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Encyclopedia > Kievan Rus'
Кыѥвьска Рѹсь (cu)
Kievan Rus′

9th century – 12th century Coat of arms of Halych-Volhynia
 

 

Old Church Slavonic (Old Bulgarian or Old Slavic) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessaloniki (Solun) by the 9th century Byzantine missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ... The East Slavs are the ethnic group that evolved into the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples. ... Image File history File links Sin_escudo. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Coat of arms The Halych-Volhynian Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Sin_escudo. ... Medieval walls of Novgorod City The Novgorod Feudal Republic (Новгородская феодальная республика or Novgorodskaya feodalnaya respublika in Russian) was a powerful medieval state which stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Ural Mountains between the 12th and 15th century. ... Image File history File links Sin_escudo. ... Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy (Russian: , tr. ... A coin of Yaroslav the Wise File links The following pages link to this file: Sviatopolk I of Kiev Categories: Currency images ...


Trydent of Yaroslav I Mikhail Gerasimovs reconstruction of Yaroslavs appearance, based on his examination of Yaroslavs skull Yaroslav I the Wise (c. ...

Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century
Capital Kiev
Religion Orthodox Christianity
Government Monarchy
Historical era Middle Ages
 - Established 9th century
 - Disestablished 12th century
Currency Hryvnia
History of Belarus,
History of Russia,
History of Ukraine
Early East Slavs
Kievan Rus’
Vladimir-Suzdal
Halych-Volynia
Mongol invasion
Golden Horde
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Moscow
Tsardom of Russia
The Hetmanate
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Imperial Russia
Revolution of 1917
Russian Civil War
Soviet Union
Russian Federation
Ukraine
Belarus

Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] medieval state of Rurikid dynasty dominated by the city of Kiev from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. From the historiographical point of view, Kievan Rus' is considered a predecessor state of three modern East Slavic nations: Belarus, Russia and Ukraine.[2] The reigns of Vladimir the Great (980-1015) and his son Yaroslav I the Wise (1019-1054) constitute the Golden Age of Kiev, which saw the acceptance of Orthodox Christianity and the creation of the first East Slavic written legal code, the Russkaya Pravda. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x1382, 581 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: History of Russia Kievan Rus Categories: | | ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... The term Orthodox Christianity may refer to: The Oriental Orthodox Churches: the Eastern Christian churches adhering to the teachings of only the first three Ecumenical Councils (plus the Second Council of Ephesus). ... For the comic series, see Monarchy (comics). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... ISO 4217 Code UAH User(s) Ukraine Inflation 11. ... This article describes the history of Belarus. ... The history of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs, the ethnic group that eventually split into the Russians, Ukrainians, and Belarusians. ... History of Ukraine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The East Slavs are a Slavic ethnic group, the speakers of East Slavic languages. ... Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy (Russian: , tr. ... Halych-Volynia principality was the Ruthenian successor state of Kievan Rus on the territory of Rus menora (Rus propria) including the lands of Red Ruthenia, Black Ruthenia, and the remainder of southwestern Rus. This state also briefly controlled the region of Bessarabia and Moldavia. ... The Mongol Invasion of Rus was heralded by the Battle of the Kalka River (1223) between Subutais reconnaissance unit and the combined force of several princes of Rus. After fifteen years of peace, it was followed by Batu Khans full-scale invasion in 1237-40. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Turkish: ; Tatar: ; Russian: ) was a Mongol[1][2][3][4] — later Turkicized[3] — khanate established in parts of present-day Russia... The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Å»amojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ... Coat of arms The growth of Muscovy-Russia. ... The Tsardom of Russia (Russian: Московское царство or Царство Русское) was the official name for the Russian state between Ivan IVs assumption of the title of Tsar in 1547 and Peter the Greats foundation of the Russian Empire in 1721. ... The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Turkey. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Russian Civil War (1917-1922) began immediately after the collapse of the Russian provisional government and the Bolshevik takeover of Petrograd, rapidly intensifying after the dissolution of the Russian Constituent Assembly and signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. ... The East Slavs are the ethnic group that evolved into the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples. ... Rurik Dynasty ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... For other uses, see number 880. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Historiography is a term with multiple meanings that has changed with time, place and observer, and is thus resistant to a single encompassing meaning. ... A predecessor state is an established state in international law that is succeeded by a new state or states. ... Detail of the Millenium of Russia monument in Novgorod (1862) representing St Vladimir and his family. ... Events Births Emperor Ichijo of Japan Humbert I of Savoy Avicenna Godiva, Countess of Mercia Deaths Categories: 980 ... Events August: Canute the Great invades England. ... Mikhail Gerasimovs reconstruction of Yaroslavs appearance, based on his examination of Yaroslavs skull Yaroslav I the Wise (c. ... Events Toi invasion: Jurchen pirates invade Kyushu. ... Events Cardinal Humbertus, a representative of Pope Leo IX, and Michael Cerularius, Patriarch of Constantinople, decree each others excommunication. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... The term Orthodox Christianity may refer to: The Oriental Orthodox Churches: the Eastern Christian churches adhering to the teachings of only the first three Ecumenical Councils (plus the Second Council of Ephesus). ... A legal code is a moral code enforced by the law of a state. ... Russkaya Pravda is being read to people Russkaya Pravda (Russian: , Russkaya Pravda; Ukrainian: ; Archaic: Правда Роська, Pravda Roska) was the legal code of Kievan Rus and the subsequent Rus principalities during the times of feudal division. ...

Contents

Early history of Rus′

According to the Primary Chronicle, the earliest chronicle of Kievan Rus′, a Varangian (Viking) named Rurik first established himself in Novgorod in about 860. The chronicle cites him as the progenitor of the Rurik Dynasty. The Primary Chronicle says: The Primary Chronicle (Old-Slavonic: Повсть времяньныхъ лтъ; Russian: Повесть временных лет, Povest vremennykh let; Ukrainian: Повість времмених літ, Povist vremennykh lit; often translated into English as Tale of Bygone Years), is a history of the Ancient Rus from around 850 to 1110 originally compiled in Kiev about 1113. ... The Varangians (Russian: Variags, Варяги) were Scandinavians who travelled eastwards, mainly from Jutland and Sweden. ... Viking also called Norseman or Northman, a member of the Scandinavian seafaring warriors who raided and colonized wide areas of Europe from the 9th to the 11th century[1] and reached east to Russia and Constantinople, (referred to as Varangians by the Byzantine sources and by the Russian Primary Chronicle. ... Rurik or Riurik (Russian: , Old East Norse Rørik, meaning famous ruler) (ca 830 – ca 879) was a Varangian who gained control of Ladoga in 862 and built the Holmgard settlement (Ryurikovo Gorodishche) in Novgorod. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... The Rurik Dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Kievan Rus, Rus principalities, and early Russia from 862 to 1598. ...

In the year 6367 (859): Varangians from over the sea had tribute from Chuds, Slavs, Merias, Veses, Krivichs....
In the year 6370 (862): [They] [d]rove the Varangians back beyond the sea, refused to pay them tribute, and set out to govern themselves. But there was no law among them, and tribe rose against tribe. Discord thus ensued among them, and they began to war one against the other. They said to themselves, "Let us seek a prince who may rule over us, and judge us according to custom." Thus they went overseas to the Varangians, to the Rus. These particular Varangians were called Rus, just as some are called Swedes, and others Normans and Angles, and still others Goths [Gotlanders], for they were thus named. The Chuds, the Slavs, the Krivichs and the Ves then said to the Rus, "Our land is great and rich, but there is no order in it. Come reign as princes, rule over us". Three brothers, with their kinfolk, volunteered. They took with them all the Rus and came. Events Battle of Abelda: Asturias beats the Muslims. ... Chud is a term referring to urban homeless people, especially those who dwell in the tunnels, sewers and subway corridors beneath New York City. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... The Meryas were a probably Finno-Ugric tribe which lived in the region of Moscow, Rostov, Kostroma, Jaroslavl and Vladimir. ... Vepses or vepsians are Finnic people that speak Veps language, which belongs to the Baltic-Finnic branch of Finno-ugric family. ... Kriwi  album cover The Krivichs (Кривичи́ in Russian, Крывічы́ in Belarusian or Krivichi), a tribe of Early East Slavs between the 6th and the 12th centuries, which inhabited the upper reaches of the Volga, Dnieper, Western Dvina, the southern part of the Lake Peipus and parts of the Neman basin. ...

These Varangians first settled in Ladoga, then moved southward to Novgorod eventually reaching Kiev, finally putting an end to the Khazars' collecting tribute from Kievans. The so-called Kievan Rus was founded by prince Oleg (Helgu in Khazarian records) about 880. During the next thirty-five years, Oleg and his warriors subdued the various Eastern Slavic and Finnic tribes. In 907, Oleg led an attack against Constantinople, and in 911 he signed a commercial treaty with the Byzantine Empire as an equal partner. The new Kievan state prospered because it had an abundant supply of furs, beeswax, and honey for export and because it controlled three main trade routes of Eastern Europe: the Volga trade route from the Baltic Sea to the Orient, the Dnieper trade route from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea, and the trade route from the Khazars to the Germans. The Varangians (Russian: Variags, Варяги) were Scandinavians who travelled eastwards, mainly from Jutland and Sweden. ... The fortress of Ladoga was built in stone in the 12th century and rebuilt 400 years later. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... The Khazars were a Turkic semi-nomadic people from Central Asia who adopted Judaism. ... Prince Oleg ( Norse name Helgu) was the East Slavic ruler who moved the capital of Rus from Novgorod the Great to Kiev. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... A dogs hair usually consists of longer, stiffer, guard hairs—which can be straight, wiry, or wavy, and of various lengths, hiding a soft, short-haired undercoat. ... For the rock song by Nirvana, see Beeswax (song). ... A jar of honey, shown with a wooden honey server and scones/biscuits. ... In the Middle Ages, the Volga trade route connected Northern Europe and Northwestern Russia with the Caspian Sea. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... The Trade Route from the Varangians to the Greeks (Путь «из варяг в греки» in Russian) was a trade route, which connected Scandinavia, Kievan Rus and the Byzantine Empire. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Raffelstetten Customs Regulations (Latin: Inquisitio de theloneis Raffelstettensis, literally: Inquisition on the Raffelstetten Tolls), is the only legal document regulating customs in Early Medieval Europe. ...


Given the postulated pro-Scandinavian bias of the Russian Primary Chronicle, some Slavic historians have debated the role of the Varangians in the establishment of Kievan Rus′ (see Rus′). By the reign of Svyatoslav (r. 945-972) Kievan rulers had adopted Slavic religion and names, but their druzhina still consisted primarily of Scandinavians. Svyatoslav's military conquests were astonishing: he dealt lethal blows to two of his strongest neighbours, Khazaria and the Bulgarian Empire, which collapsed soon after his raids. Rus’ (????, ) was a medieval East Slavic nation, which, according to the most popular (but by no means only) theory, may have taken its name from a ruling warrior class, possibly with Scandinavian roots. ... Sviatoslav I, Prince of Kiev (c. ... Housecarls were household troops, personal warriors and equivalent to a royal bodyguard to Scandinavian kings. ... The Khazars were a Turkic semi-nomadic people from Central Asia who adopted Judaism. ... The history of Bulgaria as a separate country began in the 7th century with the arrival of the Bulgars and the foundation of the First Bulgarian Empire together with the local seven Slavic tribes, a union recognized by Byzantium in 681. ...


"The Founding of the City of Kiev"

Note:The story of the founding of the city of Kiev by three brothers, Kii, Shchek, and Khoriv, constitutes one of the oldest historical legends of Russia. An Armenian historian of the seventh century, Zenob Glak, knew of a similar legend concerning the founding of the city of Kuar (Kiev) in the land of Poluni(Polianians) by three brothers, Kuar, Mentry, and Kherean. It is possible that this legend arose from the actual merging of three settlements that archaeological evidence shows to have existed with the limits of modern day Kiev.


From Primary Chronicle: The Primary Chronicle (Old-Slavonic: Повсть времяньныхъ лтъ; Russian: Повесть временных лет, Povest vremennykh let; Ukrainian: Повість времмених літ, Povist vremennykh lit; often translated into English as Tale of Bygone Years), is a history of the Ancient Rus from around 850 to 1110 originally compiled in Kiev about 1113. ...

The Founding of the City of Kiev


"The Polianians lived apart and governed their families, for thus they were brothern, and each one lived with his gens on his own land, ruling over his kinfolk. There were three brothers: Kii, Shchek, and Khoriv, and their sister was named Lybed. Kii lived upon a hill were the Borich Trail now is, and Shchek dwelt upon a hill now named Shchekovitza, while on a third resided Khoriv, after whom this hill is named Khorevitza. They built a town and named it Kiev after their oldest brother. Around the town lay a woods and a great pine forest in which they used to catch wild beasts. These men were wise and prudent; they were called Polianians descended from them living in Kiev to this day. Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ...


"Some ignorant persons have claimed that Kii was a ferryman, for near Kiev there was at that time a ferry from the other side of the river,in consequence of which people used to say:'To Kii's ferry.' Now if Kii had been a mere ferryman, he would never have gone to Constantinople. He was then the chief of his kin, and it is related what great honor he reeived from the emperor when he went to visit him. On his homeward journey he arrived at the Danube. The place pleased him, and he built a small town, wishing to dwell there with his kinfolk. But those who lived nearby would not grant him this privilage. Yet even now the dwellers by the Danube call this town Kievetz. When Kii returned to Kiev, his native city, he ended his life there; and his brothers Shchek and Koriv, as well as his sister Lybed died there also."[3] Map of Constantinople. ... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, Iranian *dānu, meaning river or stream, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river in the European Union and Europes second longest river. ...

The Golden Age of Kiev

The region of Kiev dominated the state of Kievan Rus′ for the next two centuries. The grand prince (velikiy kniaz') of Kiev controlled the lands around the city, and his theoretically subordinate relatives ruled in other cities and paid him tribute. The zenith of the state's power came during the reigns of Prince Vladimir (Vladimir the Great, r. 980-1015) and Prince Yaroslav (the Wise; r. 1019-1054). Both rulers continued the steady expansion of Kievan Rus′ that had begun under Oleg. Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... The title Grand Prince (Latin, Magnus Princeps; German, Großfürst, Finnish Suuriruhtinas, Swedish Storfurste, Lithuanian Didysis kunigaikÅ¡tis, Russian Великий князь Velikii kniaz) ranks in honour below Emperor and Tsar but higher than a sovereign Prince (Fürst) or Royal Prince. ... // Introduction The title Grand Duke (Latin, Magnus Dux; German, Großherzog, Italian Gran Duca; in French, Grand-duc; in Finnish, Suurherttua; in Swedish, Storhertig; in Dutch, Groothertog; in Danish, Storhertug) used in Western Europe and particularly in Germanic countries for provincial sovereigns, ranks in honour below King but higher than... Detail of the Millenium of Russia monument in Novgorod (1862) representing St Vladimir and his family. ... Events Births Emperor Ichijo of Japan Humbert I of Savoy Avicenna Godiva, Countess of Mercia Deaths Categories: 980 ... Events August: Canute the Great invades England. ... Mikhail Gerasimovs reconstruction of Yaroslavs appearance, based on his examination of Yaroslavs skull Yaroslav I the Wise (c. ... Events Toi invasion: Jurchen pirates invade Kyushu. ... Events Cardinal Humbertus, a representative of Pope Leo IX, and Michael Cerularius, Patriarch of Constantinople, decree each others excommunication. ...

Novgorod merchants sailing overseas, by Ivan Bilibin.

Vladimir rose to power in Kiev after the death of his father Sviatoslav I in 972 and after defeating his half-brother Yaropolk in 980. As Prince of Kiev, Vladimir's most notable achievement was the Christianization of Kievan Rus′, a process that began in 988. The annals of Rus¹ state that when Vladimir had decided to accept a new faith instead of the traditional idol-worship (paganism) of the Slavs, he sent out some of his most valued advisors and warriors as emissaries to different parts of Europe. After visiting the Roman Catholics, the Jews and the Muslims, they finally arrived in Constantinople. There, they were so astounded by the beauty of the cathedral of Hagia Sophia and the liturgical service held there, that they made up their minds there and then about the faith they would like to follow. Upon their arrival home, they convinced Vladimir that the faith of the Greeks was the best choice of all, upon which Vladimir made a journey to Constantinople and arranged a marriage between himself and Princess Anna, the sister of the Byzantine emperor Basil II. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (552x700, 114 KB)Ivan Bilibins illustration to a fairy tale about Sadko. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (552x700, 114 KB)Ivan Bilibins illustration to a fairy tale about Sadko. ... Ivan Ya. ... ... Events Otto II marries Theophanu, Byzantine princess. ... Yaropolk (9XX - 980?) was made Russian regent of Kiev in 972 and was deposed in 977. ... Events Births Emperor Ichijo of Japan Humbert I of Savoy Avicenna Godiva, Countess of Mercia Deaths Categories: 980 ... St Francis Xavier converting the Paravas: a 19th-century image of the docile heathen The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once, also includes the practice of converting pagan practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar... Events Vladimir I, Prince of Kiev marries Anna, sister of Byzantine emperor Basil II and converts to Christianity. ... Slavic mythology and Slavic religion evolved over more than 3,000 years. ... Look up pagan, heathen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Hagia Sophia The patriarchal basilica Hagia Sophia (Greek: ; Holy Wisdom), now known as the Ayasofya Museum, was the culmination of early Christian architecture. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Painting of Basil II, from an 11th century manuscript. ...


Vladimir's choice of Eastern Christianity may also have reflected his close personal ties with Constantinople, which dominated the Black Sea and hence trade on Kiev's most vital commercial route, the Dnieper river. Adherence to the Eastern Orthodox Church had long-range political, cultural, and religious consequences. The church had a liturgy written in Cyrillic and a corpus of translations from the Greek that had been produced for the Slavic peoples. The existence of this literature facilitated the conversion to Christianity of the Eastern Slavs and introduced them to rudimentary Greek philosophy, science, and historiography without the necessity of learning Greek. In contrast, educated people in medieval Western and Central Europe learned Latin. Enjoying independence from the Roman authority and free from tenets of Latin learning, the East Slavs developed their own literature and fine arts, quite distinct from those of other Orthodox countries. See Old East Slavic language and Architecture of Kievan Rus for details. Map of Constantinople. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... The Dnieper River (Russian: , Dnepr; Belarusian: , Dniapro; Ukrainian: , Dnipro) is a river which flows from Russia, through Belarus and Ukraine, ending its flow in the Black Sea. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Eastern Orthodox Church (including Greek... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several East and South Slavic languages; (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... The East Slavs are the ethnic group that evolved into the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples. ... Greek philosophy focused on the role of reason and inquiry. ... Historiography is a term with multiple meanings that has changed with time, place and observer, and is thus resistant to a single encompassing meaning. ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Old East Slavic language is one name for a language spoken between the 10th and 14th centuries in Kievan Rus and its successor states, the ancestor of the modern East Slavic languages. ... The medieval state of Kievan Rus incorporated parts of what is now Belarus, Russia and Ukraine and was centered around Kiev and Novgorod. ...


Yaroslav, known as "The Wise", also struggled for power with his brothers. Although he first established his rule over Kiev in 1019, he did not have uncontested rule of all of Kievan Rus until 1036. Like Vladimir, Yaroslav was eager to improve relations with the rest of Europe, especially the Byzantine Empire. Yaroslav's granddaughter, Eupraxia the daughter of his son Vsevolod I, Prince of Kiev, was married to Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor. Yaroslav also arranged marriages for his sister and three daughters to the kings of Poland, France, Hungary, and Norway. Yaroslav promulgated the first East Slavic law code, Russkaya Pravda (Justice of Rus′); built Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kiev and Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod; patronized local clergy and monasticism; and is said to have founded a school system. Yaroslav's sons developed the great Kiev Pechersk Lavra (monastery), which functioned in Kievan Rus′ as an ecclesiastical academy. Events Toi invasion: Jurchen pirates invade Kyushu. ... Emperor Go-Suzaku ascends the throne of Japan. ... Kievan court in the times of Vsevolod I Vsevolod I Yaroslavich (1030 - 13 April 1093) ruled as grand prince of Kiev from 1076 until his death. ... Henry III, from a miniature of 1040. ... Russkaya Pravda is being read to people Russkaya Pravda (Russian: , Russkaya Pravda; Ukrainian: ; Archaic: Правда Роська, Pravda Roska) was the legal code of Kievan Rus and the subsequent Rus principalities during the times of feudal division. ... Much of the original Byzantine interior remains intact. ... The Cathedral of St Sophia in Novgorod is the oldest preserved church in Russia. ... Roofs of the Holy Trinity Church Kievo-Pecherskaya Lavra, 1890s Kiev Pechersk Lavra (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ), also known as the Kiev Monastery of the Caves, is an ancient cave monastery in Kiev. ...

The interior of the Saint Sophia Cathedral constructed in the eleventh century. The cathedral remains a symbol of the Golden Age of Kiev.

In the centuries that followed the state's foundation, Rurik's descendants shared power over Kievan Rus′. Princely succession moved from elder to younger brother and from uncle to nephew, as well as from father to son. Junior members of the dynasty usually began their official careers as rulers of a minor district, progressed to more lucrative principalities, and then competed for the coveted throne of Kiev. In the 11th century and the 12th century, the princes and their retinues, which were a mixture of Slavic and Scandinavian elites, dominated the society of Kievan Rus′. Leading soldiers and officials received income and land from the princes in return for their political and military services. Kievan society lacked the class institutions and autonomous towns that were typical of West European feudalism. Nevertheless, urban merchants, artisans, and laborers sometimes exercised political influence through a city assembly, the veche (council), which included all the adult males in the population. In some cases, the veche either made agreements with their rulers or expelled them and invited others to take their place. At the bottom of society was a small stratum of slaves. More important was a class of tribute-paying peasants, who owed labor duty to the princes; the widespread personal serfdom characteristic of Western Europe did not exist in Kievan Rus′, however. In contrast with extravagant baroque outside, Saint Sophia, Kiev preserves much of its original Byzantine interior intact. ... In contrast with extravagant baroque outside, Saint Sophia, Kiev preserves much of its original Byzantine interior intact. ... Much of the original Byzantine interior remains intact. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Rurik or Riurik (Russian: , Old East Norse Rørik, meaning famous ruler) (ca 830 – ca 879) was a Varangian who gained control of Ladoga in 862 and built the Holmgard settlement (Ryurikovo Gorodishche) in Novgorod. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region centered on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe which includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ... Removal of the veche bell from Novgorod to Moscow in 1478. ... Costumes of slaves or serfs, from the sixth to the twelfth centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel from original documents in European libraries. ...


The rise of regional centers

Administering justice in Kievan Rus, by Ivan Bilibin.

Kievan Rus′ was not able to maintain its position as a powerful and prosperous state, in part because of the amalgamation of disparate lands under the control of a ruling clan. As the members of that clan became more numerous, they identified themselves with regional interests rather than with the larger patrimony. Thus, the princes fought among themselves, frequently forming alliances with outside groups such as the Polovtsians, Poles, and Hungarians. During the years from 1054 to 1224 no fewer than 64 principalities had a more or less ephemeral existence, 293 princes put forward succession claims, and their disputes led to 83 civil wars. Image File history File links Ivan Bilibin (1876-1942). ... Image File history File links Ivan Bilibin (1876-1942). ... Ivan Ya. ... The Cumans, also known as Polovtsy (Slavic for yellowish) were a nomadic West Turkic tribe living on the north of the Black Sea along the Volga. ... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ...


The Crusades brought a shift in European trade routes that accelerated the decline of Kievan Rus′. In 1204 the forces of the Fourth Crusade sacked Constantinople, making the Dnieper trade route marginal. As it declined, Kievan Rus′ splintered into many principalities and several large regional centers: Novgorod, Vladimir-Suzdal, Halych, Polotsk, Smolensk, Chernigov (modern Chernihiv), and Pereyaslav. The inhabitants of those regional centers then evolved into three nationalities: Ukrainians in the southeast and southwest, Belarusians in the northwest, and Russians in the north and northeast. The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade. ... [Neilhughandafriendlypeasant. ... The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Eugène Delacroix, 1840). ... The Dnieper River (Russian: , Dnepr; Belarusian: , Dniapro; Ukrainian: , Dnipro) is a river which flows from Russia, through Belarus and Ukraine, ending its flow in the Black Sea. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy (Russian: , tr. ... Jackdaw on the coat-of-arms of Galicia alludes to the name of Halych Halych (Russian and Ukrainian: ) is a historic town in Western Ukraine on the Dniester River. ... Polatsk (Belarusian: По́лацак, По́лацк; Polish: Połock, also spelt as Polacak; Russian: По́лоцк, also transliterated as Polotsk, Polotzk, Polock) is the most historic city in Belarus, situated on the Dvina... A view of Smolensk in 1912. ... Chernihiv (Чернігів in Ukrainian) is an ancient city in northern Ukraine, the central city of Chernihivska oblast. Some common historical spellings of the name are Polish: Czernichów, and Russian: Чернигов, Chernigov. ... Pereyaslav is the former name of towns in Ukraine and Russia: Pereiaslav-Khmelnytskyi in Ukraine. ...


Novgorod Republic

Main article: Republic of Novgorod

In the north, the Republic of Novgorod prospered as part of Kievan Rus' because it controlled trade routes from the Volga River to the Baltic Sea. As Kievan Rus' declined, Novgorod became more independent. A local oligarchy ruled Novgorod; major government decisions were made by a town assembly, which also elected a prince as the city's military leader. In the 12th century, Novgorod acquired its own archbishop, a sign of increased importance and political independence. In its political structure and mercantile activities, Novgorod resembled the north European towns of the Hanseatic League, the prosperous alliance that dominated the commercial activity of the Baltic region between the 13th century and the 17th century, more than the other principalities of Kievan Rus'. Cathedral of St. ... Cathedral of St. ... The Cathedral of St Sophia in Novgorod is the oldest preserved church in Russia. ... The Novgorod Republic was an early republic that existed in the North-West territory of modern day Russia, in Novgorod lands between 1136 and 1478. ... The Novgorod Republic was an early republic that existed in the North-West territory of modern day Russia, in Novgorod lands between 1136 and 1478. ... The Volga (Russian: , Tatar Cyrillic: Идел, Latin: İdel) is the largest river in Europe in terms of length, discharge, and watershed. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... The Archbishop of Novgorod, alternatively known as Vladyka (Russian: Владыка), is the head of the eparchy of Novgorod the Great and is one of the oldest offices in the Russian Orthodox Church. ... Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539). ... Population density in the wider Baltic region. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...


Northeast

Main article: Vladimir-Suzdal

In the northeast, Slavs colonized the territory that eventually became Muscovy by bringing into subjection and merging with the Finno-Ugric tribes already occupying the area. The city of Rostov was the oldest center of the northeast, but it was supplanted first by Suzdal′ and then by the city of Vladimir, which become the capital of Vladimir-Suzdal′. There was recorded a large wave of migrations from Kyiv region northward, to escape continuing excursions of the Turkic nomads from the "Wild Steppe". As the southern lands were being depopulated and more boyars, nobles, artisans arrived to the court at Vladimir, the combined principality of Vladimir-Suzdal′ asserted itself as a major power in Kyivan Rus′. In 1169 Prince Andrey Bogolyubskiy of Vladimir-Suzdal′ dealt a severe blow to the waning power of Kyivan Rus′ when his armies sacked the city of Kyiv. Prince Andrey then installed his younger brother, who ruled briefly in Kyiv while Andrey continued to rule his realm from Suzdal′. Thus, political power began to drift away from Kyiv in the second half of the twelfth century. In 1299, in the wake of the Mongol invasion, the metropolitan moved from Kyiv to the city of Vladimir, and Vladimir-Suzdal′ replaced Kyiv as a religious center for the northern regions. Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy (Russian: , tr. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... St. ... Population 315,954 (2002) Time zone Moscow (MSK/MSD), UTC +0300 (MSK)/+0400 (MSD) Latitude/Longitude Vladimir (Russian: ) is an old city in Russia. ... Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, Vladimir-Suzdal Rus (Владимирско-Суздальская Русь), or Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy (Влади́миро-Су&#769... mtDNA-based chart of large human migrations. ... A principality is a monarchical feudatory or sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a Monarch with the title of prince or princess (a synonym is princedom) or (in the widest sense) a Monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince. ... Events Nur ad-Din invades Egypt, and his nephew Saladin becomes the sultan over the territory conquered by Nur ad-Din. ... Andrei Bogolyubsky (Андрей Боголюбский) (ca. ... Events Osman I declares the independence of the Ottoman Principality The County of Holland is annexed by the County of Hainaut April 1, 1299 Kings Towne on the River Hull granted city status by Royal Charter of King Edward I of England. ... The Mongol Invasion of Rus was heralded by the Battle of the Kalka River (1223) between Subutais reconnaissance unit and the combined force of several princes of Rus. After fifteen years of peace, it was followed by Batu Khans full-scale invasion in 1237-40. ... In hierarchical Christian churches, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop (then more precisely called Metropolitan archbishop) of a metropolis; that is, the chief city of an old Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital. ...


Southwest

Illumination of Theotokos from the Gertrude Psalter, supposedly executed by Galician masters in the 1080s.
Illumination of Theotokos from the Gertrude Psalter, supposedly executed by Galician masters in the 1080s.

To the southwest, the principality of Halych had developed trade relations with its Polish, Hungarian, and Lithuanian neighbors and emerged as the local successor to Kievan Rus′. In the early thirteenth century, Prince Roman Mstislavich united the two previously separate principalities, conquered Kiev, and assumed the title of grand duke of Kievan Rus′. His son, Prince Daniil (Danylo; r. 1238-1264) was the first ruler of Kievan Rus′ to accept a crown from the Roman papacy, apparently doing so without breaking with Constantinople. Early in the 14th century, the patriarch of the Eastern Orthodox Church in Constantinople granted the rulers of Halych-Volhynia a metropolitan to compensate for the move of the Kievan metropolitan to Vladimir. Lithuanian rulers also requested and received a metropolitan for Novagrudok shortly afterwards. Early in the 15th century, these Metropolia were ruled again from Kiev by the "Metropolitan of Kiev, Halych and all Rus′". Image File history File links Panachranta. ... Image File history File links Panachranta. ... Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos (Greek: , translit. ... The Gertrude Psalter is a medieval illuminated manuscript (also known as Egbert Psalter or Trier Psalter). ... A principality is a monarchical feudatory or sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a Monarch with the title of prince or princess (a synonym is princedom) or (in the widest sense) a Monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince. ... Jackdaw on the coat-of-arms of Galicia alludes to the name of Halych Halych (Russian and Ukrainian: ) is a historic town in Western Ukraine on the Dniester River. ... Roman the Great or Roman Mstislavich (c. ... Danylo King of Rus or Danylo of Galicia (properly Danylo Romanovich or Даниил Романович), (1201-1264) Knyaz of Halych (1205–1206, 1211–1212, 1229–1231, 1233–1235, 1238–1255), Peremyshl (1211, today... Events In the Iberian peninsula, James I of Aragon captures the city of Valencia September 28 from the Moors; the Moors retreat to Granada. ... A contemporary monument to the Battle of Lewes, a crucial 1264 battle in the Second Barons War in England. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... Map of Constantinople. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Eastern Orthodox Church (including Greek... Coat of arms The Halych-Volhynian Kingdom. ...


However, a long and unsuccessful struggle against the Mongols combined with internal opposition to the prince, and foreign intervention weakened Halych-Volhynia. With the end of the Mstislavich branch of the Rurikids in the mid-fourteenth century, Halych-Volhynia ceased to exist; Poland conquered Halych; Lithuania took Volhynia, including Kiev, conquered by Gediminas in 1321 ending the rule of Rurikids in the city. Lithuanian rulers then assumed the title of the monarchs of Ruthenia. Coat of arms The Halych-Volhynian Kingdom. ... The Rurik Dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Russia from 862 to 1598. ... Jackdaw on the coat-of-arms of Galicia alludes to the name of Halych Halych (Russian and Ukrainian: ) is a historic town in Western Ukraine on the Dniester River. ... Volhynia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: ; also called Volynia) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Prypiat and Western Bug -- to the north of Galicia and of Podolia. ... Gediminas, duke of Lithuania - engraving of XVII ct. ... Events Births September 29 - John of Artois, Count of Eu, French soldier (d. ... The Battle on the Irpen River (as referred to in historic chronicles) occurred in 1321 between the armies of Gediminas (Gedimin), the Grand Duke of Lithuania, and knyaz (prince) Stanislav of Kiev, allied with knyaz Oleg of Pereyaslavl and knyaz Roman of Bryansk. ... Ruthenia is a name applied to parts of Eastern Europe which were populated by Eastern Slavic peoples, as well as to various states that existed in this territory in the past. ...


Historical assessment

Kievan Rus', although sparsely populated compared to Western Europe [1], was not only the largest contemporary European state in terms of area but also one of the most culturally advanced. [4] At the time when only a few European monarchs could spell their name, most children in Kiev, Novgorod and other large cities were literate.[5][6] As birch bark documents attest, they exchanged love letters and prepared cheat sheets for schools. At the time when Paris was full of sewage and refuse,[7] Novgorod boasted a sewage system [8]and wood paving. When most legal codes of Europe regarded torture as a preferred way of eliciting truth[2] and often abused the death penalty,[3] the Russkaya Pravda confined punishments to fines and did not provide for capital punishment at all[9]. Certain inalienable rights were accorded to women, such as property and inheritance rights. [10] [11] [12] Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... A Birch bark document is a document written on pieces of birch bark. ...

The field of Igor Svyatoslavich's battle with the Polovtsy, by Viktor Vasnetsov.
The field of Igor Svyatoslavich's battle with the Polovtsy, by Viktor Vasnetsov.

The economic development of Kievan Rus may be translated into demographic statistics. Around 1200, Kiev had a population of 50,000 people, Novgorod and Chernigov both had around 30,000 people. [13]. By comparison, in Anglo-Norman England, where urbanization was as advanced as anywhere in Europe north of the Mediterranean, London had around 12,000 inhabitants, and England's second city, Winchester, about 5,000. [14]. The Soviet scholar Mikhail Tikhomirov calculated that Kievan Rus' on the eve of the Mongol invasion had around 300 urban centers. [15] Image File history File links Igorsvyat. ... Image File history File links Igorsvyat. ... Igor Svyatoslavich (April 3, 1151-1202) was the prince of Novhorod-Siversky from 1180 to 1202. ... The Cumans, also known as Polovtsy (Slavic for yellowish) were a nomadic West Turkic tribe living on the north of the Black Sea along the Volga. ... Self-portrait 1873 Viktor Mikhailovich Vasnetsov (Виктор Михайлович Васнецов) (May 15 (N.S.), 1848—1926) was a Russian artist who specialized in mythological and historical subjects. ... Events University of Paris receives charter from Philip II of France The Kanem-Bornu Empire was established in northern Africa around the year 1200 Mongol victory over Northern China — 30,000,000 killed Births Al-Abhari, Persian philosopher and mathematician (died 1265) Ulrich von Liechtenstein, German nobleman and poet (died... The Anglo-Normans were the descendents of the Normans who ruled England following the conquest by William of Normandy in 1066. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Winchester is a historic city in southern England, with a population of around 40,000 within a 3 mile radius of its centre. ... Mikhail Nikolayevich Tikhomirov (31 May 1893 — 2 September 1965) was a leading Soviet specialist in medieval Russian paleography. ...


Kievan Rus' played an important genealogical role in European politics as well. Yaroslav the Wise, whose step-mother belonged to the greatest dynasty to rule Byzantium, married the only legitimate daughter of the king who Christianized Sweden. His daughters became Queens of Hungary, France, and Norway, his sons married the daughters of a Polish king and a Byzantine emperor (not to mention a niece of the Pope), while his granddaughters were a German Empress and (according to one theory) the Queen of Scotland. A grandson married the only daughter of the last Anglo-Saxon king of England. Actually, no other contemporary royal family was so well-connected as the Rurikids.[16][17] Yaroslav I the Wise (978?-1054) (Christian name: Yury, or George) was thrice prince of Novgorod and Kiev, uniting the two principalities for a time under his rule. ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... This article is about the country. ... The Rurik Dynasty was the ruling dynasty of what is now Russia from 862 to 1598. ...


Unsurprisingly, Kievan Rus' left a powerful legacy. The leader of the Riurikid Dynasty united a large territory inhabited by East Slavs into an important, albeit unstable, state. After Vladimir accepted Eastern Orthodoxy, Kievan Rus' came together under a church structure and developed a Byzantine-Slavic synthesis in culture, statecraft, and the arts. The Rurik Dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Kievan Rus, Rus principalities, and early Russia from 862 to 1598. ... The East Slavs are the ethnic group that evolved into the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples. ... ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ...


In the Western periphery, Rus' legacy was carried for two more centuries by the Principality of Halych-Volhynia. Later, as these lands along with the territories of modern central Ukraine and Belarus fell to the Gediminids, the powerful, largely Ruthenized Grand Duchy of Lithuania, drew heavily on Rus' cultural and legal traditions. On the northeastern periphery of Kievan Rus', those traditions were adapted to form the legacy that gradually gravitated towards the Moscow rulers, eventually leading to modern Russian statehood. Thus, modern Russia can trace a lineage to historic Rus' via Vladimir-Suzdal, Muscovy, and the Russian Empire. In the very north, the Novgorod and Pskov Feudal Republics carried on a separate and less autocratic version of Rus' legacy into the 16th century until they were absorbed by Muscovite Russia. Coat of arms The Halych-Volhynian Kingdom. ... Columns of Gediminas, symbol of the Gediminids. ... The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Å»amojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ... Moscow (Moskva) (Russian: , romanised: Moskva, IPA: see also other names) is the capital of Russia and the countrys economic, financial, educational, and transportation centre. ... Motto: none Anthem: Hymn of the Russian Federation Capital Moscow Largest city Moscow Official language(s) Russian Government Semi-presidential Federal republic  - President of Russia Vladimir Putin  - Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov Independence From the Soviet Union   - Declared June 12, 1991   - Finalized December 25, 1991  Area    - Total 17,075,400 km... Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy (Russian: , tr. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Medieval walls of Novgorod City The Novgorod Feudal Republic (Новгородская феодальная республика or Novgorodskaya feodalnaya respublika in Russian) was a powerful medieval state which stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Ural Mountains between the 12th and 15th century. ... Pskov Feudal Republic (Псковская феодальная республика in Russian) was a Russian medieval state between the second half of the 13th century and early 16th century. ... This article is about Muscovite Russia. ...


Notes

  1. ^ People speaking East Slavic dialects were known from 9th century as Rus (also referred to as ancient Russians or Ruthenians). Later, they diverged into three major nations — modern Belarusians, Russians, and Ukrainians, and also into several minor ethnic groups, including Carpatho-Ruthenians.
  2. ^ "Kievan Rus". The Columbia Encyclopedia. (2001-2005). 
  3. ^ Zenkovsky, Serge, ed.,translator, Medieval Russia: Epics, Chronicles, and Tales,(E.E. Dalton, NY 1974)p.48
  4. ^ "The adoption of Christianity by Vladimir... was followed by commerce with the Eastern Empire. In its wake came Byzantine art and culture. And in the course of the next century what is now Southeastern Russia became more advanced in civilization than any western European State of the period, for Russia came in for a share of Byzantine culture, then vastly superior to the rudeness of Western nations." Sherman, Charles Phineas (1917). "Russia", Roman Law in the Modern World. Boston: The Boston Book Company,, 191. 
  5. ^ Tikhomirov, Mikhail Nikolaevich (1956). "Literacy among the citi dwellers", Drevnerusskie goroda (Cities of Ancient Rus) (in Russian), 261. 
  6. ^ Vernadsky, George (1973). "Russian Civilization in the Kievan Period: Education", Kievan Russia. Yale University Press, 426. 0300016476. “It is to the credit of Vladimir and his advisors they built not only churches but schools as well. This compulsory baptism was followed by compulsory education... Schools were thus founded not only in Kiev but also in provincial cities. From the "Life of St. Feodosi" we know that a school existed in Kursk around the year of 1023. By the time of Yaroslav's reign (1019-54), education had struck roots and its benefits were apparent. Around 1030 Iaroslav founded a divinity school in Novgorod for three hundred children of both laymen and clergy to be instructed in "book-learning". As a general measure he made the parish priests to "teach the people."” 
  7. ^ Reid, Donald (1991). Paris sewers and sewermen : realities and representations, 2nd, Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 235. ISBN 0-674-65463-3. 
  8. ^ Miklashevsky, N.; and others (2000). "Istoriya vodoprovoda v Rossii (History of water-supply in Russia", Chistaya voda (Clean water) (in Russian). Saint Petersburg, Russia: ?, 240. ISBN 5-8206-0114-0. 
  9. ^ "The most notable aspect of the criminal provisions was that punishments took the form of seizure of property, banishment, or, more often, payment of a fine. Even murder and other severe crimes (arson, organized horse thieving, robbery) were settled by monetary fines. Although the death penalty had been introduced by Volodymyr the Great, it too was soon replaced by fines." Magocsi, Paul Robert (1996). A History of Ukraine, p. 90, Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-0830-5.
  10. ^ Tikhomirov, Mikhail Nikolaevich (1953). Пособие для изучения Русской Правды, 2nd (in Russian), Moscow: Издание Московского университета, 190. 
  11. ^ Janet Martin, Medieval Russia, 980-1584, (Cambridge, 1995), p. 72
  12. ^ Vernadsky, George (1973). "Social organization: Woman", Kievan Russia. Yale University Press, 426. 0300016476. 
  13. ^ Janet Martin, Medieval Russia, 980-1584, (Cambridge, 1995), p. 61
  14. ^ Bartlett, England Under the Norman and Angevin Kings, (New York, 2000), p. 332
  15. ^ Tikhomirov, Mikhail Nikolaevich (1956). "The origin of Russian cities", Drevnerusskie goroda (Cities of Ancient Rus) (in Russian), 36, 39, 43. 
  16. ^ "In medieval Europe, a mark of a dynasty's prestige and power was the willingness with which other leading dynasties entered into matrimonial relations with it. Measured by this standard, Iaroslav's prestige must have been great indeed. . . . Little wonder that Iaroslav is often dubbed by historians as 'the father-in-law of Europe.'" -(Subtelny, Orest (1988). Ukraine: A History. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 35. ISBN 0-8020-5808-6. )
  17. ^ "By means of these marital ties, Kievan Rus’ became well known throughout Europe." —Magocsi, Paul Robert (1996). A History of Ukraine, p. 76, Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-0830-5.

Mikhail Nikolayevich Tikhomirov (31 May 1893 — 2 September 1965) was a leading Soviet specialist in medieval Russian paleography. ... A History of Russia by George Verdansky George Vernadsky (1887-1973) (Russian: Георгий Вернадский) an American historian and an author of numerous books on Russian history. ... Don Reid (born December 30, 1973, in Washington, D.C.) is an American former professional basketball player who was selected by the Detroit Pistons in the 2nd round (58th overall) of the 1995 NBA Draft. ... Mikhail Nikolayevich Tikhomirov (31 May 1893 — 2 September 1965) was a leading Soviet specialist in medieval Russian paleography. ... A History of Russia by George Verdansky George Vernadsky (1887-1973) (Russian: Георгий Вернадский) an American historian and an author of numerous books on Russian history. ... Mikhail Nikolayevich Tikhomirov (31 May 1893 — 2 September 1965) was a leading Soviet specialist in medieval Russian paleography. ... Orest Subtelny - Ukrainian historian, professor at Department of History and Political Science, York University. ...

Further reading (in English)

  • Franklin, Simon and Shepard, Jonathon, The Emergence of Rus, 750–1200. (Longman History of Russia, general editor Harold Shukman.) Longman, London, 1996. ISBN 0-582-49091-X
  • Fennell, John, The Crisis of Medieval Russia, 1200–1304. (Longman History of Russia, general editor Harold Shukman.) Longman, London, 1983. ISBN 0-582-48150-3
  • Martin, Janet, Medieval Russia 980–1584. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1993. ISBN 0-521-36832-4
  • Obolensky, Dimitri, The Byzantine Commonwealth: Eastern Europe 500–1453. Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 1971. ISBN 0-297-00343-7

Dimitri Obolensky was born Prince Dmitriy Dmitrievich Obolensky at St Petersburg on 19 March/1 April 1918 and died at died at Burford, Oxfordshire on 23 December 2001. ...

See also

Rus’ (????, ) was a medieval East Slavic nation, which, according to the most popular (but by no means only) theory, may have taken its name from a ruling warrior class, possibly with Scandinavian roots. ... Originally Rus (Русь, Rus’) was a medieval country and state that comprised mostly Early East Slavs. ... The Rurik Dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Kievan Rus, Rus principalities, and early Russia from 862 to 1598. ... Riurik, a semi-legendary Scandinavian Varangian, was at the roots of Kievan Rus. He founded the Riurikovich dynasty that would rule Ruthenia for the next 800 years. ... This article describes the history of Belarus. ... The history of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs, the ethnic group that eventually split into the Russians, Ukrainians, and Belarusians. ... History of Ukraine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... De Administrando Imperio is the commonly used Latin title of a scholarly work written in Greek by the 10th-century Byzantine emperor Constantine VII. Constantine was a scholar-emperor, who sought to revive learning and education in the Byzantine Empire. ...

References

The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress ( USA), freely available for use by researchers. ... The U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1789 by a constitutional convention, sets down the basic framework of American government in its seven articles. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Kievan Rus
Middle Ages by region

Armenia · Bosnia · Bulgaria · Britain · Byzantine Empire · Croatia · Crusader states · Czech lands · France · Germany · Italy · Kievan Rus′ · Poland · Romania · Scotland · Serbia · Spain Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Byzantines restored control over Bosnia at the end of 10th century, but not for long as it was soon taken by the Czar of Bulgarians Samuil. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... The Crusader states, c. ... This article describes the history of the Czech lands in the Middle Ages. ... Coat of arms Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was an early, mostly East Slavic[1] state dominated by the city of Kiev from about 880 to the... Dunnottar Castle in the Mearns occupies one of the best defensive locations in Great Britain. ... The Serbs entered their present territory early in the 7th century AD, settling in six distinct tribal delimitations: Rascia/RaÅ¡ka (present-day Western Serbia and Northern Montenegro), Bosnia [1] (indistinct from Rascia until the 12th century), Zachumlie/Zahumlje (western Herzegovina), Trebounia/Travunija (eastern Herzegovina), Pagania/Paganija (middle Dalmatia) and...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Kievan Rus' (1369 words)
Kievan Rus' was the early Russian state dominated by the city of Kiev from about 860 to the middle of the 12th century.
Kievan Rus' was not able to maintain its position as a powerful and prosperous state, in part because of the amalgamation of disparate lands under the control of a ruling clan.
In 1299, in the wake of the Mongol invasion, the metropolitan of the Orthodox Church moved to the city of Vladimir, and Vladimir-Suzdal' replaced Kievan Rus' as the religious center.
Kievan Rus. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (468 words)
The reign (1019–54) of Vladimir’s son, Yaroslav the Wise, represented the political and cultural apex of Kievan Rus.
In 1169, Kiev was sacked and pillaged by the armies of Andrei Bogolubsky of Suzdal, and the final blow to the Kievan state came with the Mongol invasion (1237–40).
Ukrainian scholars consider Kievan Rus to be central to the history of the Ukraine.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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