John Philby, the British Army officer, diplomat, explorer, author, and Orientalist who apparently converted to Islam and was advisor to King Ibn Sa'ud of Saudi Arabia. He was nicknamed after the protagonist in Rudyard Kipling's novel Kim about a young Irish Indian boy who spies for the British in India during the 19th century. After leaving Westminster School in 1928 at the age of 16 Philby studied history and economics at Trinity College, Cambridge where he was introduced to and became an admirer of Communism. It has been suggested that his father, while not a spy himself, was opposed to the British establishment and was thus Kim Philby's inspiration and probable mentor.[1] The elder Philby died in 1960. , Ambala (Hindi: अंबाला) is a city and a municipal council in Ambala district in the state of Haryana, India. ... , Haryana   (HindÄ«: हरियाणा, PunjabÄ«: ਹਰਿਆਣਾ, IPA: ) is a state in north India. ... Harry St. ... This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ... Authorship redirects here. ... Orientalism is the study of Near and Far Eastern societies and cultures, by Westerners. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... `Abd al-`AzÄ«z as-Sa`Å«d ( 1880 - November 9, 1953) (Arabic:عبدالعزيز آل سعود) was the first monarch of Saudi Arabia. ... This article or section seems to contain too many examples (or of a poor quality) for an encyclopedia entry. ... A protagonist is the main figure of a piece of literature or drama and has the main part or role. ... This article is about the British author. ... This article is about the novel. ... The Royal College of St Peter at Westminster (almost always known as Westminster School) is one of Britains leading boys independent schools and one of the nine public schools set out in the Public Schools Act 1868. ... Full name The College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity Motto Virtus vera nobilitas Virtue is true Nobility Named after The Holy Trinity Previous names King’s Hall and Michaelhouse (until merged in 1546) Established 1546 Sister College(s) Christ Church Master The Lord Rees of Ludlow Location Trinity Street... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ...


Philby asked one of his tutors Maurice Dobb how he could serve the Communist movement. Dobb referred him to a Communist front organization which in turn passed Philby to the Comintern underground in Vienna, Austria. The front organisation was the World Federation for the Relief of the Victims of German Fascism in Paris. The World Federation was one of innumerable fronts operated by the German Communist Willi Münzenberg who was a leading Soviet agent in the West. Maurice Herbert Dobb (September 3, 1900 - 1976), economist, Lecturer 1924-1959 and Reader 1959-1976 at Cambridge University; Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge 1948-76. ... The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including... “Wien” redirects here. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Willi Münzenberg (August 14, 1889–October 21, 1940) was a leading propagandist for the KPD (Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands, Communist Party of Germany) in the Weimar Era. ... The term Western world, the West or the Occident (Latin occidens -sunset, -west, as distinct from the Orient) [1] can have multiple meanings dependent on its context (e. ...


Espionage activities

The Soviet intelligence service itself (then the OGPU) recruited Philby on the strength of his work for the Comintern. His case officers included Arnold Deutsch [OTTO], Theodore Maly [MAN], and Alexander Orlov [SWEDE]. Each of them suffered under Stalin's purges. Obedinennoe Gosudarstvennoe Politicheskoe Upravlenie (or OGPU) (Combined State Political Directorate, also translated as All Union State Political Board) was the name of the secret police in the Soviet Union in one of the stages of its development. ... Theodor Maly was an undercover Soviet intelligence officer who recruited and controlled spies in the 1930’s. ... Alexander Mikhailovich Orlov (Leiba Lazarevich Felbing) (21 August 1895–25 March 1973) was a Soviet espionage administrator. ...


In 1933, Kim Philby went to Vienna to aid refugees who were fleeing Nazi Germany. There he met Litzi Friedman, a Jewish Communist whom he married and brought to Britain to save her life. (The alliance did not outlast the Spanish Civil War.) In 1936, as ordered by Moscow, Philby began cultivating a pro-fascist persona, appearing at Anglo-German meetings and editing a pro-Hitler magazine. In 1937, he went to Spain to cover the Civil War, first, as a freelance journalist, and then as correspondent for The Times — reporting the war from Francisco Franco's perspective. Among his espionage duties for the Soviets was the writing of spurious love letters (interlaced with codewords), addressed to a girl in Paris who lived on the Rue de Grenelle. Only years later did he discover to his fury that the letters were actually addressed to the Soviet Embassy and that the possibility existed he could have been so easily found out. In December 1937, near the Spanish town Teruel, a shell hit the car in which he was traveling, killing three fellow journalists, but only wounding Philby, whom Franco decorated for bravery. It has been suggested that Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War be merged into this article or section. ... Moscow (Moskva) (Russian: , romanised: Moskva, IPA: see also other names) is the capital of Russia and the countrys economic, financial, educational, and transportation centre. ... Hitler redirects here. ... General Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 - November 20, [1] 1975), commonly abbreviated to Francisco Franco (pron. ... View of the mudéjar Cathedral of Teruel Teruel is a city in Aragon, Spain, the capital of Teruel Province. ...


In 1940, Guy Burgess, who was working in Section D of SIS (later MI6) introduced him to Marjorie Maxse, an SIS officer, and Philby was recruited as a British intelligence officer. When Section D itself was destroyed (and Burgess booted out), Philby, who had been an instructor in the arts of "black propaganda", was retained and appointed as head of Section V, the Iberian Section, in charge of Spain, Portugal, Gibraltar, and Africa. As head of counter-espionage, Philby performed his duties so successfully, according to Seale and McConville, that he not only neutralized the Abwehr's attempts to sabotage British shipping, but he also came to the attention of "C", Sir Stewart Menzies, who in 1944 appointed him to the key position as head of the new Section IX: counter-espionage against the Soviet Union. As a Soviet agent, Philby had accomplished something of a coup. The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), more commonly known as MI6 (originally Military Intelligence Section 6), or the Secret Service, is the United Kingdom external security agency. ... Black propaganda is propaganda that purports to be from a source on one side of a conflict, but is actually from the opposing side. ... Counter Intelligence A uk label started and owned by John Machielsen. ... The Abwehr was a German intelligence organization from 1921 to 1944. ... Sir Stewart Graham Menzies (January 30, 1890 - May 29, 1968) was the Chief of MI6, British Secret Intelligence Service, during and after the World War II. Stewart Graham Menzies was born in London into a wealthy family. ...


All went well for Philby until August, 1945, when Constantine Volkov, an officer of the NKVD (later KGB) decided to defect to Britain with the promise that he would reveal the names of Soviet agents in SIS and the Foreign Office. When the report reached Philby's desk, with a bit of luck and clever scheming, he managed to get the assignment. He thus flew to Istanbul by way of Cairo. What with the plane being delayed by storms, the ambassador being on his yacht in the Bosporus, the Russians had time to whisk Volkov off to Moscow and Philby returned to London after a close call. Satellite image of the Bosporus, taken from the International Space Station in April 2004 Bosphorus Bridge Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge The Bosporus or Bosphorus, also known as the Istanbul Strait, (Turkish: İstanbul Boğazı or, for İstanbuls inhabitants, simply Boğaz; while the term Boğaziçi denotes those...


After the war, Philby was sent as Head of Station to Istanbul under the cover of First Secretary to the British Embassy. While there, he received a visit from Guy Burgess. In 1949, Philby's next — and last — assignment was as First Secretary to the British Embassy in Washington, where he acted as liaison between the British Embassy and the newly formed CIA. His luck ran out, however. First came the discovery of the cryptonym HOMER (Donald Maclean) in the VENONA decrypts — a "jigsaw puzzle" of decrypts, decoded piecemeal because some Soviet code clerk had used a one-time pad twice; then came another visit from Guy Burgess who ensconced himself in the Philby household for a year and proceeded to behave very badly. Burgess was declared persona non grata, as was Philby soon after. Donald Duart Maclean Donald Duart Maclean (25 May 1913 – 6 March 1983) was a career British diplomat turned Soviet intelligence agent. ... The VENONA project was a long-running and highly secret collaboration between the United States intelligence agencies and the United Kingdoms MI5 that involved the cryptanalysis of Soviet messages. ... Look up Persona non grata in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


After the defection of Burgess and Maclean, Philby was asked to resign from SIS, and he spent the next several years being questioned by MI5 and SIS. Since he did not break, however, he was finally cleared of being the "Third Man" by the Foreign Secretary Harold Macmillan in the House of Commons. Eventually he was re-employed as an SIS agent, with the cover as a correspondent in Beirut for The Observer and The Economist. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Economist is a weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London, UK. It has been in continuous publication since September 1843. ...


Always in danger of having his cover blown by the next Soviet defector, Philby, confronted by new evidence brought to him by an old SIS friend, Nicholas Elliott, finally defected to the Soviet Union in January 1963, departing Beirut on the Soviet freighter Dolmatova; While others, including Philby himself, have maintained that he continued to downplay the accusations, further interrogation was scheduled in the last week of January 1963, Philby disappeared on January 23. Records later revealed that the Dolmatova, a Soviet freighter was called to port in Beirut on this date and had left so quickly its cargo remained scattered on the dock[citation needed]. American operative Miles Copeland, a close friend of Kim Philby, describes how Philby was constantly being suspected of spying for the Soviets but always succeeding to skillfully evade such suspicions, at least for the meantime. Copeland was once handed an "ultra-thorough checklist" from his superior in attempt to see if Philby committed any suspicious actions as prescribed by this form. Copeland first objected to the idea of spying on Philby since he was his "friend”, but obliged under pressure later on. After Copeland's painstaking observation was over, he handed in his checklist to his superior, with the result that Philby didn't commit any suspicious acts, thus none of the points in this checklist were checked. His superior responded by saying: "Aha, now that’s interesting, even a perfectly normal person must have done something, at least one thing, that is deemed suspicious by this checklist."[2] Miles Axe Copeland, Jr. ...


Postwar career

After these two disasters, the CIA and MI6 largely gave up their attempts to plant agents in Soviet territory. Philby was also able to tell Moscow just how much the CIA knew about its operations. Moscow asked Philby not to bother saving spies who had served their purpose, but he sat on several reports that revealed the names of other Soviet spies anyway.


In January 1949, the British Government was informed that Venona project intercepts showed that nuclear secrets were passed to the Soviet Union from the British Embassy in Washington in 1944 and 1945 by an agent code-named 'Homer'. In 1950, Philby was asked to help track down this agent. Knowing from the start that 'Homer' was his old university friend, Second Secretary Donald MacLean, Philby warned MacLean in 1951, leading to his two friends' defection (and ultimately to his downfall). The Venona project was a long-running and highly secret collaboration between intelligence agencies of the United States and United Kingdom that involved the cryptanalysis of messages sent by several intelligence agencies of the Soviet Union. ...


Washington, D.C.

In October 1949 Philby arrived in Washington as British intelligence liaison to the newly created U.S. intelligence agencies under the National Security Act of 1947. Philby received Venona material which the U.S. was sharing with the UK, but he did not have information about the source, since Venona was one of the most highly rated top secrets. He shared a house in Washington, at 4100 Nebraska Avenue, N.W, with his friend from the Cambridge days, fellow British diplomat, intelligence officer and Soviet penetration agent, Guy Burgess. President Truman signs the National Security Act Amendment of 1949 with guests in the Oval Office. ...


In 1949, Philby was in Washington, D.C., as the MI6 liaison to the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The two agencies launched an attempted revolution in Soviet-influenced Albania. The exiled King Zog had offered his troops and other volunteers to help, but, for three years, every attempted landing in Albania met with a Soviet or Albanian Communist ambush (the Soviets knew the emergency radio call routine). Philby's betrayal cost 300 Albanian lives, and a similar betrayal occurred in the Ukraine. Couriers would travel to Soviet territory and disappear, and no useful information was coming out. 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... Nickname: Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: , Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - D.C. Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D) Ward 2... The Central Intelligence Agency(CIA) is an intelligence agency of the United States government. ... Zog I, Skanderbeg III of Albania (born Ahmet Zogolli, later changed to Ahmet Zogu) (October 8, 1895 – April 9, 1961) was King of Albania from 1928 to 1939. ...


Philby is believed to have passed to Moscow information on the United States' small stockpile of atomic weapons and its capacity (at that time, severely limited) to produce new atomic bombs. Based in part on that information, Stalin went ahead with a 1948 blockade of West Berlin and began a large-scale offensive armament of Kim Il Sung's North Korean Army and Air Force that would later culminate in the Korean War. The latter conflict would later consume the lives of over one million Koreans, and about 30,000 U.S./Allied soldiers and marines. Occupation zones after 1945. ... Kim Il-sung (April 15, 1912–July 8, 1994) was a Korean Communist politician and the ruler of the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (North Korea) from 1948 until his death. ...


When MacLean was identified in April 1951, surveillance commenced to obtain evidence independent of Venona, as the U.S. and UK did not want to reveal the existence of Venona. MacLean defected to Moscow with Guy Burgess a month later in May 1951. Philby came under instant suspicion as the third man who had tipped them off.


That year, Philby resigned under a cloud, and was denied his pension until an internal investigation failed to come up with definitive proof of his treachery. On October 25, 1955, against all expectations, he was 'cleared' by Foreign Secretary Harold Macmillan in an ill-timed statement made in the House of Commons: "While in government service he carried out his duties ably and conscientiously, and I have no reason to conclude that Mr. Philby has at any time betrayed the interests of his country, or to identify him with the so-called 'Third Man,' if indeed there was one." October 25 is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986), was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963. ... Type Lower House Speaker of the House of Commons Leader of the House of Commons Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Harriet Harman, QC, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader of the House of Commons Theresa May, PC, (Conservative) since December 6, 2005 Members 646 Political groups...


Beirut

Thus, in 1956 Philby was again in the employ of MI6 as an "informant on retainer" and was supposedly involved in Operation Musketeer, the British, French, and Israeli plan to attack Egypt and depose Gamal Abdel Nasser. Operation Musketeer was the Anglo-French invasion of Egypt to capture the Suez Canal during the Suez Crisis. ... Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: - ; Masri: جمال عبد الناصر - also transliterated as Jamal Abd al-Naser, Jamal Abd an-Nasser and other variants; January 15, 1918 – September 28, 1970) was the President of Egypt from 1954 until his death in 1970. ...


Better attested is his role as Middle East correspondent for the British newspaper The Economist, which also led to his exposure. Sometime in late 1962, a British-Jewish woman, Flora Solomon, was attending a cocktail party in Tel Aviv and made a comment about how Philby, the journalist in Beirut, displayed sympathy for Arabs in his articles. She said that his masters were the Soviets and that she knew that he had always worked for them. The comment was overheard by someone at the party and was relayed to the offices of MI5 in London, which sent Victor Rothschild to interview her. Mrs. Solomon declared that she would never testify against Philby, but she admitted that he had told her he was a spy and had tried to recruit her to the Communist cause. The Economist is a weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London, UK. It has been in continuous publication since September 1843. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Nathaniel Mayer Victor Rothschild, 3rd Baron Rothschild, CBE, GM, FRS (October 31, 1910 – March 20, 1990) was a biologist by training and a member of the prominent Rothschild family. ...


Although MI5 and MI6 could not immediately agree on how to deal with Philby, it was eventually agreed that a personal friend of Philby from his MI6 days, Nicolas Elliott, would be sent to confront him in Beirut. There seemed to be a constant leak of information and it is alleged that there was a high-level mole in MI5 those days. Although it is unclear whether Philby was aware of the developments against him vis-a-vis Flora Solomon or whether he knew about the defection of Anatoly Golitsyn (which led to the arrest, escape, and defection to Moscow of fellow MI6 officer and Soviet agent George Blake), there is evidence that in the last few months of 1962 Philby began to drink heavily and his behaviour became increasingly erratic. Philby may have also been warned by Yuri Modin, a top Soviet handler who had served in the Soviet embassy in London, when he travelled to Beirut in December 1962. Modin was the controller of the "Cambridge Five". This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), more commonly known as MI6 (originally Military Intelligence Section 6), or the Secret Service, is the United Kingdom external security agency. ... Anatoliy Mikhaylovich Golitsyn CBE (Russian: ;born August 25, 1926 in Piryatin, Ukrainian SSR) is a Soviet KGB defector and conspiracy theorist. ... George Blake (born Georg Behar, November 11, 1922) is a former British spy who was actually a double agent for the Soviets. ... Yuri Modin (1922- present) was the KGB controller for the so called Cambridge Five, from 1944 to 1955, during which period Donald MacLean was said to have passed atomic secrets to the Soviets, and he later arranged the 1951 defections of Maclean and Guy Burgess. ...


It is reported that the first thing that Philby said upon meeting with Elliott was that he was "half expecting" to see him. Many sources claim that he confessed immediately when confronted with the evidence,[3] while others, including Philby himself, have maintained that he continued to downplay the accusations. Although a further interrogation was scheduled in the last week of January 1963, Philby disappeared on January 23. Records later revealed that the Dolmatova, a Soviet freighter was called to port in Beirut on this date and had left so quickly its cargo remained scattered on the dock. is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Moscow

Kim Philby surfaced in Moscow, and quickly discovered that he was not a colonel in the KGB, but still just agent TOM. It was 10 years before he walked through the doors of KGB headquarters. He suffered severe bouts of alcoholism. In Moscow, he seduced MacLean's American wife, Melinda, and abandoned his own wife, Eleanor, who left Russia in 1965.[4] The KGB emblem and motto: The sword and the shield KGB (transliteration of КГБ) is the Russian-language abbreviation for Committee for State Security, (Russian: ; Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti). ...


According to information contained in the Mitrokhin Archive, the head of KGB counterintelligence, Oleg Kalugin met Philby in 1972 and found him to be 'a wreck of a man'; "The bent figure caromed off the walls as he walked. Reeking of vodka, he mumbled something unintelligible in atrocious, slurred Russian." The KGB sword and shield emblem appears on the covers of the three published works by Mitrokhin, co-author Christopher Andrew. ... Oleg Kalugin Oleg Danilovich Kalugin (Russian: ), (born September 6, 1934) is a former KGB spy. ...


Over the next few years Kalugin and the Young Turks in the Foreign Intelligence Directorate rehabilitated Philby, using him to devise active measures, and to run seminars for young agents about to be sent to Great Britain, Australia, or Ireland. In 1972 he married a Russian woman, Rufina Pukhova, who was twenty years his junior, with whom he lived until his death at age 76, in 1988. His autobiography "My Silent War" was published in the West in 1968. Only posthumously did he receive the praise and appreciation which had escaped him in life; he was awarded a hero's funeral and numerous posthumous medals by a grateful USSR.


Philby was a close friend of the novelist Graham Greene, who reportedly left MI6 rather than become involved in exposing Philby. Greene's biographer, Norman Sherry, had this to say: Henry Graham Greene, OM, CH (October 2, 1904 – April 3, 1991) was a great English playwright, novelist, short story writer, travel writer and critic whose works explore the ambivalent moral and political issues of the modern world. ... Norman Sherry is an English born American novelist, biographer, and educator who is most well known for his three-volume biography of the British novelist Graham Greene. ...

’Perhaps Greene, always intuitive, resigned because he suspected that Philby was a Russian penetration agent. … If Greene did suspect Philby, it would be just the kind of thing that would catapult him out of the service rather than share his suspicions with the authorities.’[5]

Chronology

  • 1912 Birth in India
  • 1919 Attended Aldro preparatory school in Eastbourne
  • 1924 Was a King's Scholar at Westminster School
  • 1929 Entered Trinity College, Cambridge at the age of 17 to read history.
  • 1930 Guy Burgess arrived at Trinity from Eton.
  • 1931 Joined the Cambridge University Socialist Society. Labour government of Ramsay MacDonald defeated 27th October. Philby became a more ardent socialist. After obtaining only a third in his history exams he transferred to economics.
  • 1932 Became treasurer of the Cambridge University Socialist Society.
  • 1933 Left Cambridge a convinced Communist with a degree in economics, then went to Vienna where Chancellor Dr Engelbert Dollfuss was preparing the first 'putsch' in February 1934. Philby became a Soviet agent.
  • 1934 Clash between the Austrian government and socialists in Vienna. On 24 February Philby married Alice (Litzy) Friedmann, born Kohlmann; then in May, after the collapse of the socialist movement in Vienna, he returned with his wife to England. He began work as a sub-editor of a Liberal monthly review, and joined Guy Burgess as a member of the Anglo-German Fellowship. (Philby edited the fellowship's pro-Hitler magazine, supported by Nazi funds). To cover up his communist background he also made repeated visits to Berlin for talks with the German Propaganda Ministry and with von Ribbentrop's Foreign Office.
  • 1937 In February Philby arrived in Spain to report on the Spanish Civil War from Franco's side. 20 May 1937 he became correspondent of The Times with Franco's forces.
  • 1938 Awarded the 'Red Cross of Military Merit' by Franco personally.
  • 1939 In July, left Spain and became war correspondent of The Times at the British Headquarters in Arras.
  • 1940 In June, after the evacuation of British Forces from the European mainland, he returned to Britain. Recruited by the British Secret Service and attached to the Secret Intelligence Service under Guy Burgess in Section D. Assigned to school for under-cover work, but later transferred to the teaching staff of a new school for general training in techniques of sabotage and subversion at Beaulieu, Hampshire.
  • 1941 Transferred to MI6, Section V (Five). Philby took charge of the Iberian sub-section, responsible for British Intelligence in Spain and Portugal. Trained James Jesus Angleton in the arts and crafts of counterespionage.
  • 1942 Married his second wife Aileen Furse. Office of Strategic Services group under Norman Pearson arrived in London for liaison with British Secret Service. Philby's area of responsibility grew to include North African and Italian espionage under newly formed counter-intelligence units.
  • 1943 Section V moved from St Albans to London, bringing Philby closer to the centres of power.
  • 1944 Appointed head of Section IX, newly created to operate against communism and the Soviet Union.
  • 1945 In September Soviet intelligence officer Konstantin Volkov based at the Soviet embassy in Ankara seriously threatened Philby's position by offering to defect and provide the names of two agents working in the Foreign Office and one in MI6 (probably Philby). The offer was sent to Philby as head of the Section IX, Soviet counterintelligence. Soon afterwards, Volkov was kidnapped by Soviet agents and taken to the Lubyanka in Moscow for interrogation and execution.
  • 1946 Took a field appointment - officially as First Secretary with the British embassy in Turkey, actually as head of the Turkish MI6 station.
  • 1949 Became MI6 representative in Washington, as senior British Secret Service officer working in liaison with the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the newly created CIA. He occasionally visited Arlington Hall for discussions about VENONA; furthermore, he regularly received copies of summaries of VENONA translations as part of his official duties. He sat in on a Special Policy Committee directing the ill-fated Anglo-US attempt to infiltrate anti-communist agents into Albania to topple the Enver Hoxha régime.
  • 1950 Guy Burgess arrived in Washington on assignment as Second Secretary of the British Embassy, and Philby invited him to stay at his house.
  • 1951 Philby learnt of the tightening net of suspicion surrounding Foreign Office diplomat and Soviet agent Donald Maclean, whose British embassy position at the end of the war had placed him on the Combined Policy Committee on Atomic Energy as its British joint secretary. Burgess's alcoholism caused Ambassador Franks to remove him and he returned to England. On 25 May, Burgess and Maclean disappeared from Britain, with help from Philby, having escaped via the Baltic to the Soviet Union. Philby summoned to London for interrogation and asked to resign from the Foreign Service.
  • 1952 In the summer a secret trial took place in which Philby underwent questioning about his activities.
  • 1955 The British Government published a 'White Paper' (report) on the Burgess-Maclean affair. On October 25, questions tabled in parliament asking about the 'third man', Philby. Harold Macmillan, foreign secretary in the Eden cabinet, stated that no evidence existed of Philby having betrayed the interests of Britain. Nevertheless, the Foreign Service dismissed him because of his association with Burgess.
  • 1956 In September British secret service arranged Philby to work for The Observer in Beirut as correspondent of and also The Economist; But that year Dick White, who suspected Philby of working as a Soviet agent, became head of MI6.
  • 1957 Aileen, Philby's second wife, died.
  • 1958 Married Eleanor Brewer.
  • 1962 George Blake unmasked. Philby then confirmed as an identified Soviet agent.
  • 1963 23 January, Philby disappeared in Beirut. The Soviet Union announced that it has granted Philby political asylum in Moscow. On 3 March, Mrs. Philby received a telegram from Philby postmarked Cairo, Egypt. On 3 June Izvestia located Philby with the Imam of Yemen. On 1 July, the British Government admitted that Philby had worked as a Soviet agent before 1946 and identified him as the 'third man'.
  • 1965 Awarded the Order of the Red Banner, one of the highest honours of the Soviet Union.
  • 1971, marries Rufina Ivanovna in Moscow.
  • 1988 Death at the age 76.

Aldro is a preparatory school in Shackleford, near Godalming, Surrey, United Kingdom. ... The title page to The Historians History of the World. ... The Kings College of Our Lady of Eton beside Windsor, commonly known as Eton College or just Eton, is a public school (privately funded and independent) for boys, founded in 1440 by King Henry VI. It is located in Eton, Berkshire, near Windsor in England, situated north of Windsor... James Ramsay MacDonald (12 October 1866 – 9 November 1937) was a British politician and three times Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... Engelbert Dollfuss. ... Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim von Ribbentrop (born Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim Ribbentrop) (April 30, 1893 – October 16, 1946) was Foreign Minister of Germany from 1938 until 1945. ... General Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 - November 20, [1] 1975), commonly abbreviated to Francisco Franco (pron. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Arras (Dutch: ) is a town and commune in northern France, préfecture (capital) of the Pas-de-Calais département. ... Beaulieu is a small village located on the south eastern edge of the New Forest national park in Hampshire, England. ... Hampshire, sometimes historically Southamptonshire or Hamptonshire, (abbr. ... This article is about the CIA official. ... The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was a United States intelligence agency formed during World War II. It was the wartime intelligence agency and was the predecessor to the Central Intelligence Agency, the Special Forces, and Navy SEALs. ... 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Philby in popular culture

Literature

  • The Tim Powers novel Declare is partly based on unexplained aspects of Philby's life, providing a supernatural context for his behavior (described by Powers as "tradecraft meets Lovecraft").
  • In the Ted Allbeury novel The Other Side of Silence (1981) Philby, near the end of his life, asks to return to Britain.
  • The Frederick Forsyth novel, The Fourth Protocol, features an elderly Kim Philby advising a Soviet leader on a plot to influence a British election in 1987.
  • The Robert Littell novel The Company features Philby as a confidant of former CIA Counter-Intelligence chief James Angleton.
  • Graham Greene's novel The Human Factor explores aspects of Philby's story.
  • William F. Buckley, Jr.'s novel Spytime: The Undoing of James Jesus Angleton
  • William F. Buckley, Jr.'s novel Last Call for Blackford Oakes
  • Chris Petit's novel The Passenger.
  • John le Carré's novel (also a BBC television mini-series) Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy focuses on the hunt for a Soviet agent patterned after Philby.
  • The novel Fox at the Front by Douglas Niles and Michael Dobson depicts Philby selling secrets to the Soviet Union during the alternate Battle of the Bulge where German Field Marshall Erwin Rommel turns on the Nazis and assists the Allies in capturing all of Berlin. Before he can sell the secret of the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union, he is discovered by the British and is killed by members of MI5 who stage his death as a heart attack.

Tim Powers at the Israeli ICon 2005 SF&F Convention Timothy Thomas Powers (born February 29, 1952) is an American science fiction and fantasy author. ... Declare is a World Fantasy Award-winning supernatural secret history cold war spy novel by Tim Powers in which an agent for a secret British spy organization learns the true nature of several beings living on Mount Ararat. ... Look up Supernatural in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tradecraft are the techniques used in modern espionage. ... Cthulhu and Rlyeh The Cthulhu Mythos encompasses the shared elements, characters, settings, and themes in the works of H. P. Lovecraft and associated horror fiction writers. ... Frederick Forsyth. ... The Fourth Protocol is a novel written by Frederick Forsyth and published in August 1984. ... Robert Littell (born January 8, 1935 in Brooklyn, New York, USA) is an American author residing in France. ... James Jesus Angleton (December 9, 1917–May 12, 1987), known to friends and colleagues as Jim and nicknamed the Kingfisher, was the long-serving director of the CIAs counter-intelligence division, an occasional poetry aficionado, and an avid fly-fisherman and orchid-grower. ... The Human Factor (ISBN 0679409920) is an espionage novel by Graham Greene, first published in 1978 and adapted into a 1979 film by Otto Preminger. ... William Francis Bill Buckley, Jr. ... Chris Petit is an English novelist and film-maker. ... The Passenger is a magazine and nonprofit organization founded by students at Northwestern University in 2003. ... John le Carré is the pseudonym of David John Moore Cornwell (born October 19, 1931 in Poole, Dorset, England), an English writer of espionage novels. ... Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy is a spy novel by John le Carré, first published in 1974. ... Douglas Niles is a fantasy author and game designer. ... Michael Dobson is an author in the fields of Business (particularly office politics and project management), Alternate History (relating to WWII) and Role-playing game adventures (D&D and Indiana Jones. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Film and television

  • Cambridge Spies, a 2003 four-part BBC drama, starring Toby Stephens as Kim Philby, Tom Hollander as Guy Burgess, Rupert Penry-Jones as Donald Maclean, and Samuel West as Anthony Blunt, which is told from Philby's point of view, recounts their lives and adventures from Cambridge days in the 1930s, through World War II, until the defection of Burgess and Maclean in 1951.
  • The 2005 film A Different Loyalty is an unattributed account taken from Eleanor Philby's book, "Kim Philby: The Spy I Loved." The film recounts Philby's love affair and marriage to Eleanor Brewer during his time in Beirut, and his eventual defection to the Soviet Union in late January of 1963. The names of all characters, including the lead characters, have been changed, and the film becomes highly speculative at the end.
  • The character "Harry Lime" in the 1949 film The Third Man has been said to be based on Kim Philby, although Graham Greene has denied this. It is ironic that a few years later, Philby was suspected of being the "third man" in the spy scandal.
  • Traitor is a television play loosely based on Philby's life.
  • Joseph Brodsky's essay, Collector's Item, in his 1996 book, On Grief and Reason, contains a conjectured description of Philby's career, as well as speculations into his motivations and general thoughts on espionage and politics. The title of the essay refers to a postal stamp commemorating Philby - it was issued in the Soviet Union in the late 1980s.

Cambridge Spies was a 2003 four-part BBC drama concerning the lives of the Cambridge Five from 1934 to the defection of Guy Burgess and Donald MacLean to the Soviet Union. ... A 2005 film that is alleged to be a truthful account of Kim Philbys love affair and marriage to Eleanor Brewer during his time in Beirut, and his eventual defection to the Soviet Union in late January of 1963. ... The Fourth Protocol is a 1987 movie starring Michael Caine and Pierce Brosnan, based on the novel of the same name written by Frederick Forsyth. ... Sir Maurice Joseph Micklewhite, Jr. ... Pierce Brendan Brosnan OBE [1] (born May 16, 1953) is an Irish actor and producer best known for portraying James Bond in four films from 1995 to 2002: GoldenEye, Tomorrow Never Dies, The World Is Not Enough and Die Another Day. ... Michael Bilton Michael Bilton was an English actor born 12 December 1919, died 5 May 1993. ... film noir. ... The Good Shepherd is a nautical novel by CS Forester, the author of the novels about fictional Royal Navy officer Horatio Hornblower. ... This article is about the CIA official. ... The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), more commonly known as MI6 (originally Military Intelligence Section 6), or the Secret Service, is the United Kingdom external security agency. ... William Crudup (born July 8, 1968) is an American actor. ... Traitor is a 1970 or 1971 BBC drama, which appeared on Play for Today. ... Bookcover of Works and Days in Russian Joseph Brodsky (May 24, 1940 – January 28, 1996), born Iosif Aleksandrovich Brodsky (Russian: ) was a Russian-born poet and essayist who won the Nobel Prize in Literature (1987) and was chosen Poet Laureate of the United States (1991-1992). ... The Company is a miniseries about the activities of the CIA during the Cold War. ... Tom Hollander (born 1967) is an English actor who has appeared in Enigma, Gosford Park, Cambridge Spies and Pride and Prejudice. ...

Music

  • "Philby" by Rory Gallagher from the Top Priority album (1979) in which he draws parallels between his life on the road and Philby's.
  • Pet Shop Boys' song Jack the Lad has four or five lines referencing Kim Philby. It is available on the album Alternative (1995).
  • Philby, an unproduced musical by Katie Baldwin (book and lyrics) and Alan Moon (music).
  • "Kim Philby", by the now-defunct Vancouver band Terror of Tiny Town, is a polka-esque retelling of some of Philby's story.
  • "Up on the Catwalk" from Simple Minds' 1984 album Sparkle in the Rain makes a reference to Kim Philby.

Rory Gallagher (2 March 1948–14 June 1995) was an Irish blues/rock guitarist, born in Ballyshannon, County Donegal, grew up in Cork City in the south of Ireland. ... Top Priority is Rory Gallaghers tenth album and considered one of his bests. ... Pet Shop Boys are an English synthpop/pop music duo, consisting of Neil Tennant who provides main vocals, keyboards and very occasionally guitar, and Chris Lowe on keyboards and occasionally on vocals. ... Street musicians in Prague playing a polka Polka is a type of dance, and also a genre of dance music. ... Simple Minds is a rock band from Scotland, which had its greatest worldwide popularity from the mid-1980s to the early-1990s. ... Sparkle in the Rain, the sixth album by Simple Minds was produced by Steve Lillywhite, who also produced U2s first three records. ...

External links

  • Annotated bibliography of the Philby Affair
  • Kim Philby (BBC)
  • Burgess, MacLean and Philby, FBI FOIA
  • Kim Philby was here

Notes

  1. ^ See Anthony Cane Brown, Treason in the Blood: H. St. John Philby, Kim Philby, and the Spy Case of the Century, 1994
  2. ^ See Miles Copeland, Without Cloak Or Dagger: The Truth about the New Espionage, 1974
  3. ^ See for example Genrikh Borovik, The Philby Files
  4. ^ Eleanor Philby, Kim Philby: The Spy I Loved, 1967, London: Hamish Hamilton. Eleanor Philby died in 1968.
  5. ^ Norman Sherry, The Life of Graham Greene, Volume Two:1939-1955, (Jonathan Cape, London, 1994), p.183

Jonathan Cape has been since 1987 an imprint of Random House. ...

References

  • Kim Philby, My Silent War, published by Macgibbon & Kee Ltd, London, 1968, or Granda Publishing, ISBN 0-586-02860-9. Introduction by Graham Greene
  • Bruce Page, David Leitch and Phillip Knightley, Philby: The Spy Who Betrayed a Generation, 1968, published by André Deutsch, Ltd., London.
  • Eleanor Philby, Kim Philby: The Spy I Married, 1967, published by Ballantine Books, New York. Published in the UK as Kim Philby: The Spy I Loved by Hamish Hamilton (1967).
  • Patrick Seale and Maureen McConville, Philby: The Long Road to Moscow, 1973, published by Hamish Hamilton, London.
  • Hayden Peake, "The Philby Literature" in The Private Life of Kim Philby: The Moscow Years by Rufina Philby, Mikhail Lyubimov, and Hayden Peake. St. Ermin's Press, 1999.
  • Rufina Philby, The Private Life of Kim Philby: The Moscow Years, 1999, published by Fromm International, New York.
  • Genrikh Borovik, The Philby Files, 1994, published by Little, Brown & Company Limited, Canada, ISBN 0316910155 . Introduction by Phillip Knightley.
  • Phillip Knightley, Philby: KGB Masterspy 2003, published by Andre Deutsch Ltd, London, ISBN 0233000488.

See also: Phillip Knightley (born January 23, 1929) is a multi-award winning journalist, critic, and non-fiction author, visiting Professor of Journalism at the University of Lincoln, England, and media commentator on the intelligence services and propaganda. ...

  • Richard Beeston, Looking For Trouble: The Life and Times of a Foreign Correspondent, 1997, published by Brassey's, London.
  • Desmond Bristow, A Game of Moles, 1993, published by Little Brown & Company, London.
  • Miranda Carter, Anthony Blunt: His Lives, 2001, published by Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, New York.
  • Anthony Cave Brown, "C": The Secret Life of Sir Stewart Graham Menzies, Spymaster to Winston Churchill, 1987, published by Macmillan, New York.
  • Anthony Cave Brown, Treason in the Blood: H. St. John Philby, Kim Philby, and the Spy Case of the Century, 1994, published by Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.
  • John Fisher, Burgess and Maclean, 1977, published by Robert Hale, London.
  • S. J. Hamrick, Deceiving the Deceivers, 2004, published by Yale University Press, New Haven.
  • Phillip Knightley, The Second Oldest Profession: Spies and Spying in the Twentieth Century, 1986, published by W.W. Norton & Company, London.
  • Yuri Modin, My Five Cambridge Friends, 1994, published by Farrar Strauss Giroux, Paris.
  • Malcolm Muggeridge, The Infernal Grove: Chronicles of Wasted Time: Number 2, 1974, published by William Morrow & Company, New York.
  • Barrie Penrose & Simon Freeman, Conspiracy of Silence: The Secret Life of Anthony Blunt, 1986, published by Farrar Straus Giroux, New York.
  • Nigel West, editor, The Guy Liddell Diaries: Vol. I: 1939-1942, 2005, published by Routledge, London
  • Nigel West & Oleg Tsarev, The Crown Jewels: The British Secrets at the Heart of the KGB Archives, 1998, published by Yale University Press, New Haven.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Kim Philby (4202 words)
Harold (Kim) Philby, the son of the diplomat, John Philby, was born in Ambala, India, in 1911.
Philby was now aware that he was in danger of being arrested and therefore on 23rd January, 1963, Philby fled to the Soviet Union.
Kim Philby was a "Soviet agent", as the sub-heading identifies, not a "double-agent" as William Boyd claims ("Old-school spy", September 23).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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