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Encyclopedia > Kidd antigen system

The Kidd antigen system (also known as Jk antigen) is present on the membranes of red blood cells and the kidney and helps determine a person's blood type. The Jk antigen is found on a protein responsible for urea transport in the red blood cells and the kidney.[1] The gene encoding this protein is found on chromosome 18.[2] Two common Jk alleles are Jk(a) and Jk(b). Individuals who lack the Jk antigen (Jk null) are unable to maximally concentrate their urine.[3] Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and are the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen to body tissues via the blood. ... Human kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... A total of 29 human blood group systems are recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT). ... An antigen is a substance that stimulates an immune response, especially the production of antibodies. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Urea is an organic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen, with the formula CON2H4 or (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Non-proprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... An allele is any one of a number of viable DNA codings of the same gene (sometimes the term refers to a non-gene sequence) occupying a given locus (position) on a chromosome. ...


The Jk antigen is important in transfusion medicine. People with two Jk(a) antigens, for instance, may form antibodies against donated blood containing two Jk(b) antigens (and thus no Jk(a) antigens). This can lead to hemolytic anemia, in which the body destroys the transfused blood, leading to low red blood cell counts. Another disease associated with the Jk antigen is hemolytic disease of the newborn, in which a pregnant woman's body creates antibodies against the blood of her fetus, leading to destruction of the fetal blood cells. HDN associated with Jk antibodies is typically mild, though fatal cases have been reported.[4] Transfusion medicine (or transfusiology) is the branch of medicine that is concerned with the transfusion of blood and blood components. ... Schematic of antibody binding to an antigen An antibody is a protein used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. ... Hemolytic anemia is anemia due to hemolysis, the abnormal breakdown of red blood cells either in the blood vessels (intravascular hemolysis) or elsewhere in the body (extravascular). ... Hemolytic disease of the newborn, (also known as HDN) is an alloimmune condition that develops in a fetus when IgG antibodies produced by the mother pass through the placenta and attack the fetuss red blood cells in the fetal circulation. ...


References

OMIM 111000 - OMIM page on the Kidd antigen system protein

  1. ^ Olives B, Mattei MG, Huet M, Neau P, Martial S, Cartron JP, Bailly P. Kidd blood group and urea transport function of human erythrocytes are carried by the same protein. J Biol Chem. 1995 Jun 30;270(26):15607-10. PMID 7797558
  2. ^ Geitvik GA, Hoyheim B, Gedde-Dahl T, Grzeschik KH, Lothe R, Tomter H, Olaisen B. The Kidd (JK) blood group locus assigned to chromosome 18 by close linkage to a DNA-RFLP. Hum Genet. 1987 Nov;77(3):205-9. PMID 2890568
  3. ^ Sands JM, Gargus JJ, Frohlich O, Gunn RB, Kokko JP. Urinary concentrating ability in patients with Jk(a-b-) blood type who lack carrier-mediated urea transport. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1992 Jun;2(12):1689-96. PMID 1498276
  4. ^ Kim WD, Lee YH. A fatal case of severe hemolytic disease of newborn associated with anti-Jk(b). J Korean Med Sci. 2006 Feb;21(1):151-4. PMID 16479082
Transfusion medicine - edit
Blood transfusion | Cross-matching | Coombs test | Intraoperative blood salvage | Transfusion reactions | International Society of Blood Transfusion | ISBT 128 | Platelet transfusion |
Human blood group systems - Blood type
ABO | Rhesus | Duffy | Hh | Kell | Kidd | Kx | Colton | Yt
Blood products
Blood donation | Blood | Plasma | Platelets | Cryoprecipitate | Plasmapheresis | Red blood cells 

 
 

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