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Encyclopedia > Kiev Offensive
Kiev Offensive (1920)
Part of Polish-Soviet War

Polish Breguet 14 operating from Kiev airfield
Date: April-June, 1920
Location: Ukraine
Result: Russian victory1
Combatants
Poland Soviet Russia
Commanders
Józef Piłsudski,
Edward Rydz-Śmigły
Aleksandr Yegorov, Semyon Budionny
Strength
8 Infantry Divisions, 1 Cavalry Division, 2 understrength Ukrainian divisions 8 Infantry Divisions, 2 Cavalry Divisions, later also 1st Cavalry Army
Casualties
? ?
Polish-Soviet War
Vistula • Bereza Kartuska • Wilno • Operation Minsk • Daugavpils • Koziatyn • Kiev • Volodarka • Mironówka • Olszanica • Żywotów • Miedwiedówka • Dziunków • Wasylkowce • Bystrzyk • Nowochwastów • Berezno • Spiczyniec • Boryspol • Zazime • Puchówka • Okuniew • Spiczyn • Lwów • Berezina • Raszyn • Nasielsk • Serock • RadzyminZadwórzeWarsawKomarów • Wołodarka • KievNiemen • Zboiska • 2nd Minsk

The Kiev Offensive (or Kiev Operation) was an attempt by the Second Polish Republic, led at the time by Józef Piłsudski, to wrest control of central and eastern Ukraine, or of a substantial part of it, from warring Ukrainian factions and Soviet Russia. The stated goal of the operation was to create an independent Ukraine allied with Poland, though the Ukrainian population viewed it as a Polish effort to seize Ukraine and many rallied to fight in the ranks of the Red Army. An initial major military operation in the Polish-Soviet War, this campaign was conducted from April to June 1920 by the Polish Army in alliance with Ukrainian People's Republic forces under the nationalist leader Symon Petliura, opposed by the Bolshevik-led Red Army, likewise with Ukrainian participation. Combatants Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic Second Polish Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Józef PiÅ‚sudski Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Strength 950,000 including reserves 5 million 360,000 including reserves 738,000 Casualties Unknown, dead estimated at 100,000 - 150,000 Unknown, dead estimated at 60,000 The Polish... Image File history File links Polish Air Forces Breguet 14 stationed on the Kiev airfield during the Kiev Offensive in the Polish-Bolshevik War of 1920 Picture published in Polska lotnicza album, Warsaw, 1937 As such it falls under the 1926 copyright act, almost identical to the 1952 act. ... The Breguet 14 was a French biplane bomber and reconnaissance aircraft of World War I. It was built in very large numbers and production continued for many years after the end of the war. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... Soviet Russia is sometimes used as a somewhat sloppy synonym to the Soviet Union — although the term Soviet Russia sometimes refers to Bolshevist Russia from the October Revolution in 1917 to 1922 (Although Russian communists officially formed RSFSR in 1918). ... Office Chief of State Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Statesman and military commander Political party none, see Sanacja for details Spouse Maria PiÅ‚sudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays Lithuania Date of death May... Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y (March 11, 1886 - December 2, 1941); nom de guerre ÅšmigÅ‚y, TarÅ‚owski, Adam Zawisza) was a Polish politician, an officer of the Polish Army, painter and poet. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Aleksandr Yegorov Aleksandr Ilyich Yegorov (Russian: Александр Ильич Егоров) (October 13, 1883–February 22, 1939), Soviet military commander, was a prominent victim of Stalins Great Purge of the late 1930s. ... Semyon Budyonny â–¶ (help· info) (also spelled Budennii, Budenny, Budyenny etc, Russian: Семён Михайлович Будённый) (April 25, 1883 - October 26, 1973) was a Soviet military commander and an ally of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. ... Combatants Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic Second Polish Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Józef PiÅ‚sudski Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Strength 950,000 including reserves 5 million 360,000 including reserves 738,000 Casualties Unknown, dead estimated at 100,000 - 150,000 Unknown, dead estimated at 60,000 The Polish... Combatants Poland RSFSR Commanders Józef PiÅ‚sudski Vladimir Lenin Strength ~100,000 troops >100,000 troops Casualties  ?  ? {{{notes}}} The Russian Westward offensive of 1918 — 1919 was part of general move of the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic into the areas abandoned by the Ober-Ost garrisons, that were being... Battle of Bereza Kartuska (1919) Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date August, 1920 Place near Bereza Kartuska, near Brzesc, Belarus Result Polish victory Battle of Bereza Kartuska was one of the first conflicts between the organised forces of the Second Polish Republic and Soviet Russia and can be considered as one... Battle of Daugavpils (otherwise known as the Battle of Dyneburg) was the final battle of the joint Polish and Latvian Operation Winter against the Red Army. ... Combatants Poland Bolshevik Russia Commanders Stefan Dab-Biernacki Aleksandr Yegorov Strength 2 infantry regiments, 1 cavalry regiment, 1 artillery group 4th Cavalry Division Casualties ? ? The Battle of WoÅ‚odarka was a clash between the Polish Army and Siemion Budionnyis First Cavalry Army. ... Battle of Bystrzyk happened on May 31, 1920, near the village of Bystrzyk near Kiev. ... Battle of Boryspol happened on June 2, 1920, near the town of Boryspol near Kiev. ... During the Polish-Soviet War of 1920 the city of Lwów was attacked by the forces of Aleksandr Yegorov. ... Combatants Second Polish Republic Bolshevist Russia Commanders Strength Casualties The Battle of Nasielsk was fought on August 14 and August 15 of 1920 between Polish and Soviet forces. ... The Battle of Radzymin was part of the Battle of Warsaw during the Polish-Bolshevik War. ... Battle of Zadwórze (sometimes referred to as the Polish Thermopylae) was a battle of the Polish-Bolshevik War. ... The Battle of Warsaw (sometimes referred to as the Miracle at the Vistula, Polish Cud nad WisÅ‚Ä…) was the decisive battle of the Polish-Soviet War, the war that began soon after the end of World War I in 1918 and lasted until the Treaty of Riga in 1921. ... Combatants Poland Bolshevik Russia Commanders Juliusz Rómmel Semyon Budyonny Strength 6 regiments 17 500 men, 20 regiments Casualties 500 KIA, 700 horses Unknown. ... Combatants Poland Bolshevik Russia Commanders Stefan Dab-Biernacki Aleksandr Yegorov Strength 2 infantry regiments, 1 cavalry regiment, 1 artillery group 4th Cavalry Division Casualties ? ? The Battle of WoÅ‚odarka was a clash between the Polish Army and Siemion Budionnyis First Cavalry Army. ... Combatants Russia Poland Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Józef PiÅ‚sudski Strength ~100,000 on the Western Front (September 1) 96,300 (September 15) Casualties uncertain, at least 40,000 POWs The Battle of the Niemen River was the second-greatest battle of the Polish-Soviet War. ... Second Polish Republic 1921-1939 The Second Polish Republic is an unofficial name applied to the Republic of Poland between World War I and World War II. When the borders of the state were fixed in 1921, it had an area of 388. ... Office Chief of State Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Statesman and military commander Political party none, see Sanacja for details Spouse Maria PiÅ‚sudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays Lithuania Date of death May... Soviet Russia is sometimes used as a somewhat sloppy synonym to the Soviet Union — although the term Soviet Russia sometimes refers to Bolshevist Russia from the October Revolution in 1917 to 1922 (Although Russian communists officially formed RSFSR in 1918). ... Ukrainians (Ukrainian: Українці, Ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine. ... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... Combatants Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic Second Polish Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Józef PiÅ‚sudski Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Strength 950,000 including reserves 5 million 360,000 including reserves 738,000 Casualties Unknown, dead estimated at 100,000 - 150,000 Unknown, dead estimated at 60,000 The Polish... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... Polish Army (Polish Wojsko Polskie) is the name applied to the military forces of Poland. ... Ukrainian Peoples Republic (Ukrainian: ), also sometimes translated as Ukrainian National Republic, abbreviated UNR (УНР), was a republic in part of the territory of modern Ukraine after the Russian Revolution, eventually headed by Symon Petliura. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... Symon Petlyura (Симон Петлюра; also spelled Simon, Semen, Semyen Petliura or Petlura, May 10, 1879 â€“ May 25, 1926) was a Ukrainian politician. ... Leaders of the Bolshevik Party and the Communist International, a painting by Malcolm McAllister on the Pathfinder Mural in New York City and on the cover of the book Lenin’s Final Fight published by Pathfinder. ... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ...


Initially successful for the Polish army, which captured Kiev in May, 1920, the campaign was dramatically reversed, due partly to the ambivalence of the Ukrainian population,[1] but mainly due to mounting pressure from a Red Army counteroffensive. Polish forces and Petlyura's Ukrainians were forced into retreat. A monument to St. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ...

Contents


Before the Battle

On April 21 Poland signed a treaty with the exiled Ukrainian government of Symon Petliura, who ended up in the Polish exile and had found asylum there after the multiple military defeats from the Bolshevik forces in central Ukraine. In exchange for agreeing to a border along the Zbruch river, recognizing the recent Polish territorial gains in western Ukraine obtained by the Poland's defeating the Ukrainian's attempt to create a Ukrainian state in largely Ukrainian populated Volhynia and Galicia, Petliura was promised the military help in regaining the control of Kiev for his government that was afterwards supposed to enter into a Federation with Poland. The treaty thus defined the borders between Poland and Ukraine, as well as recognized each country's independence and guaranteed respecting cultural and ethnic minority rights[citation needed] within each country. It was followed by an "alliance" signed by Petliura and Piłsudski on April 24. On the same day Poland assisted by Petliura's forces begun the Kiev Operation, aimed at securing Ukraine as a buffer between Poland and Russia. April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ... A treaty is a binding agreement under international law concluded by subjects of international law, namely states and international organizations. ... Ukrainian Peoples Republic (Ukrainian: ), also sometimes translated as Ukrainian National Republic, abbreviated UNR (УНР), was a republic in part of the territory of modern Ukraine after the Russian Revolution, eventually headed by Symon Petliura. ... Symon Petlyura (Симон Петлюра; also spelled Simon, Semen, Semyen Petliura or Petlura, May 10, 1879 â€“ May 25, 1926) was a Ukrainian politician. ... Power lines leading to a trash dump hover just overhead in El Carpio, a Nicaraguan refugee camp in Costa Rica Under international law, a refugee is a person who is outside his/her country of nationality or habitual residence; has a well-founded fear of persecution because of his/her... Zbruch River (Ukrainian: Збруч) is a river in Western Ukraine (length: 247 km, basin: 3330 sq. ... Orlęta, a 1926 painting by Wojciech Kossak The Polish-Ukrainian War of 1918 and 1919 was a conflict between the forces of Poland and Western-Ukrainian Peoples Republic for the control over the Eastern Galicia after the dissolution of Austria-Hungary. ... Western Ukraine (Західно-українська Народна Республіка, West-Ukrainian Peoples Republic) was a short-lived republic that existed in late 1918 and early 1919 in eastern Galicia, Bukovina and Transcarpathia and included the cities of Lviv, Kolomyja, and Stanislav. ... Pochayiv Lavra, the spiritual heart of Volhynia Volhynia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: ; also called Volynia) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Pripyat and Western Bug -- to the north of Galicia and of Podolia. ... Coat-of-arms of Galicia Galicia is an historical region currently split between Poland and Ukraine. ... MiÄ™dzymorze (Myen-dzih-MOH-zheh): name for Józef PiÅ‚sudskis proposed federation of Poland, Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ...


The success of the joint Polish-Ukrainian political campaign depended on the creation of a strong Ukrainian army capable of defeating the Soviets in Ukraine. While initially successful, the campaign ultimately failed. The local population was tired of hostilities after several years of war and the Ukrainian Army never exceeded two divisions largely due to the ambivalent attitude of Ukrainians towards the "alliance". State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ...


The plan of Kiev Operation was to defeat the Soviet troops on the Polish southern flank and establish a friendly government in Ukraine. The main task of the advancing Polish armies was to outflank the Bolsheviks and destroy them in a single battle. After winning the battle in the South, the Polish General Staff planned a speedy withdrawal of the 3rd Army and strengthening of the northern front where Piłsudski expected the main battle with the Red Army to take place. As is often the case, the actual course of events was different than envisioned.


Polish assault

The 3rd Army easily won border clashes with the Soviets and the combined Polish-Ukrainian forces captured Kiev on May 7, encountering only token resistance. On the May 9th the Polish troops celebrated the capture of Kiev with the victory parade "of Victors-Liberators" on Kreschatyk, the city's main street. However as the parading troops were Piłsudski's Poles instead of Petliura's Ukrainians, the Kievans watched this demonstration of force with great ambivalence, which looked to them just like another occupation army.[2] A monument to St. ... May 7 is the 127th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (128th in leap years). ... Victory Parade on Red Square, Moscow on June 24, 1945. ... Khreschatyk Khreschatyk (Ukrainian: , Russian: ) is the main and probably the best-known street in Kiev, the capital of Ukraine. ...


However the Bolshevik army, although badly mauled,[citation needed] avoided total destruction. The Polish offensive stopped at Kiev and only a small bridgehead was established on the eastern bank of the Dnieper. This article is about the river. ...


Bolshevik counterattack

The Polish-Ukrainian military thrust soon met the Red Army counterattack. On May 24, 1920, the Polish-Ukrainian forces were engaged for the first time by Semyon Budionny and his elite First Cavalry Army. Two days later, Budionny's cavalry, with two major units from the Russian 12th Army, opened an assault on the Polish forces centered around Kiev. After a week of heavy fighting south of the city, the Russian assault was repulsed and the front line restored. On June 3, 1920, another Russian assault began north of the city. The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... May 24 is the 144th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (145th in leap years). ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... Semyon Budyonny Semyon Mikhailovich Budyonny (also spelled Budennii, Budenny, Budyenny etc, Russian: Семён Михайлович Будённый) (April 25, 1883 - October 26, 1973), Soviet military commander, was a favourite of Soviet ruler Joseph Stalin, a fact which led to one of modern historys greatest military catastrophes. ... June 3 is the 154th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (155th in leap years), with 211 days remaining. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ...


Meanwhile Polish military intelligence was aware of Russian preparations for a counteroffensive, and Polish commander-in-chief Józef Piłsudski ordered the commander of Polish forces on the Ukrainian Front, General Antoni Listowski, to prepare for a strategic withdrawal. From the perspective of staff maps in Warsaw, it was clear that the recently-created Polish Army was too weak to withstand both the offensive in the southern, Ukrainian sector and the spring offensive being prepared by the Bolsheviks in Belarus and north of the Pripyat Marshes. However, the commander of the Polish 3rd Army in the vicinity of Kiev, General Edward Rydz-Śmigły, was seeking a way to repulse the upcoming Russian assault rather than withdraw, and even proposed to the General Staff regrouping all his forces at Kiev and defending there until relieved. His plan was turned down by Piłsudski, who knew that no relief force could be prepared any time soon. He repeated his order to withdraw the Polish 3rd and 6th Armies from the Kiev area. Military intelligence (abbreviated MI, int. ... Office Chief of State Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Statesman and military commander Political party none, see Sanacja for details Spouse Maria PiÅ‚sudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays Lithuania Date of death May... Warsaw (Polish: , (?), in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... Pinsk Marshes (Пинские болота) or Pripyat Marshes (Pripet Marshes, Припятские болота) is a vast territory of wetlands along the Pripyat River and its tributaries from Brest, Belarus (West) to Mahileu (Northeast) and Kiev (Southeast). ... Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y (March 11, 1886 - December 2, 1941); nom de guerre ÅšmigÅ‚y, TarÅ‚owski, Adam Zawisza) was a Polish politician, an officer of the Polish Army, painter and poet. ... A General Staff is a group of professional military officers who act in a staff or administrative role under the command of a general officer. ... A monument to St. ...


General Rydz organized a series of tactical counter-attacks which resulted in victories[citation needed] in the areas of Bila Tserkva, where the Bolshevik 44th Rifle Division lost the entire staff and one of its brigades and the Battle of Wołodarka, which routed the Bolshevik 4th Cavalry Division and made one of its cossack regiments switch sides. Repeated attacks by the elite Budionny's cossack cavalry eventually broke the Polish Ukrainian front on June 5th and on June 10th Polish armies were retreating along the entire front. Despite counter-attacks and high morale,[citation needed] the Polish-Ukrainian forces only succeeded in slowing down the Red Army. On June 13 Kiev was evacuated and left to the Soviets. Bila Tserkva (Ukrainian Бiла Церква, literally White Church, Polish Biała Cerkiew, Russian Белая Церковь, Belaya Tserkov) is a city in Kyivska oblast of Ukraine. ... Combatants Poland Bolshevik Russia Commanders Stefan Dab-Biernacki Aleksandr Yegorov Strength 2 infantry regiments, 1 cavalry regiment, 1 artillery group 4th Cavalry Division Casualties ? ? The Battle of WoÅ‚odarka was a clash between the Polish Army and Siemion Budionnyis First Cavalry Army. ... Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Turkey. ... Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Turkey. ... June 5 is the 156th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (157th in leap years), with 209 days remaining. ... June 10 is the 161st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (162nd in leap years), with 204 days remaining. ... June 13 is the 164th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (165th in leap years), with 201 days remaining. ...


Before their withdrawal from Kiev the Polish army have destroyed much of its infrastructure including the objects that served purely civilian needs thus making a city practically unlivable.[3] Destroyed were the city electric power station, the sewerage system, both passenger and cargo railway stations and both Kiev bridges across the Dnieper River: the Nicholas Bridge, a unique for its time 770 metres long chain bridge, one of the largest and most beautiful bridges in Europe and the source of pride for the city[4] and over 1 kilometre long Struve Railroad Bridge. The diplomatic note issued by the Soviet Ukraine and Soviet Russia to the Antanta also blamed the Poles for heavily damaging the Kiev's St. Volodymyr's Cathedral, one of three greatest Orthodox cathedrals built in the 19th century decorated with priceless Vasnetsov's frescoes,[3] the latter charge turned out to be false. The Poles denied that they committed these acts of vandalism, claiming that the only deliberate damage they carried out during their evacuation was blowing up the bridges over the Dnieper, for strictly military reasons[1]. Kiev neighborhoods cover both banks of the Dnieper River whose distributary forms several islands as it flows through Kiev. ... Kiev neighborhoods cover both banks of the Dnieper River whose distributary forms several islands as it flows through Kiev. ... Entente, meaning a diplomatic understanding, may refer to a number of agreements: The Entente Cordiale, 1904 between France and the United Kingdom. ... St. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... Self-portrait 1873 Viktor Mikhailovich Vasnetsov (Виктор Михайлович Васнецов) (May 15 (N.S.), 1848—1926) was a Russian artist who specialized in mythological and historical subjects. ...


As the withdrawal was started too late, the forces of Rydz found themselves in extremely difficult situation. Russian Golikov's and Yakir's Groups, as well as the 1st Cavalry Army managed to capture several strategically important positions behind the Polish lines and the risk of the Polish armies being surrounded and defeated became high. However, mostly due to lack of reconnaissance, poor command and conflicts within the staff of the South-Western Front, the Polish-Ukrainian units managed to withdraw in order and relatively unscathed. Such an outcome of the operation was equally unexpected by both sides. Although the Poles withdrew to their initial positions, they remained tied down in Ukraine and lacked sufficient strength to support the Polish Northern Front and strengthen defenses at the Auta River during the decisive battle that was soon to take place there. On the other hand the Bolshevik objectives were not accomplished either and the Russian forces had to remain in Ukraine and got tied down with heavy fighting for the area of the city of Lwów. Motto: Semper fidelis Oblast Lviv Oblast Municipal government City council (Львівська міська рада) Mayor City chairman Lyubomyr Bunyak Area 171,01 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 808,900 ? 4786/km² Founded City rights 13th century 1353 Latitude Longitude 49°51′ N 24°01′ E Area code +0322 Car plates  ? Twin towns Corning, Freiburg...


Opposing forces

The following is the Order of Battle of Polish and Bolshevik forces taking part in the struggles in Ukraine, as of April 25, 1920. It should be noted that the command structure of both sides changed during the operation. Also, the Russian forces were joined by Budennyi's 1st Cavalry Army in the latter part of the operation, while a large part of the Polish forces was withdrawn by then to Belarus. April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (116th in leap years). ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ...


Among Polish Airforce was the 7th Kościuszko Squadron. Flag of the Polish Air Force Polish Air Force (SiÅ‚y Powietrzne Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, Sily Powietrzne RP) - the Air Force of Poland. ... Polish fighters of the KoÅ›ciuszko Squadron. ...


Poles/Ukrainians

Polish Army Unit Polish name Commander Remarks
  General Command of the Polish Army - Gen. Józef Piłsudski
  supporting armies
6th Army
Wacław Iwaszkiewicz
5th Infantry Waclaw Jędrzejewski
12th Infantry Marian Żegota-Januszajtis
18th Infantry Franciszek Krajowski
2nd Army
Antoni Listowski
13th Infantry Franciszek Paulik
15th Infantry Antoni Jasieński
6th Ukrainian Marko Bezruchko
  Assault Group - Józef Piłsudski
Assault Group
Józef Piłsudski
4th Infantry Leonard Skierski
Cavalry Division Jan Romer
Rybak Operational Group
Józef Rybak
1st Mountain Bde Stanisław Wróblewski
7th Cavalry Bde Aleksander Romanowicz
Rydz-Śmigły Operational Group
Edward Rydz-Śmigły
1st Legions Edward Rydz-Śmigły
7th Infantry Eugeniusz Pogorzelski
3rd Cavalry Bde Jerzy Sawicki

Office Chief of State Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Statesman and military commander Political party none, see Sanacja for details Spouse Maria Piłsudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays Lithuania Date of death May... Marko Danylovych Bezruchko (1883-1944) was an Ukrainian military commander and a General of the Ukrainian National Republic. ... Office Chief of State Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Statesman and military commander Political party none, see Sanacja for details Spouse Maria Piłsudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays Lithuania Date of death May... Office Chief of State Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Statesman and military commander Political party none, see Sanacja for details Spouse Maria Piłsudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays Lithuania Date of death May... Operational Group (Polish Grupa Operacyjna, abbreviated GO) was the highest level of tactical division of the Polish Army before and during World War II and the Polish Defence War. ... Operational Group (Polish Grupa Operacyjna, abbreviated GO) was the highest level of tactical division of the Polish Army before and during World War II and the Polish Defence War. ... Edward Rydz-Śmigły (March 11, 1886 - December 2, 1941); nom de guerre Śmigły, Tarłowski, Adam Zawisza) was a Polish politician, an officer of the Polish Army, painter and poet. ... Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division () was a tactical unit of the Polish Army between the World Wars. ... Edward Rydz-Śmigły (March 11, 1886 - December 2, 1941); nom de guerre Śmigły, Tarłowski, Adam Zawisza) was a Polish politician, an officer of the Polish Army, painter and poet. ... The 7th Infantry Division (Polish: , 7 DP) was the name of several units of the Polish Army. ...

Bolsheviks

Red Army Unit Russian name Commander Remarks
  South-Western Front - Gen. Aleksandr Yegorov
12th Army
Miezheninov
7th Rifle
44th Rifle
47th Rifle
58th Rifle
17th Cavalry Division
14th Army
Ieronim Petrovich Uborevich
21st Rifle
41st Rifle
45th Rifle
60th Rifle
8th Cavalry Division
13th Army
unknown composition

Marshal of the Soviet Union Aleksandr Yegorov Aleksandr Ilyich Yegorov (Russian: Александр Ильич Егоров) (October 13, 1883–February 22, 1939), Soviet military commander, was a prominent victim of Stalins Great Purge of the late 1930s. ...

Notes

  1.   The outcome of the Polish and Bolshevik operations in Ukraine is sometimes disputed. Neither the Poles nor the Russians forced their opponent to fight a major battle or outflanked his forces and destroyed them, which was the main military goal of operations for both sides. However, the Polish retreat from Kiev and Russian advance was a severe blow to Józef Piłsudski's political plans to create a pro-Polish government in Kiev, as part of the "Międzymorze federation.". As such, the operation may be viewed as a defeat for Piłsudski, as well as to Petliura.

A monument to St. ... Office Chief of State Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Statesman and military commander Political party none, see Sanacja for details Spouse Maria Piłsudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays Lithuania Date of death May... Międzymorze (Myen-dzih-MOH-zheh): name for Józef Piłsudskis proposed federation of Poland, Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine. ...

See also

The Kiev Expedition was an episode in the internal struggle for power in the state of Rus between Sviatopolk I of Kiev and his brother Yaroslav I the Wise. ...

References

Inline
  1. ^ "[I]n practice, [Pilsudski] was engaged in a process of conquest that was bitterly resisted by Lithuanians and Ukrainians (except the latter's defeat by the Bolsheviks left them with no one else to turn but Pilsudski)."
    Roshwald, Aviel (2001). Ethnic Nationalism and the Fall of Empires: Central Europe, the Middle East and Russia, 1914-1923. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0415242290.
  2. ^ Tadeusz Machalski, then a captain, (the future prominent Polish military leader) wrote in his diary: "Ukrainian people, who saw in their capital an alien general with the Polish army, instead of Petliura leading his own army, didn't view is as the act of liberation but as a variety of a new occupation. Therefore, the Ukrainians, instead of enthusiasm and joy, watched in gloomy silence and instead of rallying to arms to defend the freedom remained the passive speactators". Quoted from: "Figures of the 20th century. Józef Piłsudski: the Chief who Created a State for Himself," Zerkalo Nedeli (the Mirror Weekly), Feb. 3-9, 2001, available online in Russian and in Ukrainian.
  3. ^ a b ‘The failures of the Polish army only whipped up its vengeful vanalism. [...] The Polish troops leaving Kiev acted no less savagely. In the city, they damaged the electric power station, the sewerage system, both passenger and cargo railway stations. The governments of Soviet Russia and Ukraine, pointed out in the note of June 11 addressed to the Antanta countries that "the magnificent cathedral of St. Vladimir, this unique pearle of Russian religious architecture and the unique monument with the priceless frescoes by Vasnetsov, was destroyed by the Poles in their retreat only because they to avenge their rage on inanimate objects..."’ cited from: Мельтюхов, Михаил Иванович (Mikhail Meltyukhov) (2001). Советско-польские войны. Военно-политическое противостояние 1918—1939 гг. (Soviet-Polish Wars. Politico-Military standoff of 1918-1939). Moscow: Вече (Veche). ISBN 5-699-07637-9..
  4. ^ "Fording the Dnipro. The past, present and future of Kyiv's bridges", The Ukrainian observer, issue 193.
General
  • Lech Wyszczelski (1999). Kijów 1920. Warsaw: Bellona. ISBN 8311089639.
  • Norman Davies (2003). White Eagle, Red Star: The Polish-Soviet War, 1919–20. London: Pimlico. ISBN 0712606947.
  • Józef Piłsudski (1937–1991). Pisma zbiorowe (Collected Works). Warsaw: Krajowa Agencja Wydawnicza (reprint). ISBN 8303030590.
  • Mikhail Tukhachevski (1989). Lectures at Military Academy in Moscow, February 7–10, 1923 in: Pochód za Wisłę. Łódź: Wydawnictwo Łódzkie. ISBN 8321807771.
  • Janusz Cisek (1990). Sąsiedzi wobec wojny 1920 roku. Wybór dokumentów. (Neighbours Attitude Towards the War of 1920. A collection of documents, English summary). London: Polish Cultural Foundation Ltd. ISBN 085065212X.

Zerkalo Nedeli (Дзеркало тижня - Dzerkal Tyzhnia Ukrainian: Weekly Mirror) is Ukraine’s most influential analytical weekly. ... Mikhail Ivanovich Meltyukhov (Russian: Мельтюхов Михаил Иванович) is a Russian military historian. ... Lech Wyszczelski is a Polish military historian and author of books on Central European history of the 20th century. ... Prof. ... Office Chief of State Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Statesman and military commander Political party none, see Sanacja for details Spouse Maria PiÅ‚sudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays Lithuania Date of death May... Marshal of the Soviet Union Mikhail Tukhachevsky Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky (also spelled Tukhachevski, Tukhachevskii, Russian: Михаил Николаевич Тухачевский) (February 16, 1893 - June 11, 1937), Soviet military commander, was one of the most prominent victims of Stalins Great Purge of the late 1930s. ...

Online references


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