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Encyclopedia > Khyber Pass
Khyber Pass

Looking back towards Pakistan, on the Pakistan side of the Khyber Pass
Elevation 1,070 m
Location Pakistan/Afghanistan
Range Hindu Kush
Coordinates 34°5′35″N 71°8′45″E / 34.09306, 71.14583
Mountain passes of Afghanistan
Mountain passes of Afghanistan
An advertisement card from 1910 depicting Khaiber Pass.
An advertisement card from 1910 depicting Khaiber Pass.

The Khyber Pass, also referred to as The Khyber (also spelt the Khaiber Pass or Khaybar Pass) (Urdu: درہ خیبر) (altitude: 1,070 m , 3,510 ft) is the mountain pass that links Pakistan and Afghanistan. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 274 KB) Summary Photo by James Mollison. ... A topographical summit is a point on a surface which is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. ... For exotic financial options, see Mountain range (options). ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Liebigbild-Bala_Hissar_and_Khaiber_Pass. ... Image File history File links Liebigbild-Bala_Hissar_and_Khaiber_Pass. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... In a range of hills, or especially of mountains, a pass (also gap, notch, col, saddle, bwlch or bealach) is a lower point that allows easier access through the range. ...


Throughout history it has been an important trade route between Central Asia and South Asia and a strategic military location. The summit of the Khyber Pass is 5 km inside Pakistan at Landi Kotal and it cuts through the northeastern part of the Safed Koh mountains which themselves are a far southeastern extension of the Hindu Kush range. Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... This article is about real and historical warfare. ... KM, Km, or km may stand for: Khmer language (ISO 639 alpha-2, km) Kilometre Kinemantra Meditation Knowledge management KM programming language KM Culture, Korean Movie Maker. ... Place in Pakistan, the highest point on the celebrated Khyber Pass ... Safed Koh (white mountain) is a range of mountains on the Pakistan-Afghanistan border, up to 15,620ft (4,761 m) above sea-level at Mount Sikaram, straight and rigid, towering above all surrounding hills, it is near the Kabul River. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ...

Contents

Geography

As with many passes, the start and finish are ill-defined. Many definitions state that the Khyber Pass starts from near Jamrud, Pakistan (491 m - 1,611 ft), 15 km west of Peshawar and ends west of Torkham, Afghanistan, a winding road of 48 km which passes Fort Maude and Ali Masjid to reach a narrowest point of just 15 metre wide between canyon walls. The summit at Landi Kotal at 34°5′35″N, 71°8′45″ECoordinates: 34°5′35″N, 71°8′45″E is followed by a steep decline to Michni Kandao, Landi Khana and the Afghan border at Torkham. Here the gradient becomes easier as the pass exits at Haft Chah opening onto the Dakka plain. The road/highway was built by the British in 1879 and the railway from Jamrud to Landi Khana was built over six years by Victor Bayley and completed in 1925. Jamrud, located at an altitude of 1512 ft (461 meters) above sea level, is a town located in the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan. ...   (Urdu: پشاور; Pashto: پښور) literally means City on the Frontier in Persian and is known as Pekhawar in Pashto. ... Torkham (Urdu: طورخم) is located in Khyber agency of the FATA, Pakistan. ... Ali Masjid Fort is a famous landmark located at the highest point of Khyber Pass in Pakistan. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... Place in Pakistan, the highest point on the celebrated Khyber Pass ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Torkham (Urdu: طورخم) is located in Khyber agency of the FATA, Pakistan. ... A grade (or gradient) is the pitch of a slope, and is often expressed as a percent tangent, or rise over run. It is used to express the steepness of slope on a hill, stream, roof, railroad, or road, where zero indicates level (with respect to gravity) and increasing numbers... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


From Dakka, the Kabul River flows to Peshawar through the Loe Shilman Gorge, a less direct and more difficult route to travel, chosen by Alexander the Great when he crossed into South Asia in 326 BC in an attempt to conquer the Indus Valley. Kabul River or Kabal River (Persian: دریای کابل) is a river that rises in the Sanglakh Range of Afghanistan, separated from the watershed of the Helmand by the Unai Pass. ...   (Urdu: پشاور; Pashto: پښور) literally means City on the Frontier in Persian and is known as Pekhawar in Pashto. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 331 BC 330 BC 329 BC 328 BC 327 BC - 326 BC - 325 BC 324 BC 323... The Indus (सिन्‍धु नदी) (known as Sindhu in ancient times) is the principal river of Pakistan. ...


History

In some versions of the Aryan migration theory, the Indo-Aryans migrated to India via the Khyber Pass. Recorded invasions through the Khyber begin with the conquests of Alexander the Great and also include later Muslim invasions of South Asia, culminating with the establishment of the Mughul Empire from 1526. From India, the British invaded Afghanistan and fought three Afghan Wars in 1839-42, 1878-80, and 1919. The Indo-Aryans are a wide collection of peoples united by their common status as speakers of the Indo-Aryan (Indic) branch of the family of Indo-European and Indo-Iranian languages. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ... The First Anglo–Afghan War lasted from 1839 to 1842. ... The Rise of Dost Mohammad It was not until 1826 that the energetic Dost Mohammad was able to exert sufficient control over his brothers to take over the throne in Kabul, where he proclaimed himself amir. ... The Rise of Dost Mohammad It was not until 1826 that the energetic Dost Mohammad was able to exert sufficient control over his brothers to take over the throne in Kabul, where he proclaimed himself amir. ...


To the north of the Khyber Pass lies the country of the Mullagoris. To the south is Afridi Tirah, while the inhabitants of villages in the Pass itself are Afridi clansmen. Throughout the centuries the Pashtun clans, particularly the Afridis and the Afghan Shinwaris, have regarded the Pass as their own preserve and have levied a toll on travellers for safe conduct. Since this long been their main source of income, resistance to challenges to the Shimaris' authority has often been fierce. The Mullagori (also Malagori) are a Pashtun tribe that inhabit the Khyber Agency, one of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan. ... Tirah is a mountainous tract of country in the west-central North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan. ... Afridi fighters seen in a battle. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ... The Shinwari are an ethnic tribe in Afghanistan. ...


George Molesworth, a member of the British force of 1919, summarised: "Every stone in the Khyber has been soaked in blood." Rudyard Kipling called it "a sword cut through the mountains." Lt-General George Noble Molesworth, CSI, CBE (1890-1968) was commissioned into the British Army serving in India and saw active service in the Third Anglo-Afghan War. ... The Rise of Dost Mohammad It was not until 1826 that the energetic Dost Mohammad was able to exert sufficient control over his brothers to take over the throne in Kabul, where he proclaimed himself amir. ... This article is about the British author. ...


The pass became widely known to thousands of Westerners and Japanese who traveled it in the days of the Hippie trail, taking a public or private bus or car from Kabul or the Afghan border, on the Pakistani side. People were advised not to wander away from the road; a quick daylight passage was then made. Monuments left by British Army units, as well as hillside forts, could be viewed from the highway. The hippie trail is a term used to describe the journeys taken by hippies in the 1960s and 70s from Europe, overland to and from eastern Asia. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ...


The area of the Khyber Pass has been connected with a counterfeit arms industry, making AK-47s and Martini-Henry rifles, among others including pistols and sub machine guns using local steel and blacksmiths' forges. Avtomat Kalashnikova model 1947 g. ... The Martini-Henry (also known as the Peabody-Martini-Henry) was a breech-loading lever-actuated rifle adopted by the British, combining an action worked on by Friedrich von Martini (based on the Peabody rifle developed by Henry Peabody), with the rifled barrel designed by Scotsman Alexander Henry. ... For other uses, see Blacksmith (disambiguation). ... For finery forges (making iron), see finery forge. ...


Torkham Gate is a major trade route between Pakistan and Afghanistan.


Notes

  1. ^ Wise's maps

Bibliography

  • Molesworth, Lt-Gen. G.N., Afghanistan 1919 (Asia Publishing House, 1962). Describes in detail the author's passage through the Khyber Pass, when he was Adjutant of the 2/Somerset Light Infantry.
  • Victor Bayley CIE CBE. "Permanent Way through the Khyber", Jarrolds 1934. Illustrated with photos, the author describes the construction of the railway.
  • V. Bayley. (as above). 'Adventures through the Khyber' . In a breach of copyright this was published in 1998 by Gyan Publishing House, India. it uses the same text and illustrations as the first mentioned (the copyright holder lives in London) .

Lt-General George Noble Molesworth, CSI, CBE (1890-1968) was commissioned into the British Army serving in India and saw active service in the Third Anglo-Afghan War. ... The Somerset Light Infantry (Prince Alberts) was an infantry regiment of the British Army. ...

Trivia

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... The Man Who Would Be King is a 1975 film adapted from the Rudyard Kipling story of the same title. ... John Marcellus Huston (August 5, 1906 – August 28, 1987) was an American film director and actor. ... Sir Thomas Sean Connery (born 25 August 1930) is a retired Scottish actor and producer who is perhaps best known as the first actor to portray James Bond in cinema, starring in seven Bond films. ... This article is about the English actor. ... Kings Cross St Pancras tube station is the London Underground station serving both Kings Cross and St Pancras main line stations in the London Borough of Camden. ... Stromness is the second-largest town in the Orkney Islands and is located on the southwestern edge of the mainland of Orkney. ... Location Geography Area Ranked 16th  - Total 990 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Kirkwall ISO 3166-2 GB-ORK ONS code 00RA Demographics Population Ranked 32nd  - Total (2005) 19,590  - Density 20 / km² Scottish Gaelic  - Total () {{{Scottish council Gaelic Speakers}}} Politics Orkney Islands Council http://www. ... Pink Floyd are an English rock band that initially earned recognition for their psychedelic rock music, and, as they evolved, for their progressive rock music. ... Up the Khyber is a song by the British rock band Pink Floyd. ... Music from the Film More (often referred to simply as More) is Pink Floyds first full-length soundtrack. ... Ministry is an American industrial metal band founded by frontman Al Jourgensen in 1981. ... Rio Grande Blood is the title for Ministrys tenth studio album. ... Life Is a Highway is a song written by Tom Cochrane, from his 1991 album Mad Mad World. ... Tom Cochrane, (born May 14, 1953) is a Canadian singer and songwriter, whose story-telling songs have earned him the nickname The thinking mans rocker. ... Cockney rhyming slang is a form of English slang which originated in the East End of London. ... For other uses, see Auckland (disambiguation). ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Category:Khyber Pass

  Results from FactBites:
 
Khyber Pass - LoveToKnow 1911 (1098 words)
To reach the Kabul River within Afghan territory it is necessary to pass over this water-divide; and the Khyber stream, flowing down from the pass at Landi Kotal to a point in the plains opposite Jamrud, 9 m.
It was at Ali Masjid that Sir Neville Chamberlain's friendly mission to the amir Shere Ali was stopped in 1878, thus causing the second Afghan War; and on the outbreak of that war Ali Masjid was captured by Sir Samuel Browne.
From that time the pass was protected by jezailchis drawn from the Afridi tribe, who were paid a subsidy by the British government.
Khyber Pass (1270 words)
On the north side of the Khyber Pass rise the towering, snow-covered mountains of the Hindu Kush.
The Khyber Pass winds northwest through the Sefid Koh Range near Peshawar, Pakistan to Kabul, Afghanistan, varying in width from 3 to 137 m.
In 1672, it was the Khyber Pass where the Afridis under the able leadership of Ajmal Khan defeated Muhammad Amin Khan's army and besides inflicting losses, both in men and material, on the enemy, the Afridis captured about 10,000 Mughal soldiers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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