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Encyclopedia > Kidnapping
Crimes

Classes of crime
Infraction  · Misdemeanor  · Felony
Summary  · Indictable  · Hybrid

Against the person
Assault  · Battery
Extortion  · Harassment
Kidnapping  · Identity theft
(Corporate) Manslaughter
Murder  · Rape
Robbery

Against property
Arson  · Blackmail
Burglary  · Deception
Embezzlement  · False pretenses
Fraud  · Handling
Larceny  · Theft
Vandalism

Against oneself
Alcohol or drugs possession

Against the state
Tax evasion
Espionage  · Treason

Against justice
Bribery  · Misprision of felony
Obstruction  · Perjury
Malfeasance in office

Inchoate offenses
Accessory  · Attempt
Conspiracy  · Incitement
Solicitation  · Common purpose

Note: Crimes vary by jurisdiction.
Not all are listed here.

Kidnapping, a word derived from kid, meaning child and nap (nab) meaning snatch, recorded since 1673, was originally used as a term for the practice of stealing children for use as servants or laborers in the American colonies.[1] It has come to mean any illegal capture or detention of a person or people against their will, regardless of age. Since 1768 the term abduction was also used in this sense. Kidnapper is track number 11 from the 1978 album Plastic Letters by Blondie. ... Image File history File links Scale_of_justice. ... For the similarly written medical term referring to a blocked artery, see infarction. ... A misdemeanor, or misdemeanour, in many common law legal systems, is a lesser criminal act. ... For the record label, see Felony Records The term felony is a term used in common law systems for very serious crimes, whereas misdemeanors are considered to be less serious offenses. ... In many common law jurisdictions (e. ... A hybrid offence or dual offence are the special offences in Canadian criminal law where the prosecution may choose whether to proceed with a summary offence or an indictment. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Extortion is a criminal offense, which occurs when a person either obtains money, property or services from another through coercion or intimidation or threatens one with physical harm unless they are paid money or property. ... Harassment refers to a wide spectrum of offensive behavior. ... Identity taker is a term first appearing in U.S. literature in the 1990s, leading to the drafting of the Identity Theft and Assumption Deterrence Act. ... Corporate manslaughter is a term in English law for an act of homicide committed by a company. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Skyline Parkway Motel in Afton, Virginia after an arson fire on July 9, 2004. ... For other uses, see Blackmail (disambiguation). ... For the purposes of English law, deception is defined in s15(4) Theft Act 1968 and applies to the deception offences in the Theft Act 1968, and to the Theft Act 1978 and the Theft (Amendment) Act 1996. ... False pretenses is a common law crime. ... For the turning characteristics of land vehicles, see Car handling. ... In the United States, larceny is a common law crime involving stealing. ... Everyday instance of theft: the bike which fits on this wheel has disappeared. ... Vandalism is the conspicuous defacement or destruction of a structure, a symbol or anything else that goes against the will of the owner/governing body. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Drug possession is the crime of having one or more illegal drugs in ones possession, either for personal use, distribution, sale or otherwise. ... A state is a political association with effective dominion over a geographic area. ... Tax avoidance is the legal utilization of the tax regime to ones own advantage, in order to reduce the amount of tax that is payable by means that are within the law. ... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ... Traitor redirects here. ... J.L. Urban, statue of Lady Justice at court building in Olomouc, Czech Republic Justice concerns the proper ordering of things and persons within a society. ... Bribery is a crime implying a sum or gift given alters the behaviour of the person in ways not consistent with the duties of that person. ... Misprision of felony, under the common law of England, was the crime of failing to report knowledge of a felony to the appropriate authorities. ... Modern Obstruction of Justice, in a common law state, refers to the crime of offering interference of any sort to the work of police, investigators, regulatory agencies, prosecutors, or other (usually government) officials. ... Perjury is the act of lying or making verifiably false statements on a material matter under oath or affirmation in a court of law or in any of various sworn statements in writing. ... Malfeasance in office, or official misconduct, is the commission of an unlawful act, done in an official capacity, which affects the performance of official duties. ... An inchoate offence is the crime of preparing for or seeking to commit another crime. ... An accessory is a person who assists in or conceals a crime, but does not actually participate in the commission of the crime. ... The crime of attempt occurs when a person does an act amounting to more than mere preparation for a criminal offense, with specific intent to commit a crime, if that act tends but fails to effect the commission of the offense intended. ... In the criminal law, a conspiracy is an agreement between natural persons to break the law at some time in the future, and, in some cases, with at least one overt act in furtherance of that agreement. ... In English criminal law, incitement is an anticipatory common law offence and is the act of persuading, encouraging, instigating, pressuring, or threatening so as to cause another to commit a crime. ... Solicitation is a crime; it is an inchoate offense that consists of a person inciting, counseling, advising, urging, or commanding another to commit a crime with the specific intent that the person solicited commit the crime. ... In criminal law, the doctrine of common purpose, common design or joint enterprise refers to the situation where two or more people embark on a project with a common purpose that results in the commission of a crime. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Child (disambiguation). ... In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ...

Contents

Scope of application in the United States

In criminal law, kidnapping is the taking away or asportation of a person against the person's will, usually to hold the person in false imprisonment, a confinement without legal authority. This is often done for ransom or in furtherance of another crime. A majority of jurisdictions in the United States retain the "asportation" element for kidnapping, where the victim must be confined in a bounded area against their will and moved. Any amount of movement will suffice for the requirement, even if it is moving the abductee to a house next door. In the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, however, the asportation element has been abolished. Note that under early English common law, the asportation element required that the victim be moved outside the realm of England or overseas in order for an abduction to be considered "kidnapping." Criminal law (also known as penal law) is the body of statutory and common law that deals with crime and the legal punishment of criminal offenses. ... In law, asportation is the carrying away or removing of property. ... False imprisonment is a tort, and possibly a crime, wherein a person is intentionally confined without legal authority. ... The term ransom refers to the practice of holding a prisoner to extort money or property extorted to secure their release, or to the sum of money involved. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ...


Kidnapping for money is almost non-existent in the United States of America today, due in great part to the Federal Bureau of Investigation's aggressive stance toward kidnapping. The Bureau made kidnap for ransom a special priority, and continues to do so today. It pursues kidnap cases ferociously; agents who have rescued kidnap victims have been known to describe these rescues as personal high points of their careers. F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ...


There are several deterrents to kidnapping in the United States of America. Among these are:

  1. The extreme logistical challenges involved in exchanging the money for the victim,
  2. Harsh punishment. Convicted kidnappers can expect to face lengthy prison terms if convicted.

The harsh sentences imposed and the poor risk-to-benefit ratio compared with other crimes have caused kidnap for profit virtually to die out in the United States. One notorious failed example of kidnap for ransom was the Chowchilla bus kidnapping, in which 26 children were abducted with the intention of bringing in a $5 million ransom.[2] Chowchilla is a city in Madera County, California, United States. ...


In the past, and presently in some parts of the world (such as southern Sudan), kidnapping is a common means used to obtain slaves and money through ransom. In more recent times, kidnapping in the form of shanghaiing (or "pressganging") men was used to supply merchant ships in the 19th century with sailors, whom the law considered unfree labour. Slave redirects here. ... To say a man had been shanghaied in the late 19th century, did not mean he had undertaken upon a journey to Shanghai in China, although he might be at sea for as long as a journey to that seaport might require. ... Look up Impressment in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Three types of mariners are seen here in the wheelhouse: a master, an able seaman, and a harbour pilot. ... Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will by the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), or other extreme hardship to themselves, or to members of their families. ...


Kidnapping can also take place in the context of deprogramming, a now rare practice used to convince someone to give up his or her commitment to a new religious movement, called a cult or sect by critics, that the subject's family members consider harmful, prompting their hiring of a deprogrammer. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A new religious movement or NRM is a term used to refer to a religious faith, or an ethical, spiritual or philosophical movement of recent origin that isnt part of an established denomination, church, or religious body. ... This article does not discuss cult in its original sense of religious practice; for that usage see Cult (religious practice). ... Deprogramming is the highly controversial practice in which a persons relatives and/or others use coercive means to get him or her to leave a religious or similar group which they regard as spurious (i. ...


Stockholm syndrome is a term used to describe the relationship a hostage can build with their kidnapper. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Capture-bonding. ... For other uses, see Hostage (disambiguation). ...


According to a 2003 Domestic Violence Report in Colorado, out of a survey of 189 incidents, most people (usually white females) are taken from their homes or residence by a present or former spouse or significant other. They are usually taken by force, not by weapon, and usually the victims are not injured when they are freed.


Kidnapping versus abduction

Wikisource has an original article from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica about:
Abduction

In the terminology of the common law in many jurisdictions (according to Black's Law Dictionary), the crime of kidnapping is labelled abduction when the victim is a woman. In modern usage, kidnapping or abduction of a child is often called child stealing, particularly when done not to collect a ransom but rather with the intention of keeping the child permanently (often in a case where the child's parents are divorced or legally separated, whereupon the parent who does not have legal custody will commit the act, also known as "childnapping"). The word "kidnapping" was originally "kid nabbing" -- in other words, slang for "child stealing". Today, the term is no longer restricted to the case of a child victim. Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... Blacks Law Dictionary, 7th edition Blacks Law Dictionary is the definitive law dictionary for the law of the United States. ... Child abduction is the abduction or kidnapping of a child (or baby) by an older person. ...


Child abduction can refer to children being taken away without their parents' consent but with the consent of the child. In England and Wales, it is child abduction to take away a child under the age of 16 without parental consent. Child abduction is the abduction or kidnapping of a child (or baby) by an older person. ... Consent (as a term of jurisprudence) is a possible justification against civil or criminal liability. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem specific to England — the anthem of the United Kingdom is God Save the Queen. See also Proposed English National Anthems. ... This article is about the country. ...


Kidnapping in English law

This is a common law offense requiring:

that one person takes and carries another away;
by force or fraud;
without the consent of the person taken; and
without lawful excuse.

It would be difficult to kidnap without also committing false imprisonment, which is the common-law offense of intentionally or recklessly detaining the victim. The use of force to take and detain will also be regarded as an assault, and other, related offences may also be committed before, during, or after the detention. In physics, force is anything that can cause a massive body to accelerate. ... In jurisprudence, an excuse or justification is a form of immunity which must be distinguished from an exculpation. ... In the criminal law, intention is one of the three general classes of mens rea necessary to constitute a conventional as opposed to strict liability crime. ... In the criminal law, recklessness (sometimes also termed willful blindness which may have a different meaning in the United States) is one of the three possible classes of mental state constituting mens rea (the Latin for guilty mind). To commit an offence of ordinary as opposed to strict liability, the...


Alongside murder, kidnapping is the last really significant offence under the common law which has yet to be codified into statute. This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... The Statute of Grand Duchy of Lithuania A statute is a formal, written law of a country or state, written and enacted by its legislative authority, perhaps to then be ratified by the highest executive in the government, and finally published. ...


Named forms

  • Bride kidnapping is a term often applied loosely, to include any bride physically 'abducted' against the will of her parents, even if she is willing to marry the 'abductor'. It still is traditional amongst certain nomadic peoples of Central Asia. It has seen a resurgence in Kyrgystan since the fall of the Soviet Union and the subsequent erosion of women's rights.[3]
  • Tiger kidnapping is taking an innocent hostage to make a loved one or associate of the victim do something, e.g. a child is taken hostage to force the shopkeeper to open the safe; the term originates from the usually long preceding observation, like a tiger does on the prowl.

Bride kidnapping, also known as marriage by abduction or marriage by capture, is a form of forced marriage practiced in a few traditional cultures, in countries including Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, the Caucasus region, Ethiopia and Rwanda. ... Kazakh nomads in the steppes of the Russian Empire, ca. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz: Кыргызстан) is a country in Central Asia. ... A tiger kidnapping is the slang term for an abduction done in order to aid in a robbery. ... For other uses, see Hostage (disambiguation). ...

Kidnapping today

Kidnapping for ransom is a common occurrence in various parts of the world today, and certain cities and countries are often described as the "Kidnapping Capital of the World." As of 2007, that title belongs to Baghdad. [1] In 2004, it was Mexico [2], and in 2001 it was Colombia. [3] Haiti also has frequent kidnappings, as do certain parts of Africa. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Kidnapping

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Extraordinary rendition and irregular rendition are terms used to describe the extrajudicial transfer of a person from one state to another with the intent of legally torturing them outside of the jurisdiction of a state which prohibits it. ... Mrs. ... This is a list of kidnappings. ... NISMART or the National Incidence Studies of Missing, Abducted, Runaway and Throwaway Children, was a research project supported by the Department of Justice. ... Cameron Hooker is an American criminal, convicted of kidnapping and sexually assaulting Colleen Stan in Red Bluff, California in 1977. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... “Leftism” redirects here. ... Guerilla may refer to Guerrilla warfare. ... The current version of this article or section is written in an informal style and with a personally invested tone. ...

External links

Look up Kidnapping in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • Insight News documentary: China's Kidnapped Wives
  • Court TV's - Criminal Psychology of child abduction
  • Kyrgyz bride kidnapped
  • Bride kidnapping in Kyrgyzstan

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ...

References

  1. ^ Etymology of 'kidnap'
  2. ^ Chowchilla kidnap, Crime Library website
  3. ^ 'Bride Kidnapping' - a Channel 4 documentary
  • Sudanese slave trade (current): Slave by Mende Nazer and Damien Lewis ISBN 1-58648-212-2

  Results from FactBites:
 
Lindbergh Kidnapping Index (4632 words)
On May 12, 1932, the body of the kidnapped baby was accidentally found, partly buried, and badly decomposed, about four and a half miles southeast of the Lindbergh home, 45 feet from the highway, near Mount Rose, New Jersey, in Mercer County.
Information accumulated in various other kidnapping and extortion cases handled by the FBI was examined in closest detail and studied with particular reference to any bearing they might have upon the solution of the Lindbergh case.
The sad story of Charles Lindbergh's baby, kidnapped and murdered at the height of America's love affair with its aviator hero, is common knowledge, as is the scandal and corruption surrounding the conviction and execution of Bruno Hauptmann for that crime.
kidnapping. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (287 words)
Kidnapping may be done for ransom or for political or other purposes.
Under common law kidnapping was only a misdemeanor, but in most states of the United States it is now punishable by death or life imprisonment if there are no extenuating circumstances.
The kidnapping and murder of the son of Charles A. Lindbergh in 1932 led to a federal statute prescribing severe penalties for transporting the victims of kidnapping across state or national boundaries.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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