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Khvārvarān, (Modern Iraq)From the Fall of Sasanian Dynasty to the Arab Occupations and Umayyads Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب Ê»arab) are an originally Arabian ethnicity widespread in the Middle East and North Africa. ...


In CE 600 the country which in our modern time known as Iraq was a province of the Iranian Empire, to which it had belonged to Iran since Cyrus the Great. intensive irrigation agriculture of the lower Tigris and Euphrates and of tributaries such as the Diyala and Karun formed the main resource base of the Sasanian monarchy. Cyrus the Great Cyrus II of Persia, widely known as Cyrus the Great or Cyrus the Elder, (ca. ... Tigris River in Mosul, Iraq The Tigris (Old Persian: Tigr, Aramaic Assyrian: Deqlath, Arabic: دجلة, Dijla, Turkish: Dicle; Hebrew: חידקל; biblical Hiddekel) is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... Length 2,800 km Elevation of the source 4,500 m Average discharge 818 m³/s Area watershed 765,831 km² Origin  Eastern Turkey Mouth  Shatt al Arab Basin countries Turkey Syria Iraq Boat on the Shatt-al-Arab The Euphrates (the traditional Greek name for the river, which is... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ...


The Arabic term Iraq, a derivative form of Persian Ērāk (lower Iran) was not used at this time; in the mid-6th century the Iranian Empire under Sasanian dynasty was divided by Khosrow I into four quarters, of which the western one, called Khvārvarān, included most of modern Iraq, and subdivided to provinces of Mishān, Asuristān, Ādiābene and Lower Media. The term Iraq is widely used in the medieval Arabic sources for the area in the centre and south of the modern republic as a geographic rather than a political term, implying no precise boundaries. Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Persian can refer to: the Western name for Iranian (see Iran/Persia naming controversy) the Persian Empire the Persians the Persian language the Persian (cat) breed the Persian melon the Persian lamb the Persian rug (or carpet) the Persian type of Pokémon character See also Persia (disambiguation page) List... Jump to: navigation, search A coin of Khosrau I Silver bowl showing Khusrau I Anushirvan, of the righteous soul seated on his throne. ...


The area of modern Iraq north of Tikrit was known in Muslim times as Al-Jazirah, which means "The Island" and refers to the "island" between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. To the south and west lay the Arabian deserts, inhabited largely by Arab tribesmen who occasionally acknowledged the overlordship of the Sasanian Emperors.


Until 602 the desert frontier of greater Iran had been guarded by the Lakhmid kings of Al-Hira, who were themselves Arabs but who ruled a settled buffer state. In that year Shahanshah Khosrow II Aparviz rashly abolished the Lakhmid kingdom and laid the frontier open to nomad incursions. Farther north the western quarter was bounded by the Byzantine Empire. The frontier more or less followed the modern Syria-Iraq border and continued northward into modern Turkey, leaving Nisibis (modern Nusaybin) as the Sasanian frontier fortress while the Byzantines held Dara and nearby Amida (modern Diyarbakir). Shananshah (Persian: شاهنشاه) (sometimes written Shahenshah, Shan-an-shah, or Shan-en-shah) was a title used by various rulers of Persia/Iran. ... Jump to: navigation, search Khosrau II, Parvez (the Victorious), king of Persia, son of Hormizd IV, grandson of Khosrau I, 590 - 628. ... Nisibis (Nusaybin, province Mardin, south-eastern Turkey) is the ancient Mesopotamian city, which Alexanders successors refounded as Antiochia Mygdonia and is mentioned for the first time in Polybius description of the march of Antiochus against the Molon (Polybius, V, 51). ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... Amida can mean: Amida is the Japanese name of a popular Buddhist deity. ... Diyarbakir (Syriac: ܐܡܝܕ; Greek: Amida; Turkish spelling: Diyarbakır) is a city in Turkey, situated on the banks of the River Tigris. ...


Ethnic Diversity & Religion

The inhabitants were very mixed. There was an aristocratic and administrative Persian upper class, but most of the population were middle class Persian Zoroastrians and the rest Aramaic-speaking peasants. There were a number of Tāzis (Arabs), most of whom lived as pastoralists along the western margins of the settled lands, but some lived as townspeople, especially in Hireh (al-Hira). In addition, there were another group of Iranian, Kurds, who lived along the foothills of the Zagros Mountains, and a surprisingly large number of Greeks, mostly prisoners captured during the numerous Sasanian campaigns into Byzantine Syria. Persian can refer to: the Western name for Iranian (see Iran/Persia naming controversy) the Persian Empire the Persians the Persian language the Persian (cat) breed the Persian melon the Persian lamb the Persian rug (or carpet) the Persian type of Pokémon character See also Persia (disambiguation page) List... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... The Zagros Mountains (In Persian:رشته‌کوه‌های زاگرس) make up Irans second largest mountain range. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ...


Ethnic diversity was matched by religious pluralism. The Sasanian state religion, Zoroastrian religion, was largely confined to the Iranians. The rest of the population, especially in the northern part of the country, were probably Christians. These were sharply divided by doctrinal differences into Monophysites, linked to the Jacobite church of Syria, and Nestorians. Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... The term Nestorianism is eponymous, even though the person who lent his name to it always denied the associated belief. ...


The Nestorians, who originally converted from Zoroastrianism, Manichaenism and Mazdakism, were the most widespread and were tolerated by the Sasanian Emperors because of their opposition to the Christians of the Roman Empire, who regarded the Nestorians as heretics. Many of those Iranian Nestorians were deported to southern provinces, located south of Persian Gulf, such as Mishmāhig (modern Bahrain and UAE), Garrhae (modern Saudi cost of Persian Gulf). The Monophysites were regarded with more suspicion and were occasionally persecuted, but both groups were able to maintain an ecclesiastical hierarchy, and the Nestorians had an important intellectual centre at Nisibis. The area around the ancient city of Babylon by this time had a large population of Jews, both descendants of the exiles of Old Testament times and local converts. In addition, in the southern half of the country there were numerous adherents of the old Babylonian paganism, as well as Mandaeans and Gnostics. Manichaeism was one of the major ancient religions. ... Mazdak was a proto-socialist Persian philosopher who gained influence under the reign of the Sassanian king Kavadh I. He was hanged and his followers were massacred by Khosrau I, Kavadhs son. ... The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Ancient Roman polity in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of Octavian (better known as Caesar Augustus). ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Babylon is the Greek variant of Akkadian Babilu, an ancient city in Mesopotamia (Location: 32° 32′ 11″ N, 44° 25′ 15″ E, modern Al Hillah, Iraq). ... The Old Testament or the Hebrew Scriptures (also called the Hebrew Bible) constitutes the first major part of the Bible according to Christianity. ... Mandaeanism is a pre-Christian religion which has been classified by scholars as Gnostic. ... Gnosticism is a blanket term for various religions and sects most prominent in the first few centuries A.D. General characteristics The word gnosticism comes from the Greek word for knowledge, gnosis (γνῶσις), referring to the idea that there is special, hidden mysticism (esoteric knowledge) that only a few possess. ...


In the early 7th century the stability and prosperity of this multicultural society were threatened by invasion. In 602 Khosrow II Aparviz launched the last great Iranian invasion of the Byzantine Empire. At first he was spectacularly successful; Syria and Egypt fell, and Constantinople itself was threatened. Later the tide began to turn, and in 627-628 the Byzantines, under the leadership of the Heraclius, invaded Khvārvarān province and sacked the imperial capital at Tyspawn (Ctesiphon). The invaders did not remain, but Khosrow was discredited, deposed, and executed. Jump to: navigation, search Map of Constantinople. ... Taq-i-Kasra, Ctesiphon, today. ...


There followed a period of infighting among generals and members of the Imperial family that left the country without clear leadership. The chaos had also damaged irrigation systems, and it was probably at this time that large areas in the south of the country reverted to marshlands, which they have remained ever since. It was with this devastated land that the earliest Muslim raiders came into contact.



==The Tazi (Arab) conquest and the early Islamic period-- The first conflict between local Bedouin Tazi (Arab) tribes and Iranian forces seems to have been in 634, when the Tazis were defeated at the Battle of the Bridge. There was a force of some 5,000 Muslims under Abu 'Ubayd ath-Thaqafi was routed by the Iranians. In 637 a much larger Tazi force under Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas defeated the main Iranian army at the battle of Al-Qadisiyya and moved on to sack the capital of the Iranian Empire the Ctesiphon. By the end of the following year (638), the Muslims had conquered almost all of Western Iranian provinces (modern Iraq), and the last Sasanian Emperor, Yazdegerd III, had fled to central and then northern Iran, where he was killed in 651. Bedouin resting at Mount Sinai Bedouin, derived from the Arabic badawi بدوي, a generic name for a desert-dweller, is a term generally applied to Arab nomadic groups, who are found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via the Western Desert, Sinai, and... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Taq-i-Kasra, Ctesiphon, today. ... Yazdegerd III, (also Yazdgird III) (made by God, Izdegerdes), king of Persia, a grandson of Khosrau II, who had been murdered by his son Kavadh II in 628, was raised to the throne in 632 after a series of internal conflicts. ...


The Islamic conquest was followed by mass immigration of Tazis from eastern Arabia and Mazun (Oman) to Khvarvaran. These new arrivals did not disperse and settle throughout the country; instead they established two new garrison cities, at Al-Kufah, near ancient Babylon, and at Basra in the south. The term the Middle East sometimes applies to the peninsula alone, but usually refers to the Arabian Peninsula plus the Levant, Mesopotamia, and Iran. ... Location of Basra Basra (also spelled BaÅŸrah or Basara; historically sometimes written Busra, Busrah, and the early form Bassorah; Arabic: , Al-Basrah) is the second largest city of Iraq with an estimated population of c. ...


The intention was that the Muslims should be a separate community of fighting men and their families living off taxes paid by the local inhabitants. In the north of the North eastern Iran at Mosul began to emerge as the most important city and the base of a Muslim governor and garrison. Apart from the those Iranian elite and the Zoroastrian priests, who did not converted to Isalm, lost their lives and their property was confiscated, most of the Iranian peoples became Muslim and were allowed to keep their possessions. MosÅ«l (36°22′ N 43°07′ E Arabic: al-Mawsil), Kurdish: Mûsil, or Nineveh (Assyrian: ܢܝܢܘܐ, Ninewa) is a city in northern Iraq/Central Assyria. ...


Khvarvaran, now became a province of the Muslim Caliphate with a new name called Iraq. An Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalīfah, Caliph (  listen?) is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ...


At first the capital of the Caliphate was at Madinah (al-Medina), but, after the murder of the third caliph, 'Uthman, in 656, his successor, the Prophet's cousin and son-in-law 'Ali, made Iraq his base. In 661, however, 'Ali was murdered in Al-Kufah, and the caliphate passed to the rival Umayyad family in Syria. This ancient Iranian province became a subordinate province, even though it was the richest area of the Muslim world and the one with the largest Muslim population.


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  Results from FactBites:
 
Khvarvaran (Modern Iraq), An Iranian Province (1062 words)
Later the tide began to turn, and in 627-628 the Byzantines, under the leadership of the Heraclius, invaded Khvarvaran (today Iraq) and sacked the imperial capital at Tyspawn (Ctesiphon).
The Islamic conquest was followed by mass immigration of Tazis from eastern Arabia and Mazun (Oman) to Khvarvaran.
Khvarvaran, now became a province of the Muslim Caliphate with a new name called Iraq, which stretched from North Africa and later Spain in the west to Sind (now southern Pakistan) in the east.
Top Literature - Khvarvaran (1069 words)
The Islamic conquest was followed by mass immigration of Arabs from eastern Arabia and Mazun (Oman) to Khvarvaran.
Khvarvaran, now became a province of the Muslim Caliphate with a new name called Iraq.
At first the capital of the Caliphate was at Madinah (al-Medina), but, after the murder of the third caliph, 'Uthman, in 656, his successor, the Prophet's cousin and son-in-law 'Ali, made Iraq his base.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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