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Encyclopedia > Kilauea
Kīlauea

3D false-color satellite image of Kīlauea
Elevation: 4,091 ft (1,247 m)
Location: Hawaiʻi
Range: Hawaiian Islands
Coordinates: 19°25′N, 155°17′W
Type: Shield volcano
Age of rock: <23000 yrs
Last eruption: 2006 (continuing)

Kīlauea is an active volcano in the Hawaiian Islands, one of five shield volcanoes that together form the Island of Hawaiʻi. In Hawaiian, the word kīlauea means "spewing" or "much spreading", in reference to the mountain's frequent outpouring of lava. It is presently the most active volcano and certainly the most visited active volcano on the planet. Kīlauea is just the most recent of a long series of volcanoes that created the Hawaiian Archipelago, as the Pacific Plate moved over a more or less fixed hotspot in the earth's mantle (see, however, Loʻihi). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1440x862, 137 KB) Summary NASA space-radar false-color image of Kilauea, Hawaii. ... A topographical summit is a point on a surface which is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. ... Official language(s) Hawaiian and English Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 43rd 28,337 km² n/a km 2,450 km 41. ... The most general definition of a mountain range is a group of mountains bordered by lowlands. ... Map of the Hawaiian Islands, a chain of islands that stretches 2,400 km in a northwesterly direction from the southern tip of the Island of Hawai‘i. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically); large version (pdf) The geographic (earth-mapping) coordinate system expresses every horizontal position on Earth by two of the three coordinates of a spherical coordinate system which is aligned with the spin axis of the Earth. ... Mountains can be characterized in several ways. ... Mauna Kea, a shield volcano, on the Island of Hawai‘i with a light dusting of snow. ... The geologic time scale is used by geologists and other scientists to describe the timing and relationships between events that have occurred during the history of the Earth. ... -1... 2006 (MMVI in Roman) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... -1... Map of the Hawaiian Islands, a chain of islands that stretches 2,400 km in a northwesterly direction from the southern tip of the Island of Hawai‘i. ... Mauna Kea, a shield volcano, on the Island of Hawai‘i with a light dusting of snow. ... The Island of Hawai‘i (called the Big Island or Hawai‘i proper) is one of the eight main islands that make up the state of Hawai‘i. ... Hawaiian is the ancestral language of the indigenous people of the Hawaiian Islands, the Hawaiians, a Polynesian people. ... Look up lava, Aa, and pahoehoe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An archipelago is a landform which consists of a chain or cluster of islands. ... The Pacific plate is shown in pale yellow on this map The Pacific Plate is an oceanic tectonic plate beneath the Pacific Ocean. ... In geology, a hotspot is a location on the Earths surface that has experienced active volcanism for a long period of time. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... Lo‘ihi seamount is an undersea volcano in the Hawaiian archipelago. ...

Contents


Description

Kīlauea's geographical location is 19.452 North, 155.292 West. It lies against the southeast flank of much larger Mauna Loa volcano. Mauna Loa's massive size and elevation (13,677 feet or 4,169 m) is a stark contrast to Kīlauea, which rises only 4,091 feet (1,247 m) above sea level, and thus from the summit caldera appears as a broad shelf of uplands well beneath the long profile of occasionally snow-capped Mauna Loa, 15 miles (24 km) distant. The village of Suka Mauna Loa is an active shield volcano in the Hawaiian Islands, one of five volcanic peaks that together form the Island of Hawaii. ... Crater Lake, Oregon A caldera is a volcanic feature formed by the collapse of a volcano into itself. ...


First-time visitors to Kīlauea, not familiar with how different the profile of a shield volcano can be compared with stratovolcanoes like Mt. Fuji, Mount Hood, and Mount St. Helens, are usually blissfully unaware they are approaching the summit of an active volcano as they make the drive up through the cloud forest on State Rte. 11 to Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park from Hilo—or coming from Kailua-Kona via South Point across the Kaʻū Desert. From Hilo, the highway heads south to Keaʻau, then turns abruptly westward to begin the climb to the Kīlauea caldera. For some 20 miles (32 km) the road runs relatively straight, making a 4,000 ft (1,200 m) ascent. However, most of this climb is actually on the heavily vegetated flank of Mauna Loa; the crossing onto lava flows issued from Kīlauea is about 1 mile west of Glenwood, 18 miles (29 km) from Hilo. The Mauna Loa flows are several thousand years old; the lightly vegetated Kīlauea flows are only 350 to 500 years old. A stratovolcano, is a tall, conical mountain (volcano) composed of both hardened lava and volcanic ash. ... Mount Fuji (富士山 Fuji-san, IPA: [ɸuʝisaɴ]) is the highest mountain on the island of Honshu and indeed in all of Japan. ... Mount Hood is a dormant stratovolcano in northern Oregon, in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. ... Mount St. ... The cloud forest of Monteverde , Costa Rica A cloud forest is a generally tropical or subtropical evergreen montane forest characterized by a high incidence of low-level cloud cover, usually at the canopy level. ... Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park, established in 1916, displays the results of 70 million years of volcanism, migration, and evolution—processes that thrust a bare land from the sea and clothed it with complex and unique ecosystems and a distinct human culture. ... Hilo is a coastal city in the State of Hawaii, and is the largest municipal area on the island of Hawai‘i. ... Along the sea wall at Kailua-Kona Kailua-Kona is a census-designated place located in Hawai‘i County, Hawai‘i, in the North Kona District of the Island of Hawai‘i. ... South Point, Hawaii South Point, Hawaii (Hawaiian: Ka Lea) is the southern tip of the Island of Hawaii. ... Keaau is a census-designated place located in Hawaii County, Hawaii. ...

Glowing ʻaʻa flow front advancing over pāhoehoe on the coastal plain of Kīlauea in Hawaiʻi.
Glowing ʻaʻa flow front advancing over pāhoehoe on the coastal plain of Kīlauea in Hawaiʻi.

Driving from the Kona Coast, the immense size of the Big Island becomes apparent: from Kailua-Kona it is 98 miles (158 km) on the Māmalahoa Highway (State Rte. 11) to Kīlauea. After passing around the southern end of Mauna Loa, the highway turns northeastward towards Kīlauea once past the town of ʻālehu. Yet, as from the Hilo side, the long climb from near sea level to the summit is all on the flank of Mauna Loa. Not until the Sulfur Bank scarp (the northwestern edge of Kīlauea Caldera), near the intersection of Crater Rim Drive in Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park, does the road cross over onto Kīlauea. However, the highway parallels the line of contact between the two volcanoes—always less than 1 mile to the southeast—from the vicinity of Punaluʻu at the coast to the caldera at the summit. [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Official language(s) Hawaiian and English Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 43rd 28,337 km² n/a km 2,450 km 41. ... Nā‘ālehu is a census-designated place and town in Hawai‘i County, Hawai‘i. ...


Kaʻū

The highway route from the west (State Rte. 11) is vastly different from that seen when coming from Hilo. The highway approaches Kīlauea through a desert on the leeward slope called Kaʻū. Kīlauea's height of 4000 ft is sufficient to force most of the moisture out of the impinging Northeast Trades, leaving Kaʻū in the rain shadow of the "low" mountain. This area is also the very active southwest rift zone of Kīlauea, a prolific ash producer. Winds redistribute the ash, causing dust storms and forming dunes across a landscape barren of most vegetation. A dune in the Egyptian desert In geography, a desert is a landscape form or region that receives little precipitation - less than 250 mm (10 in) per year. ... // A rain shadow (or more accurately, precipitation shadow) is a dry region on the surface of the Earth that is leeward or behind a mountain with respect to the prevailing wind direction. ... Diamond Head, a well-known backdrop to Waikiki in Hawaii, is an ash cone that solidified into tuff Volcanic ash is the term for very fine rock and mineral particles less than 2 mm in diameter that are ejected from a volcanic vent. ... Satellite photo of a Saharan dust cloud (2000) over the Eastern Atlantic Ocean. ... Mesquite Flat Dunes in Death Valley National Park In physical geography, a dune is a hill of sand built by eolian (wind-related) processes. ...


Kīlauea Caldera and Halemaʻumaʻu Crater

Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park encompasses a portion of Kīlauea, and the park visitor center is located near the margin of the summit caldera, overlooking a large pit crater called Halemaʻumaʻu. The roughly circular caldera measures 3x5 km (or 6x6 km, including the outermost ring faults). Crater Lake, Oregon A caldera is a volcanic feature formed by the collapse of a volcano into itself. ...


Kīlauea eruptions

Steam plume as Kīlauea lava enters the ocean
Steam plume as Kīlauea lava enters the ocean

Eruptions at Kīlauea occur primarily either from the summit caldera or along either of the lengthy East and Southwest rift zones that extend from the caldera to the sea. In recent decades, eruptions have been continuous, with many of the lava flows reaching to the Pacific Ocean shore. About 90% of the surface of Kīlauea is lava flows less than 1,100 years old; 70% of the surface is younger than 600 years. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 252 KB) Summary Steam plume as lava from Kilauea hits the Pacific Ocean. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 252 KB) Summary Steam plume as lava from Kilauea hits the Pacific Ocean. ...


There were forty-five separate eruptions of Kīlauea in the twentieth century. The current Kīlauea eruption began in January 1983 along the East rift zone from Puʻu ʻŌʻō-Kūpaʻianahā and continues to produce lava flows that travel 11 to 12 km from these vents to the sea. This eruption has covered over 104 km² of land on the southern flank of Kīlauea and has built out into the sea 2 km² of new land. Since 1983 more than 1.9 km³ of lava has been erupted, making the 1983-to-present eruption the largest historically known for Kīlauea. Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō (which means Hill of the ‘Ō‘ō Bird in Hawaiian, is often written as Puu Oo, and is pronounced Poo-oo Oh-oh or in the IPA) is a cinder/spatter cone in the eastern rift zone of the KÄ«lauea volcano of the Hawaiian Islands. ...


The 1990 lava flow in particular was notable for being destructive of property. In the 1990 lava flow the towns of Kalapana and Kaimū were totally destroyed, as was Kaimū Bay, Kalapana Black Sand Beach, and a large section of State Rte. 130, which now abruptly dead-ends at the lava flow. This article is about the year. ... One of the over 100 houses destroyed by the lava flow in 1990 Kalapana is a town on the Island of Hawai‘i in the Hawaiian Islands that was completely destroyed and partly buried by the eruptive flow of lava from Kīlauea volcano in 1990. ... Kaimū was a small town on the Island of Hawaii in the Hawaiian Islands that was completley destroyed by an eruptive flow of lava from the Puu Oo vent of the Kīlauea volcano in 1990. ...


Eruptions from Kīlauea also are known for creating vog, or volcanic smog, which affects many areas of the Hawaiian Islands, including Oʻahu and Honolulu whenever winds come out of the south or southeast. Vog is volcanic smog formed when sulfur dioxide and other pollutants emitted by an erupting volcano mixes with oxygen and moisture in the presence of sunlight. ... Map of the Hawaiian Islands, a chain of islands that stretches 2,400 km in a northwesterly direction from the southern tip of the Island of Hawai‘i. ...


Pele

Kīlauea is considered to be the present home of Pele, the volcano goddess of ancient Hawaiian legend. Several special lava formations are named after her, including Pele's Tears (small droplets of lava that cool in the air and retain their teardrop shapes) and Pele's Hair (thin, brittle strands of volcanic glass that often form during the explosions that accompany a lava flow as it enters the ocean). In Polynesian mythology (specifically: Hawaii), Pele is a goddess of fire, lightning, dance, volcanoes and violence, a daughter of Haumea and Kane Milohai. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia4U - Kilauea - Encyclopedia Article (159 words)
Kilauea is an active volcano in the Hawaiian Islands, one of five volcanic peaks that together form the Island of Hawaii.
In Hawaiian kilauea means "spewing" or "much spreading", in reference to the outpouring of lava.
Hawaii Volcanoes National Park encompasses a portion of Kilauea, and the park visitor center is located along the margin of the summit caldera, overlooking a pit crater called Halemaumau.
Kilauea - definition of Kilauea in Encyclopedia (953 words)
Eruptions at Kilauea originate primarily either from the summit caldera or along either of the lengthy East and Southwest rift zones that extend from the caldera to the sea.
The eruption from Kilauea also is known for creating vog, or volcanic smog, which affects many areas of the island of Hawai'i and sometimes the entire state.
Kīlauea is said to be the present home of Pele, the volcano goddess of ancient Hawaiian legend.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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