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Encyclopedia > Khwarezmid Empire
History of Iran
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The Khwarezmid Empire (also known as the Khwarezmian Empire) was a Muslim Iranian state in the 11th century in Khwarezmia that lasted until the Mongol invasion in 1220. The ethnic background of the dynasty is uncertain. Many historians consider them members of Turkic tribes of Central Asia, while others believe that they were of Persian heritage. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Iran is one of the worlds oldest continuous major civilizations. ... The following is a comprehensive list of all Persian Empires and their rulers: // Early realms in Iran Elamite Kingdom, 3000–660 BC The Elamites were a people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. ... Silver cup from Marvdasht, Fars, with Proto-Elamite inscription on it. ... The Jiroft Kingdom or Jiroft Civilization (تمدن جيرفت) is a relatively recent and ongoing multinational archeological project that aims to uncover an unknown civilization in a series of newly discovered sites in Irans Kerman Province, located at 28° 48 N latitude and 57° 46 E Longitude, known as Jiroft or Halilrud... Elam (Persian: ایلام) is one of the most ancient civilizations on record. ... The Mannaeans (or Mannai, Mannae, Biblical Minni) were an ancient people of unknown origin, who lived in the territory of present-day Iranian Azerbaijan around the 10th to 7th century BC. At that time they were neighbours of the empires of Assyria and Urartu, as well as other small buffer... The Medes(ancient Kurdistan) were an Iranian people, who lived in the north, western, and northwestern portions of present-day Iran, and roughly the areas of present day Tehran, Hamedan, Azarbaijan, north of Esfahan, Zanjan, and Kurdistan. ... The Persepolis Ruins The Achaemenid dynasty (Old Persian:Hakamanishiya, Persian: هخامنشیان) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Parthia[1] (Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân), situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as the modern countries of Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia, Bahrain... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Empire (in Persian: Sasanian) is the name used for the third Persian Empire (226 - 651). ... The Islamic conquest of Iran (637-651 CE) destroyed the Sassanid Empire and led to the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran. ... The Tahirid dynasty ruled the northeastern Persian region of Khorasan between AD 821-873. ... The Saffarid dynasty of Persia ruled a short-lived empire centred on Seistan, a border district between modern-day Afghanistan and Iran, between 861-1003. ... The Sāmānid dynasty (875-999) was a Persian dynasty in Central Asia, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ... Tomb of Ghaboos ebne Voshmgir, built in 1007AD, rises 160 ft from its base. ... The Buwayhids or Buyyids or Ä€l-i Buyeh, were a Yazdani tribal confederation from Daylam, a region on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. ... The Ghaznavid Empire was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 963 to 1187. ... The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq;in Turkish Selçuklu, in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān ; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa;) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turkics and a dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... The Muzaffarids were a Sunni Arab family that came to power in Iran following the breakup of the Ilkhanate in the 14th century. ... Flag of the Timurid Empire according to the Catalan Atlas c. ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... Tomb of Nader Shah Afshar, a popular tourist attraction in Mashad. ... Vakeel mosque, Shiraz. ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1781 to 1925. ... The Pahlavi dynasty began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... The Provisional Government of Iran (PGOI) preceded the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) is an adherent of Islam. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Khwarezmia (also with various alternate spellings, including Chorasmia and Khorezm) was a state located on what was then the coast of the Aral Sea, including modern Karakalpakstan across the Ust-Urt plateau and perhaps extending to as far west as the eastern shores of the North Caspian Sea. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Decades: 1170s 1180s 1190s 1200s 1210s - 1220s - 1230s 1240s 1250s 1260s 1270s Years: 1215 1216 1217 1218 1219 - 1220 - 1221 1222 1223 1224 1225 See also: 1220 state leaders The world in 1220 Middle Ages in Europe Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) Events Mongols... Turkic peoples are Northern and Central Eurasian peoples who speak languages belonging to the Turkic family, and who, in varying degrees, share certain cultural and historical traits. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Persian may refer to more than one article: the Western name for Iranian (see Iran/Persia naming controversy) Persian, an Iranian language the Persians, an ethnic group a Persian, a breed of cat Persian, a Pokémon character Etymology English Persian < Old English, < Latin *Persianus, < Latin Persia, < ancient Greek Persis...

Contents


History

The date of the founding of the empire is uncertain. Khwarezm was a province of the Ghaznavid Empire from 992 to 1041. In 1077 the governorship of the province, which now belonged to the Seljuk Turks, fell into the hands of Anuş Tigin Ğarçai (Anoush Tegin Garchâ'i). In 1141, the Seljuk Sultan Ahmed Sanjar was defeated by the Kara Khitay (Kara-Khitan Khanate) and Anuş Tigin's grandson Ala ad-Din Aziz was forced to submit as a vassal to the Kara Khitay. The Ghaznavid Empire was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 963 to 1187. ... Events Boleslaus I becomes Duke of Poland Births Deaths February 1 - Jawhar as-Siqilli, Fatimid statesman May 25 - Mieszko I Borell II, Count of Barcelona Categories: 992 ... Events December 10 - Empress Zoe of Byzantium elevates her adoptive son to the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire as Michael V. Revolt at Worcester against the naval taxes of Harthacanute. ... Events January 26 - Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor visits Pope Gregory VII as a penitent, asking him remove sentence of excommunication Robert Curthose instigates his first insurrection against his father, William the Conqueror Seljuk Turks capture Nicaea Süleyman I of Rüm becomes the leader of the Sultanate of... The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to... Events February 2 - Battle of Lincoln. ... Muizz ad-Din Ahmed Sanjar (1084/1086 - May 8, 1157) was the sultan of Great Seljuk from 1118 to 1153. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Kara-Khitan Khanate (Simplified Chinese: 西辽; Traditional Chinese: 西遼; pinyin: XÄ« Liaó) (1124 or 1125-1218), also known as Western Liao was established by Yelü Dashi (耶律大石) who led around 100,000 Khitan remnants after escaping Jurchen conquest of their native country, the Khitan dynasty (also known as Liao Dynasty). ...

Eurasia on the eve of the Mongol invasions, c. 1200 CE, showing the extent of Khwarezmian holdings in their larger geopolitical context.
Eurasia on the eve of the Mongol invasions, c. 1200 CE, showing the extent of Khwarezmian holdings in their larger geopolitical context.

Sultan Ahmed Sanjar was killed in 1156 and when the Seljuk state fell into chaos, the Khwarezms expanded their territories south. In 1194, the last Sultan of Great Seljuk state, Toğrül III, was defeated and killed by the Khwarezm ruler Ala ad-Din Tekish who also freed himself of the Kara Khitay. In 1200, Tekish died and was succeeded by his son, Ala ad-Din Muhammad, who by 1205 had conquered all of Great Seljuk and declared himself Shah (Persian for King); also known as Kwarezmshah. In 1212 he defeated the Gur-Khan Kutluk and conquered the lands of the Kara Khitay, now ruling a territory from the Jaxartes almost all the way to Baghdad, and from the Indus River to the Caspian Sea. Image File history File links Premongol. ... Image File history File links Premongol. ... Eurasia African-Eurasian aspect of Earth Eurasia is the landmass composed of Europe and Asia. ... Events Establishment of the Carmelite Order Hogen Rebellion in Japan January 20 - According to legend, freeholder Lalli slays English crusader Bishop Henry with an axe on the ice of the lake Köyliönjärvi in Finland. ... Events November 20 - Palermo falls to Henry VI, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire December 25 - Henry VI is crowned king of Sicily. ... Events University of Paris receives charter from Philip II of France The Kanem-Bornu Empire was established in northern Africa around the year 1200 Mongol victory over Northern China — 30,000,000 killed Births Al-Abhari, Persian philosopher and mathematician (died 1265) Ulrich von Liechtenstein, German nobleman and poet (died... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Events January 6 - Philip of Swabia becomes King of the Romans April 14 - Battle of Adrianople (1205) between Bulgars and Latins August 20 - Following certain news of Baldwin Is death, Henry of Flanders is crowned Emperor of the Latin Empire Births Walter IV of Brienne Wenceslaus I, King of... Shah is an Iranian term (Persian and Kurdish) for king, and has also been adopted in many other languages. ... Events The first Great Fire of London burns most of the city to the ground Battle of Navas de Tolosa Childrens crusade Crusaders push the Muslims out of northern Spain In Japan, Kamo no Chōmei writes the Hōjōki, one of the great works of classical Japanese... Syr Darya (also known as Syrdarya or Sirdaryo) is a river in Central Asia. ... Location of Baghdad within Iraq Baghdad (Arabic: ‎ translit: , Kurdish: Bexda, from Persian Baagh-daad or Bag-Da-Du meaning “Garden of God” [1]) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... The Indus River in northern Pakistan, near the rock Aornus. ... Caspian Sea viewed from orbit The Caspian Sea is a landlocked endorheic sea of Eurasia between Asia and Europe. ...


In 1218, Chinggis Khan sent some emissaries to the Shah, but when he executed the Mongol diplomats in defiance of the emerging great power, Genghis retaliated with a force of 200 000 men. In February 1220 the Mongolian army crossed the Syr Darya and launched the Mongol invasion of Central Asia. The Mongols stormed Bukhara, Samarkand, and the Khwarezmid capital Urgench. The Shah fled and died some weeks later on an island in the Caspian Sea. // Events Damietta is besieged by the knights of the Fifth Crusade. ... Genghis Khan (c. ... February is the second month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Decades: 1170s 1180s 1190s 1200s 1210s - 1220s - 1230s 1240s 1250s 1260s 1270s Years: 1215 1216 1217 1218 1219 - 1220 - 1221 1222 1223 1224 1225 See also: 1220 state leaders The world in 1220 Middle Ages in Europe Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) Events Mongols... Syr Darya (also known as Syrdarya or Sirdaryo) is a river in Central Asia. ... Khwarezmid Empire (1190-1220) Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia lasted from 1219 to 1221. ... Bukhara (Bokhara in XIX century English, Buxoro or Бухоро in Uzbek (the Cyrillic alphabet was officially phased out for Uzbek after independence); بُخارا /Bukhârâ/ in Persian, Buhe/Puhe Tang Chinese, Бухара in Russian; also Boxara in Tatar) is the fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and capital of the Bukhara region (Bukhoro Wiloyati). ... Colour photograph of Ulugh Beg Madrasa taken in Samarkand ca. ... Ruins of Muhammad IIs palace in Old Urgench. ...


In Great Captains Unveiled of 1927, B.H. Liddell Hart gave details of the Mongol campaign against Khwarezm, underscoring his own philosophy of "the indirect approach," and highlighting many of the tactics used by Genghis which were to be subsequently included in the German Blitzkrieg tactics, inspired in part by Liddell Hart's writings. 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Basil Henry Liddell Hart (October 31, 1895 _ January 29, 1970) was a military historian and is considered among the great military strategists of the 20th century. ... Blitzkrieg relies on close co-operation between infantry and panzers (tanks). ...


The son of Ala ad-Din Muhammad, Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu, became the new Sultan (he rejected the title Shah) but he had to flee to India. However, the Mongols run up with him before he got there, and he was defeated at the Battle of Indus. He and his closest followers then fled to Armenia where they attacked the Seljuk Sultanate of Rüm. He had a brief victory capturing the town Ahlat, but was later defeated by Sultan Kay Qubadh I at the Battle of Yassi Chemen in 1230, and murdered in 1231 by an assassin who was a Kurd [1]. Jelal ad-Din Mingburnu (also جلال الدين منكبرتي Jalāl al-DÄ«n MenguberdÄ« or Mankburny) was the last ruler of the Khwarezmid Empire. ... Battle before: Battle of Parwan The Battle of Indus was fought at the river Indus in todays Pakistan in the year 1221 between Jelal ad-Din Mingburnu, the sultan of the Khwarezmid Empire and his only remaining forces of five thousand, and the Mongolian horde of Chinggis Khan. ... The Sultanate of Rûm was a Seljuk sultanate in Anatolia from 1077 to 1307. ... Events Kingdom of Leon unites with the Kingdom of Castile. ... // Events Ardengus becomes bishop of Florence. ... Jack Ruby murdered the assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, in a very public manner. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ...


Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu's followers remained loyal to him even after his death and raided the Seljuk lands of Jazira and Syria for the next several years, calling themselves the Khwarezmiyyas. Ayyubid Sultan Salih Ayyub later hired their services against his uncle Salih Ismail and they actually captured Jerusalem in 1244, triggering the Seventh Crusade. Al Jazira (Arabic, الجزيرة) is the traditional Arabic name for the region of northeastern modern-day Syria and northwestern modern-day Iraq. ... The Ayyubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Egypt, Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... Al-Malik as-Salih Najm al-Din Ayyub (died November 1249) was the Ayyubid ruler of Egypt from 1240 to 1249. ... Jerusalem (; Hebrew: Yerushalayim; Arabic: al-Quds, Greek Ιεροσόλυμα), the capital of Israel, is an ancient Middle Eastern city on the watershed between the Mediterranean Sea and the Dead Sea at an elevation of 650-840 meters. ... This article is about the year 1244. ... The Seventh Crusade was a crusade led by Louis IX of France from 1248 to 1254. ...


The Khwarezmiyyas served in Egypt as Mameluk mercenaries before they were finally beaten by Mansur Ibrahim some years later. An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for themselves. ...


Ghaznavid Governors of Khwarezm

Events Boleslaus I becomes Duke of Poland Births Deaths February 1 - Jawhar as-Siqilli, Fatimid statesman May 25 - Mieszko I Borell II, Count of Barcelona Categories: 992 ... Events City of Gdansk is founded Saint Adalbert of Prague is sent to Prussia by Boleslaus I of Poland Samuil of Bulgaria crowned Tsar by Pope Gregory V The town of Trondheim is founded. ... Events City of Gdansk is founded Saint Adalbert of Prague is sent to Prussia by Boleslaus I of Poland Samuil of Bulgaria crowned Tsar by Pope Gregory V The town of Trondheim is founded. ... Events February 14: First known mention of Lithuania, in the annals of the monastery of Quedlinburg. ... Events February 14: First known mention of Lithuania, in the annals of the monastery of Quedlinburg. ... Events Canute the Great is acclaimed king of England. ... Events Canute the Great is acclaimed king of England. ... Events Canute the Great is acclaimed king of England. ... Events February 2 - Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor, becomes King of Burgundy. ... Events February 2 - Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor, becomes King of Burgundy. ... Events April 11 - Empress Zoe of Byzantium marries her chamberlain and elevates him to the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire as Michael IV. Franche-Comté becomes subject to the Holy Roman Empire. ... Events April 11 - Empress Zoe of Byzantium marries her chamberlain and elevates him to the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire as Michael IV. Franche-Comté becomes subject to the Holy Roman Empire. ... Events December 10 - Empress Zoe of Byzantium elevates her adoptive son to the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire as Michael V. Revolt at Worcester against the naval taxes of Harthacanute. ...

Khwarezmian Dynasty

Events January 26 - Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor visits Pope Gregory VII as a penitent, asking him remove sentence of excommunication Robert Curthose instigates his first insurrection against his father, William the Conqueror Seljuk Turks capture Nicaea Süleyman I of Rüm becomes the leader of the Sultanate of... Events Edgar I deposes Donald III to become king of Scotland. ... Events Edgar I deposes Donald III to become king of Scotland. ... Events Conrad III establishes the Hohenstaufen dynasty when he is crowned antiking to the Holy Roman Emperor, Lothair II. First coalition of the Norman princes against Roger II of Sicily. ... Events Conrad III establishes the Hohenstaufen dynasty when he is crowned antiking to the Holy Roman Emperor, Lothair II. First coalition of the Norman princes against Roger II of Sicily. ... Events Establishment of the Carmelite Order Hogen Rebellion in Japan January 20 - According to legend, freeholder Lalli slays English crusader Bishop Henry with an axe on the ice of the lake Köyliönjärvi in Finland. ... Events Establishment of the Carmelite Order Hogen Rebellion in Japan January 20 - According to legend, freeholder Lalli slays English crusader Bishop Henry with an axe on the ice of the lake Köyliönjärvi in Finland. ... Events Duke Richard of Aquitaine becomes Duke of Poitiers. ... Events Duke Richard of Aquitaine becomes Duke of Poitiers. ... Events Saladin dies, and the lands of the Kurdish Ayyubid dynasty of Egypt and Syria are split among his descendants. ... Events Duke Richard of Aquitaine becomes Duke of Poitiers. ... Events University of Paris receives charter from Philip II of France The Kanem-Bornu Empire was established in northern Africa around the year 1200 Mongol victory over Northern China — 30,000,000 killed Births Al-Abhari, Persian philosopher and mathematician (died 1265) Ulrich von Liechtenstein, German nobleman and poet (died... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Events University of Paris receives charter from Philip II of France The Kanem-Bornu Empire was established in northern Africa around the year 1200 Mongol victory over Northern China — 30,000,000 killed Births Al-Abhari, Persian philosopher and mathematician (died 1265) Ulrich von Liechtenstein, German nobleman and poet (died... Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Decades: 1170s 1180s 1190s 1200s 1210s - 1220s - 1230s 1240s 1250s 1260s 1270s Years: 1215 1216 1217 1218 1219 - 1220 - 1221 1222 1223 1224 1225 See also: 1220 state leaders The world in 1220 Middle Ages in Europe Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) Events Mongols... Jelal ad-Din Mingburnu (also جلال الدين منكبرتي Jalāl al-Dīn Menguberdī or Mankburny) was the last ruler of the Khwarezmid Empire. ... Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Decades: 1170s 1180s 1190s 1200s 1210s - 1220s - 1230s 1240s 1250s 1260s 1270s Years: 1215 1216 1217 1218 1219 - 1220 - 1221 1222 1223 1224 1225 See also: 1220 state leaders The world in 1220 Middle Ages in Europe Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) Events Mongols... // Events Ardengus becomes bishop of Florence. ...

External link

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Christoph Marcinkowski. ... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map The Caucasus, a region bordering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The British Academy is the United Kingdoms national academy for the humanities and the social sciences. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Persian Empire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4606 words)
Ismail's expansion was halted by the Ottoman Empire at the Battle of Chaldiran in 1514, and war with the Ottomans became a fact of life in Safavid Iran.
Iran was left unprepared for the worldwide expansion of European colonial empires in the late 18th century and throughout the 19th century.
The German Empire retaliated on behalf of its ally by spreading a rumour that Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany had converted to Islam, and sent agents through Iran to attack the oil fields and raise a Jihad against British rule in India.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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