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Khwarezmia (also with various alternate spellings, including Chorasmia and Khorezm) was a state located on what was then the coast of the Aral Sea, including modern Karakalpakstan across the Ust-Urt plateau and perhaps extending to as far west as the eastern shores of the North Caspian Sea. To the south it bordered Khorasan, to the north the kingdom of Alans, to the southeast Kangju and Sogdian Transoxiana, and on the northeast with the Huns of Transiaxartesia. Its capitals were Urgench (until Genghis Khan's invasion in 1221) and Khiva (from the 17th century on). The Aral Sea, in 2003, had shrunk to well under half of the area it had covered fifty years before. ... [[image:|right|200px|thumb|Flag of Karakalpakstan]] Karakalpakstan (Uzbek: Qoraqalpogiston or Қорақалпоғистон Республикаси; Karakalpak: Qaraqalpaqstan) is an autonomous republic of Uzbekistan. ... The Ustyurt Plateau, Ustyurt also spelled Ust-Urt and Usturt (Kazakh: Üstirt, Turkmen: Üstyurt), is a central Asian plateau in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan, between the Aral Sea and the Caspian Sea. ... Caspian Sea viewed from orbit The Caspian Sea or Mazandaran Sea is a landlocked sea between Asia and Europe (European Russia). ... Jump to: navigation, search Khorasan (also spelled Khurasan and Khorassan; خراسان in Persian) is an area, located in eastern and northeastern Iran. ... The Alans or Alani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of mixed backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and shared, in a broad sense, a common culture. ... The Sogdians were an ancient people of Central Asia, who inhabited the region known to the West as Sogdiana. ... Transoxiana (sometimes spelled Transoxania) is the largely obsolete name used for the portion of Central Asia corresponding approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan and southwest Kazakhstan. ... Jump to: navigation, search Hun is a term that refers to a specific group of Central Asian nomadic tribes, who appear in Europe in the 4th century. ... Transiaxartea is the region beyond the Jaxartes around Lake Balkhash in north-east Kazakhstan. ... Ruins of Muhammad IIs palace in Old Urgench. ... Jump to: navigation, search It has been suggested that Genghis Khan/temp be merged into this article or section. ... Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Decades: 1170s 1180s 1190s 1200s 1210s - 1220s - 1230s 1240s 1250s 1260s 1270s Years: 1216 1217 1218 1219 1220 - 1221 - 1222 1223 1224 1225 1226 See also: 1221 state leaders Events May 13 - End of the reign of Emperor Juntoku of Japan Emperor Chukyo... Jump to: navigation, search Khiva (alternative names include Khorasam, Khoresm, Khwarezm, Khwarizm, Khwarazm, Chiwa and Chorezm) is the former capital of Khwarezmia, which lies in the present-day Khorezm Province of Uzbekistan. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...

Contents


Early history

According to Ancient Khorezm (Moscow 1948), written by the head of the Soviet archaeological-ethnographic expedition of 1945 - 1948, Sergei Pavlovich Tolstov (1907-1976), the first inhabitants of the area were Hurrians from the area of Transcaucasian Iberia, and he explains the etymology of "Chorezm" as Hurri-Land. The first two names of rulers we have for the area are Sijavus c.1300 BC (synonymous with Afrasiab c.1100 BC) and Aurvat-Aspa, usually placed in the late 600s BC though dating is very difficult. From the ancient times the Iranian tribes entered and inhabited the area. Their language, Khwarezmian, was one of the Eastern Iranian languages. Jump to: navigation, search 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1948 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1907 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1976 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Hurrians were a people of the Ancient Near East, who lived in northern Mesopotamia and areas to the immediate east and west, beginning approximately 2500 BC. They probably originated in the Caucasus and entered from the north, but this is not certain. ... Caucasian Iberia is the term designated to the Kingdom of Iberia (4th century BC–5th century AD) established in Eastern Georgia by the Georgians (Kartvelians). ... Afrasiab, near Samarkand, Uzbekistan is both a historical city and its legendary founder. ... Chorasmian, also known as Khwarezmian or Khwarazmian, is the name of an extinct northeastern Iranian language closely related to Sogdian. ... The Iranian languages are a part of the Indo-European language family. ...


Classical times

When the King of Khwarezmia offered friendship to Alexander the Great in 328 BC, Alexander's Greek and Roman biographers imagined the nomad king of a desert waste, but 20th century Russian archeologists revealed Khiva as a stable and centralized kingdom, a land of agriculture to the east of the Aral Sea, surrounded by the nomads of Central Asia, protected by its army of mailed horsemen, in the most powerful kingdom northwest of the Amu Darya ('Oxus River' of antiquity). The king's emissary offered to lead Alexander's armies against his own enemies, west over the Caspian towards the Black Sea. Alexander politely refused. Jump to: navigation, search Alexander the Great fighting the Persian king Darius (Pompeii mosaic, from a 3rd century BC original Greek painting, now lost). ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 333 BC 332 BC 331 BC 330 BC 329 BC - 328 BC - 327 BC 326 BC 325... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Amu Darya (Darya means river) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large delta. ... The Amu Darya (in Persian آمودریا; Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ... Map of the Black Sea. ...


The Pekhlevi script based on Aramaic alphabet was used by Persian bureaucracy alongside Old Persian passed into use in Khwarezmia to the north, where it served as the first local alphabet, about the 2nd century. The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... The Aramaic alphabet is an abjad alphabet designed for writing the Aramaic language. ... The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Bureaucracy is a concept in sociology and political science. ... Jump to: navigation, search See Aryan Language or Old Persian For more information visit: *[Ancient Iranian Languages & Literature The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) ... An alphabet is a complete standardized set of letters — basic written symbols — each of which roughly represents a phoneme of a spoken language, either as it exists now or as it may have been in the past. ... // Events Roman Empire governed by the Five Good Emperors (96–180) – Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius. ...


Middle Ages

According to Biruni the area was ruled by the Afrigid dynasty from the 4th century to the 8th century. The resurgent kingdom was established around Khiva in 410 by Avar tribes possibly under Hephthalites influence. The inhabitants were called Khwalis or Kaliz by the Magyars after the eastern-most Kabars of Hungary, who dwelt in Carpathian Galicia. They were also called Khalisioi in Greek, Khvalis (and often associated with Khazars) in Russian and HuaLaZiMu (or perhaps Kua-Li & Ho-li-sih-mi-kia) in Chinese. The etymology of the name is unknown but may pertain to a kingdom of the Aral Sea or Hua people. Biruni commemorated on a Soviet stamp for his millennial anniversary. ... (3rd century - 4th century - 5th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... Jump to: navigation, search Khiva (alternative names include Khorasam, Khoresm, Khwarezm, Khwarizm, Khwarazm, Chiwa and Chorezm) is the former capital of Khwarezmia, which lies in the present-day Khorezm Province of Uzbekistan. ... Events Alaric I deposes Priscus Attalus as Roman Emperor. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Eurasian Avars were a nomadic people of Eurasia who migrated into central and eastern Europe in the 6th century. ... The Hephthalites, also known as White Huns, were a nomadic people who lived across northern China, Central Asia, and northern India in the fourth through sixth centuries. ... Magyars are an ethnic group primarily associated with Hungary. ... The Eurasian Avars were a nomadic people of Eurasia who established a state in the Danube River area of Europe in the early 6th century. ... This is about the terrestrial mountain range. ... The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, or simply Galicia, was the largest and northernmost province of Austria from 1772 until 1918, with Lemberg (Lwów, Lviv) as its capital city. ... The Khazars were a Turkic semi-nomadic people from Central Asia who adopted Judaism. ... Jump to: navigation, search Etymology is the study of the origins of words. ...


Khiva was the birthplace of the great Persian mathematician of the Abbasid period, al-Khwarezmi. The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Wikibooks Wikiversity has more about this subject: School of Mathematics Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Mathematics Look up Mathematics on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Wikimedia Commons has more media related to: Mathematics Bogomolny, Alexander: Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid (Arabic: العبّاسدين ) was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs. ... Soviet postage stamp commemorating the 1200th anniversary of Muhammad al‑Khwarizmi in 1983. ...


In the 11th century the Khwarezmid Empire conquered all of Persia under the Shah Allah al-Din Muhammad II. In 1218 to 1220 Genghis Khan and his Mongols destroyed the empire and its capital, Urgench. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Khwarezmid Empire (also known as the Khwarezmian Empire) was a Muslim state in the 11th century in Khwarezmia that lasted until the Mongol invasion in 1220. ... Jump to: navigation, search The King of Kings - Shah (in Persian: شاه), from the Old Persian or Aryan word khshathra-pava (king), popularly referred to as satrap by the Greeks, is the Persian term for a monarch and used by the former rulers of Persia as well as the rulers of... Ala ad-Din Muhammad II(علاءالدين محمد ʿAlā al-Dīn Muḥammad) was the ruler of the Khwarezmid Empire from 1200 to 1220. ... Jump to: navigation, search // Events Damietta is besieged by the knights of the Fifth Crusade. ... Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Decades: 1170s 1180s 1190s 1200s 1210s - 1220s - 1230s 1240s 1250s 1260s 1270s Years: 1215 1216 1217 1218 1219 - 1220 - 1221 1222 1223 1224 1225 See also: 1220 state leaders The world in 1220 Middle Ages in Europe Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) Events Mongols... Jump to: navigation, search It has been suggested that Genghis Khan/temp be merged into this article or section. ... The Mongols are an ethnic group that originated in what is now Mongolia, Russia, and China, particularly Inner Mongolia. ... Ruins of Muhammad IIs palace in Old Urgench. ...


Also see Khalyzians. The Khalyzians (also called Chalyzians) were a people mentioned by the 12th-century Byzantine historian John Kinnamos. ...


Modern Age

The region of Khwarezm became part of the Jagatai Khanate, and its capital of Urgench was rebuilt and again became one of the largest and most important trading centers in Central Asia. However, Timur regarded Khwarezm as a rival to Samarkand, and over the course of 5 campaigns, he destroyed the city completely in 1388. In the 16th century, the area fell under the Khanate of Khiva. This article needs to be wikified. ... Jump to: navigation, search Reconstruction of Timur from exhumation of his tomb. ... Samarkand (Samarqand or Самарқанд in Uzbek, in Persian سمرقند) (population 400,000) is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan, capital of Samarqand Province. ... Khiva (alternative names include Khorasam, Khoresm, Khwarezm, Khwarizm, Khwarazm, Chiwa and Chorezm) is the former capital of Khwarezmia, which lies in the present-day Khorezm Province of Uzbekistan. ...


On August 12, 1873, a peace treaty was signed that established Khiva as a Russian protectorate. In 1924, northern Khwarezmia became the Uzbek SSR, in 1925 the western part became the Turkmen SSR and in 1936 the eastern Khwarezm became the Tadzhik SSR. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, these became Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan respectively. Southern Khwarezmia is today a part of Iran. Jump to: navigation, search August 12 is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1873 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1924 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... State motto: Бутун дунё пролетарлари, бирлашингиз! (transliteration: Butun Dunyo Proletarlari, Burlashingiz! (Uzbek: Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1925 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... State motto: Әхли юртларың пролетарлары, бирлешиң! Official language None. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1936 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... State motto: Пролетарҳои ҳамаи мамлакатҳо, як шавед! Official language None. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1991 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also

Chorasmian, also known as Khwarezmian or Khwarazmian, is the name of an extinct northeastern Iranian language closely related to Sogdian. ...

Reference

  • Robin Lane Fox, Alexander the Great, pp 308ff etc.

External link

  • E. Nerazik, on Central Asia in the Early Middle Ages

  Results from FactBites:
 
Khwarezmia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (583 words)
Khwarezmia (also with various alternate spellings, including Chorasmia and Khorezm) was a state located on what was then the coast of the Aral Sea, including modern Karakalpakstan across the Ust-Urt plateau and perhaps extending to as far west as the eastern shores of the North Caspian Sea.
The Pekhlevi script based on Aramaic alphabet was used by Persian bureaucracy alongside Old Persian passed into use in Khwarezmia to the north, where it served as the first local alphabet, about the 2nd century.
According to Biruni the area was ruled by the Afrigid dynasty from the 4th century to the 8th century.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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