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Encyclopedia > Khuzestan Province
Khuzestan Province
استان خوزستان
Location
Map of Iran with Khuzestan highlighted.
Statistics
Capital:
 • Coordinates:
Ahvaz
 • 31.3273° N 48.6940° E
Area : 64,055 km²
Population(2005):
 • Density :
4,345,607
 • 67.8/km²
Sub-provinces
(Shahrestan)
:
18
Time zone: UTC+3:30
Main language(s): Persian
Arabic
Luri
Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. The shape is an architectural trademark of craftsmen of this province. Daniel's shrine, located in Khuzestan, has such a shape. The shrine pictured here, belongs to Imamzadeh Hamzeh, located between Mahshahr and Hendijan.
Enlarge
Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. The shape is an architectural trademark of craftsmen of this province. Daniel's shrine, located in Khuzestan, has such a shape. The shrine pictured here, belongs to Imamzadeh Hamzeh, located between Mahshahr and Hendijan.

Khūzestān (Persian: خوزستان) is one of the 28 provinces of Iran. It is in the southwest of the country, bordering Iraq and the Persian Gulf. Its capital is Ahvaz and covers an area of 63,238 km². Other major cities include Behbahan, Abadan, Andimeshk, Khorramshahr, Bandar Imam, Dezful, Shushtar, Omidiyeh, Izeh, Baq-e-Malek, Mah Shahr, Dasht-i Mishan/Dasht-e-Azadegan, Ramhormoz, Shadegan, Susa, Masjed Soleiman, Minoo Island and Hoveizeh. Image File history File links province of Iran File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Subnational entity is a generic term for an administrative region within a country — on an arbitrary level below that of the sovereign state — typically with a local government encompassing multiple municipalities, counties, or provinces with a certain degree of autonomy in a varying number of matters. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... The city of Ahvaz sometimes transcribed Ahwaz [1] (Persian: اهواز ahvāz); , is capital of the Iranian province of Khuzestan. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... A geographical political division in Iran. ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Persian, (local name: FārsÄ« or PārsÄ«), is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... The Arabic language ( ), or simply Arabic ( ), is the largest member of the family of Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew, Amharic, and Aramaic. ... Luri is a dialect of Persian language. ... Image File history File links Picture of the dome of Emamzadeh Hamzeh. ... Image File history File links Picture of the dome of Emamzadeh Hamzeh. ... Daniel (Hebrew: דָּנִיֵּאל; transliterated as Daniyyel in Standard Hebrew and Dāniyyêl in Tiberian Hebrew, Arabic: Danyel, دانيال) is the name of at least three people from the Hebrew Bible: A Jewish exile in Babylon, the subject of the Book of Daniel and the most well-known of the three Daniels. ... Persian, (local name: FārsÄ« or PārsÄ«), is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Iran consists of 30 provinces: Provinces are governed from a local center, mostly the largest local city. ... It has been suggested that Persian Gulf States be merged into this article or section. ... The city of Ahvaz sometimes transcribed Ahwaz [1] (Persian: اهواز ahvāz); , is capital of the Iranian province of Khuzestan. ... Behbahan is a city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... Abadan (آبادان in Persian) is a city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran (Persia). ... Andimeshk is a city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... Khorramshahr (Persian: خرمشهر) is a port city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran (Persia). ... Bandar Imam Khomeini (Persian بندرامام خمینی) is a port city on the Persian Gulf in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... Dezful (Dezh-pol, Dez Bridge) is a city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... Shûshtar is an ancient fortress city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... Omidiyeh is a city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... Izeh is an ancient city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... Baq-e Malek is a city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... Mah Shahr is an ancient city and port in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... Dasht-e Azadegan is a city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... Ramhormoz is an ancient city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... Shadegan is an ancient city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... Masjed Soleyman (also Masjid Soleiman and Masjid-al-Salaman) (مسجد سلیمان in Persian) is a town in the southwestern province of Khuzestan, Iran. ... Minoo Island is an Iranian island and city in the Persian Gulf. ... Hoveizeh (alternative name: Huzgan) is a city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran near the border with Iraq. ...


Historically Khuzestan is what historians refer to as ancient Elam, whose capital was in Susa, and in previous ages, Iranians referred to this province as Elam. The Old Persian term for Elam was Hujiyā, which is present in the modern name. Khuzestan is the most ancient Iranian province and is often referred to in Iran as the "birthplace of the nation," as this is the area where Aryan tribes first settled, assimilating the native Elamite population, and thus laying the foundation for the future empires of Persia, Media, and Parthia. The pre-Islamic Sassanid Parthian Inscriptions gives the name of the province as Khwuzestan. Khuzestan is also where the medical college and the town of Jondishapour was located. Elam (Persian: ایلام) is one of the most ancient civilizations on record. ... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... Elam (Persian: ایلام) is one of the most ancient civilizations on record. ... Elam (Persian: ایلام) is one of the most ancient civilizations on record. ... Aryan () is an English language word derived from the Sanskrit and Iranian terms ārya-, the extended form aryāna-, ari- and/or arya- (Sanskrit: आर्य, Persian: آریا). Beyond its use as the ethnic self-designation of the Proto-Indo-Iranians, the meaning noble/spiritual has been attached to it in Sanskrit and... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau (Irān - Land of the Aryans[1]) and beyond. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Academy of Gundishapur (also Jondishapoor, Jondishapur, and Jondishapour, Gondeshapur etc. ...


From the 16th century and the advent of the Safavid Dynasty in Persia/Iran, the southern half of the province came to be gradually known as Arabestan. This was in recognition of the heavy Arabian tribal settlement of the area that had come to dominate the southern half of the province since the 13th century. Arabestan, however, was the name given only to the area south and southwest of the Ahvaz Ridge that runs midway of the province, from northwest to southeast and through Ahvaz. To the north and northeast of this line, the Iranian elements (Bakhtiari, Lurs and others) remained and remains dominant, and retained the name Khuzestan. Currently, Khuzestan has 18 representatives in Iran's parliament, The Majlis, and 6 representatives in the Assembly of Experts. The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... The Bakhtiari (or Bakhtiyari) are a group of southwestern Iranian people. ... Lurs can refer to: Ancient wind instruments, see Lur An Iranian ethnic group; see: Lorestan Lurs, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, a commune of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, France This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters of an electoral district to a parliament; in the Westminster system, specifically to the lower house. ... مجلس شورای اسلامی - The Majles; Irans Parliament. ... The Assembly of Experts (also Assembly of Experts for the Leadership) of Iran (Persian: مجلس خبرگان رهبری, Majles-e-Khobregan), is a congressional body for selecting the Supreme Leader and supervising his activities. ...

Contents

Geography and climate

The province of Khuzestan can be basically divided into two regions, i.e. the plains and mountainous regions. The former being in the south and west of the province. This area is irrigated by the Karun, Karkheh and Jarahi rivers. The mountainous regions are situated to the north and east of the province, and are considered to be a part of southern regions of the Zagros mountain ranges. Karun River passing the Iranian city of Ahvaz The Karun river is Irans longest, and only navigable, river. ... The Zagros Mountains (In Persian:رشته‌کوه‌های زاگرس) make up Irans second largest mountain range. ...


With regard to natural conditions, Khuzestan has unrivaled potentials unmatched by any other province in the country. Large permanent rivers flow over the entire territory contributing to the fertility of the land. Karun, Iran's largest river, 850 kilometers long, flows into the Persian Gulf through this province. Karun River passing the Iranian city of Ahvaz The Karun river is Irans longest, and only navigable, river. ...


The climate of Khuzestan is generally hot and humid, particularly in the south, while winters are much more pleasant and dry.


People and culture

A bust from The National Museum of Iran of Queen Musa, wife of Phraates IV of Parthia, excavated by a French team in Khuzestan in 1939.
A bust from The National Museum of Iran of Queen Musa, wife of Phraates IV of Parthia, excavated by a French team in Khuzestan in 1939.

According to the 1996 census, the province had an estimated population of 3.7 million people, of which approximately 62.5% were in the urban centres, 36.5% were rural dwellers and the remaining 1% were non-residents. According to the most recent census taken in 2004, the province had an estimated population of 4,277,998 inhabitants. [1] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x640, 169 KB)Photo taken by Zereshk. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x640, 169 KB)Photo taken by Zereshk. ... Entrance of the National Museum of Iran, the vault is built in the style of Persias Sassanid vaults The National Museum of Iran (in Persian: موزه ایران باستان Muze-ye Irân-e Bâstân) is... Coin of Phraataces (obverse, with Nike on each side) and Musa (reverse). ... Coin of Phraates IV from the mint at Seleucia. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Khuzestan, unlike most other provinces in Iran, is inhabited by a number of ethnic minorities and peoples. Autochthonous Persians in major cities, Arabic-speakers and Iranian Arab tribes, the Bakhtiari, Behbahanis, Laks, and Lurs of the north, the Turkic-speaking Qashqai and Afshari tribes, the peoples of Dezful, Shushtar and the inhabitants of the coastal regions of the Persian Gulf all make up the population of the province of Khuzestan. There are no official ethnic statistics released by Iran's government. Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... The Persians are an Iranian people who speak the Persian language and share a common culture and history. ... The Arabic language ( ), or simply Arabic ( ), is the largest member of the family of Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew, Amharic, and Aramaic. ... The Arabs of Khuzestan are one of the ethnic groups of Iran inhabiting the province of Khuzestan. ... http://www. ... The Bakhtiari (or Bakhtiyari) are a group of southwestern Iranian people. ... The Laks are an Iranian ethnic group in southwestern Iran. ... Falak-ol-aflak, built by the Sassanids, is almost 1800 years old. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Qashqai (also spelled Ghashghai, Qashqay, Kashgai and Qashqai) are a Turkic-speaking tribal confederation of clans in Iran. ...


Languages

The Persian, Bakhtiari and Lur groups of western Khuzestan all speak distinct dialects unique to their areas. Some Khuzestanis are bilingual, speaking both Persian and Arabic. Most Arabic-speakers speak a variety of Arabic distinct to the region known as Khuzestani Arabic. It is also not uncommon to find people able to speak a variety of indigenous dialects in addition to their own. There are a number of Khuzestani Persian dialects unique to the province of Khuzestan in southwestern Iran. ... Luri is a dialect of Persian language. ... The term bilingualism (from bi meaning two and lingua meaning language) can refer to rather different phenomena. ... Persian, (local name: Fārsī or Pārsī), is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... The Arabic language ( ), or simply Arabic ( ), is the largest member of the family of Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew, Amharic, and Aramaic. ... The Arabic language is classified as a Semitic language. ... Khuzestani Arabic is a dialect of Arabic spoken in the Iranian province of Khuzestan. ...


Traditions and religion

Khuzestani folk music is colorful and festive, and each native group has their own rich traditions and legacy in this area.


The people of Khuzestan are predominantly Shi'a, with small Sunni, Jewish, Christian, and Mandean minorities. Khuzestanis are also very well regarded for their hospitality and generosity. Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... This article is becoming very long. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Mandaeism. ...


Cuisine

Seafood is the most important part of Khuzestani cuisine, but many other dishes are also featured. A popular dish that is prepared with heavy spices, onions and cilantro is simply called soboor ("shad"), after its main ingredient, a species of fish found in southern Iranian waters. Other provincial specialties include qæliye-mæhi ("fish stew"), qæliye-meygu ("shrimp stew"), ashe-mohshala (a Khorramshahri breakfast soup), sær shir (an Andimeshki breakfast of heavy cream), hælim (a Shushtari breakfast of wheatmeal with shredded lamb), and kohbbeh (a deep-fried rice cake with ground beef filling and other spices, and is of Arabic origin). Also see Iranian cuisine. Spaghetti with seafood (Spaghetti allo scoglio). ... A cuisine (from French cuisine, meaning cooking; culinary art; kitchen; itself from Latin coquina, meaning the same; itself from the Latin verb coquere, meaning to cook) is a specific set of cooking traditions and practices, often associated with a place of origin. ... Species See text. ... A giant grouper at the Georgia Aquarium Fish are aquatic vertebrates that are typically cold blooded, covered with scales, and equipped with two sets of paired fins and several unpaired fins. ... Khorramshahr (Persian: خرمشهر) is a port city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran (Persia). ... Andimeshk is a city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... Shûshtar is an ancient fortress city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... The cuisine of Iran is diverse, with each province featuring dishes, as well as culinary traditions and styles, distinct to their regions. ...


Historical figures

Many scientists, philosophers, and poets have come from Khuzestan, including Abu Nuwas, Abdollah ibn-Meymun Ahwazi, the astronomer Nowbækht-e Ahwazi and his sons; as well as Jorjis, the son of Bakhtshua Gondishapuri; Ibn Sakit, Da'bal-e Khazai; Sheikh Mortedha Ansari, a prominent Shi'a scholar from Dezful, and many more. A drawing of Abu Nuwas Abu-Nuwas al-Hasan ben Hani al-Hakami (750?–815?) was a renowned Arabic poet. ... Nobakht Ahvazi (also spelled Naubakht in many a literature) and his sons were Astronomers from Ahvaz in Persia. ... Bakhtshooa Gondishapoori (also spelled Bukhtishu in many a literature) were a family of Nestorian Christian Persian physicians from the 7th, 8th, and 9th centuries. ... Dezful (Dezh-pol, Dez Bridge) is a city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ...


The origin of the name Khuzestan

Main article: Origin of the name Khuzestan Another map from the same author, Khuzestan is overlined in red. ...


The name Khuzestan, which means "The Land of the Khuzi" [2], refers to the original inhabitants of this province, the Khuzi people. The name Ahwaz also has the same origin as the name Khuzestan. [3] Iranian province of Khuzestan and has a warm & humid climate. ...


The province, however, has also been called Arabistan or Arabestan at times, particularly starting during the reign of Tahmasp I in the 16th century, after the Arab Muhammad ibn Falah, leader of the Msha'sha'iya, initiated a wave of attacks on Khuzestan in AD 1440, leading to a gradual increase in the Arab population of Khuzestan. [4] Tahmasp I (1514-1576) was an influential Shah of Persia of the Safavid Dynasty. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب) are a heterogeneous ethnic group who are predominantly speakers of the Arabic language, mainly found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... Muhammad ibn Falah (b. ... The Msha’sha’iya were an extremist Shia sect founded and led by Muhammad ibn Falah. ...


Reza Pahlavi, however, restored the original name of the province in 1923. Reza Shah Pahlavi Reza Shah Pahlavi (Persian: رضا پهلوی) (b. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


History

Main article: History of Khuzestan Khuzestan is a province of the Islamic Republic of Iran, located in the area between the Tigris-Euphrates delta and the Zagros Mountains (border of the Iranian plateau). ...


Pre-Islamic History

The ziggurat of Choqa Zanbil in Khuzestan was a magnificent structure of the Iranian Elamite Empire. Khuzestan's Elamites were "precursors of the royal Persians", and were "the founders of the first Iranian empire in the geographic sense."
The ziggurat of Choqa Zanbil in Khuzestan was a magnificent structure of the Iranian Elamite Empire. Khuzestan's Elamites were "precursors of the royal Persians", and were "the founders of the first Iranian empire in the geographic sense."
Image:Shush-castle.jpg
L'Acropole de Suse, Susa, Iran.

The province of Khuzestan is one of the centres of ancient civilization, based around Susa. French archeologists such as Jaques De Morgan date the civilization here as far back as 8000 BC when excavating areas such as Tal-i Ali-Kosh. The first large scale empire based here was that of the powerful 4th millennium BC Elamites, a Semitic kingdom linked to Mesopotamia. Choghazanbil Ziggurat, Iran. ... Choghazanbil Ziggurat, Iran. ... A model of the current Chogha Zanbil ziggurat, showing the other buildings in the vicinity of the main structure. ... An Elamite Man in Persepolis The ancient Elamite Empire (تمدن عیلام in Persian) lay to the east of Sumer and Akkad, in what is now southwestern Iran. ... LAcropole de Suse, Susa, Iran. ... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... An Elamite Man in Persepolis The ancient Elamite Empire (تمدن عیلام in Persian) lay to the east of Sumer and Akkad, in what is now southwestern Iran. ... In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ...


Archeological ruins verify the entire province of Khuzestan to be home to the Elamite civilization, "the earliest civilization of Persia". [5] An Elamite Man in Persepolis The ancient Elamite Empire (تمدن عیلام in Persian) lay to the east of Sumer and Akkad, in what is now southwestern Iran. ...


As was stated in the preceding section, the name Khuzestan is derived from the Elamites (Ūvja) [6], a Semitic people related to their northern neighbors in Mesopotamia. [7]


In fact, in the words of Elton L. Daniel, the Elamites were "the founders of the first Iranian empire in the geographic sense." [8] Hence the central geopolitical significance of Khuzestan, the seat of Iran's first empire. Elton L. Daniel, Ph. ...


In 640 BC, the Elamites were defeated by Ashurbanipal coming under the rule of the Assyrians who wrought destruction upon Susa and Chogha Zanbil. But in 538 BC Cyrus the Great was able to re-conquer the Elamite lands. The city of Susa was then proclaimed as one of the Achaemenid capitals. Darius the Great then erected a grand palace known as Hadish there in 521 BC. But this astonishing period of glory and splendour of the Achaemenian dynasty came to an end by the conquests of Alexander of Macedon. And after Alexander, the Seleucid dynasty ruled the area. Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC - 640s BC - 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC 600s BC 590s BC Events and Trends Assyrian king Ashurbanipal founds library, which includes our earliest complete copy of the Epic... Ashurbanipal (ah-shur-BA-neh-pal), Assurbanipal or Sardanapal, in Akkadian Aššur-bāni-apli, (b. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC Events and Trends 538 BC - Babylon occupied by Jews transported to Babylon are allowed to return to... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... Darius I of Persia Darius the Great (ca. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC Events 529 BC - Cambyses II succeeds his father Cyrus as ruler of Persia. ... Bust of Alexander the Great in the British Museum. ... After the death of Alexander the Great in the afternoon of 11 June 323 BC, his empire was divided by his generals, the Diadochi(successors). ...


As the Seleucid dynasty weakened, Mehrdad I the Parthian (171-137 BC), gained ascendency over the region. During the Sassanid dynasty this area thrived tremendously and flourished, and this dynasty was responsible for the many constructions that were erected in Ahvaz, Shushtar, and the north of Andimeshk. After the death of Alexander the Great in the afternoon of 11 June 323 BC, his empire was divided by his generals, the Diadochi(successors). ... Image:Cerasdery. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... The city of Ahvaz sometimes transcribed Ahwaz [1] (Persian: اهواز ahvāz); , is capital of the Iranian province of Khuzestan. ... Shûshtar is an ancient fortress city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... Andimeshk is a city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ...


Over the centuries, Nestorian missionaries brought Christianity to the region, using the Aramaic language. From at least the 500s AD, the region was called "Beth Huzaye". As of AD 639, the Nestorian seat was at Mahoze, the complex encompassing Ctesiphon and Seleucia on the Tigris; and the Nestorian Catholicos was Ishoyahb II of Gadala. The term Nestorianism is eponymous, even though the person who lent his name to it always denied the associated belief. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... Ctesiphon, 1932 Ctesiphon (Parthian and Pahlavi: Tyspwn as well as Tisfun, Persian: ‎, also known as in Arabic Madain, Maden or Al-Madain) is one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia and the capital of the Parthian Empire and its successor, the Sassanid Empire, for more than 800 years... The name Seleucia may denote any one of several cities in the Seleucid Empire. ...


During the early years of the reign of Shapur II (A.D. 309 or 310-379), Arabs crossed the Persian Gulf from Bahrain to "Ardashir-Khora" of Fars and raided the interior. In retaliation, Shapur II led an expedition through Bahrain, defeated the combined forces of the Arab tribes of "Taghleb", "Bakr bin Wael", and "Abd Al-Qays" and advanced temporarily into Yamama in central Najd. The Sassanids resettled these tribes in Kerman and Ahvaz. Arabs named Shapur II, as "Shabur Dhul-aktāf" after this battle. [9] Shapur II was king of Persia (310 - 379). ... It has been suggested that Persian Gulf States be merged into this article or section. ... // Introduction Fars is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Shapur II was king of Persia (310 - 379). ... Najd or Nejd (Arabic: Naǧd) is a region in central Saudi Arabia and the location of the nations capital, Riyadh. ... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ... Map of Iran and surrounding countries, showing location of Kerman Kerman (in Persian: کرمان ) is a city in Iran. ... The city of Ahvaz sometimes transcribed Ahwaz [1] (Persian: اهواز ahvāz); , is capital of the Iranian province of Khuzestan. ... Shapur II was king of Persia (310 - 379). ...


The existence of prominent scientific and cultural centers such as Academy of Gundishapur which gathered distinguished medical scientists from Egypt, Greece, India, and Rome, shows the importance and prosperity of this region during this era. The Jondi-Shapur Medical School was founded by the order of Shapur I. It was repaired and restored by Shapur II (a.k.a. Zol-Aktaf: "The Possessor of Shoulder Blades") and was completed and expanded during the reign of Anushirvan. The Academy of Gundishapur (also Jondishapoor, Jondishapur, and Jondishapour, Gondeshapur, GONDÊ SHÂPÛR, etc. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 8th century BC Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1,285 km²  (496. ... The Academy of Gundishapur (also Jondishapoor, Jondishapur, and Jondishapour, Gondeshapur, GONDÊ SHÂPÛR, etc. ... A coin of Shapur I Shapur I, son of Ardashir I, was king of Persia from 241 to 272. ... Head of King Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty 4th century). ...


It should be pointed out that the Arab presence in Iran, did not begin with the Arab destruction of the Sassanid Empire. Mutual infiltration into and out of Iran, began before the Muslim conquests and continued as a result of joint exertions of the civilized Arabs (ahl al-madar) as well as the desert Arabs (ahl al-wabar). There were tribesmen of "Bakr bin Wael" and "Tamim (or Thamim)" in Khuzestan and Fars prior to the arrival of the Arab Muslim armies. Some of these Arab groups were sedentary while others were nomadic. Some fought on behalf of the Sassanid Empire (Taghleb, Eyad), while others (Lakhmid, Shayban, Bakr bin Wael) began struggling against the Sassanids. These latter group had already won a celebrated, if limited, victory at "Du Qar" around AD 604. Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... // Introduction Fars is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ...


Some local Arabs led by "Al-Motanna bin Hareta Al-Shaybani" helped to direct the attention of the nascent Muslim state toward Iran by converting to Islam and negotiating with Madina for support in their anti-Sassanid moves. [10] A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the Quran, its principal scripture, whose followers, known as Muslims (مسلم), believe God (Arabic: الله ) sent through revelations to Muhammad. ... This article is about the Saudi city of Medina. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate...


The Arab Conquest of Khuzestan

Masjed Jame' Dezful. In spite of Saddam's devastating bombs, Khuzestan still possesses a rich heritage of architecture from Islamic, Sassanid, and earlier times.
Enlarge
Masjed Jame' Dezful. In spite of Saddam's devastating bombs, Khuzestan still possesses a rich heritage of architecture from Islamic, Sassanid, and earlier times.

The Arab invasion of Khuzestan took place in 639 AD under the command of Abu Musa Al-Ash'ari from Basra, who drove the Persian Hormozan out of Ahvaz. Susa fell in two days, so Hormozan fled to Shushtar. There his forces were besieged by Abu Musa for 18 months. Shushtar finally fell in 642 AD; the Khuzistan Chronicle records that a Qatari living in the city befriended a man in the army, and dug tunnels through the wall in return for a third of the spoil. The Basrans purged the Nestorians - the Exegete of the city and the Bishop of Hormizd, and all their students - but kept Hormozan alive. [11] Image File history File links The Dezful Congregation Mosque. ... Image File history File links The Dezful Congregation Mosque. ... Location of Basra Basra (Arabic: ‎ ; BGN: Al BaÅŸrah) is the second largest city of Iraq with an estimated population of c. ... The city of Ahvaz sometimes transcribed Ahwaz [1] (Persian: اهواز ahvāz); , is capital of the Iranian province of Khuzestan. ... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... Shûshtar is an ancient fortress city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ...


There followed the conquests of Jondishapoor and of many other districts along the Tigris. The battle of Nehavand finally secured Khuzestan for the Muslim armies. [12] The Academy of Gundishapur (also Jondishapoor, Jondishapur, and Jondishapour, Gondeshapur etc. ... Nahavand (also spelled Nahawand in some texts) is a town in Hamadan Province in Iran. ...


It is interesting to notice that there was much cooperation between Sassanids and non-Muslim Arabs during the Muslim conquest period, which shows that those wars were not Arab vs. Persian, rather Muslim vs. non-Muslims. For instance in 633-634, Khaled ibn Walid leader of the Mulsim Army, defeated a force of the Sassanids' Christian Arab auxiliaries from the tribes of "Bakr", "'Ejl", "Taghleb" and "Namer" at "'Ayn Al-Tamr". [13] Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ... Khalid bin Walid (AKA:Syaifullah/Sword of Allah);(584 - 642) was a Muslim Arab soldier and general. ...


The Arab settlements by military garrisons in southern Iran was soon followed by other types of colonization. Some Arab families, for example, took the opportunity to gain control of private estates. [14]. Like the rest of Iran, the Arab invasion thus brought Khuzestan under occupation of the Arabs of the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates, until Ya'qub bin Laith as-Saffar, from southeastern Iran, raised the flag of independence once more, and ultimately regained control over Khuzestan, among other parts of Iran, founding the short-lived Saffarid dynasty. From that point on, Iranian dynasties would continue to rule the region in succession as an important part of Iran. The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid (Arabic: العبّاسيّون, Abbāsīyūn) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... Yaqub bin Laith as-Saffar (?-879?) was the founder of the Saffarid dynasty. ... The Saffarid dynasty of Persia ruled a short-lived empire centred on Seistan, a border district between modern-day Afghanistan and Iran, between AD 861-1003. ... Elamite Empire, 2700BC-660BC The Elamites were an Iranian people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. ...


In the Umayyad period, large groups of nomads from the Hanifa, Bani Tamim, and Abd al-Qays tribes crossed the Persian Gulf and occupied some of the richest Basran territories around Ahvaz and in Fars during the second Islamic civil war in 661-665/680-684 A.D. [15]. The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... The Bani Tamim is a large and powerful Arab tribe primarily located in Najd, central and southern Iraq and the Iranian province of Khuzestan. ... It has been suggested that Persian Gulf States be merged into this article or section. ... Location of Basra Basra (Arabic: ‎ ; BGN: Al Başrah) is the second largest city of Iraq with an estimated population of c. ... The city of Ahvaz sometimes transcribed Ahwaz [1] (Persian: اهواز ahvāz); , is capital of the Iranian province of Khuzestan. ... Fars (Persian: فارس) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ...


During the Abbassid period, in the second half of the 10th century, the Assad tribe, taking advantage of quarrels under the Buwayhids, penetrated into Khuzestan, where a group of Tamim had been living since pre-Islamic times. However, following the fall of the Abbassid dynasty, the flow of Arab immigrants into Persia gradually diminished, but it nonetheless continued. Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... The Buwayhids were a Shiite Muslim tribal confederation from the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ...


In the latter part of the 16th century, the Bani Kaab, from Kuwait, settled in Khuzestan. [16] And during the succeeding centuries, many more Arab tribes moved from southern Iraq to Khuzestan, and as a result, Khuzestan became "extensively Arabized". [17]. According to C.E. Bosworth in Encyclopedia Iranica, under the Qajar dynasty "the province was known, as in Safavid times, as Arabistan, and during the Qajar period was administratively a governor-generalate." (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... The Bani Kaab are an Arab tribal group of Kuwaiti origin which settled in western Khuzestan, a province in southwestern Iran, during the 16th century CE. Categories: Ethnic group stubs | Arab groups ... Encyclopædia Iranica is a project of Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian Studies to create a comprehensive and authoritiative English language encyclopedia about the history and culture of Iran and Persia. ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ...


In the mid 1800s Britain initiated a war with Iran in a failed attempt to dominate Khuzestan. Tribal forces led by Sheikh Jabir al-Kaabi, the Sheikh of Mohammerah, had been vital in successfully defending the province. In the past eighty years, except during the Iran-Iraq war, the province of Khuzestan thrived and prospered and today accounts for one of the regions in Iran that holds an economic and defensive strategic position. 1800 (MDCCC) was an exceptional common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar. ... Sheikh Jabir al-Kaabi (?-1897?) was the leader of the Bani Kaab Arab tribe during the 19th century. ... Khorramshahr (Persian: خرمشهر) is a port city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran (Persia). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...


The Iran-Iraq war

Being on the border with Iraq, Khuzestan suffered the heaviest damage of all Iranian provinces during the Iran-Iraq war. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...


What used to be Iran's largest refinery at Abadan was destroyed, never to fully recover. Many of the famous nakhlestans (palm groves) were annihilated, cities were destroyed, historical sites were demolished, and nearly half the province went under the boots of Saddam's invading army [18]. This created a mass exodus into other provinces that did not have the logistical capability of taking in such a large number of refugees. Abadan (آبادان in Persian) is a city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran (Persia). ...


However, by 1982, Iranian forces managed to push Saddam's forces back into Iraq. The battle of "the Liberation of Khorramshahr" (one of Khuzestan's largest cities and the most important Iranian port prior to the war) was a turning point in the war, and is officially celebrated every year in Iran. The Liberation of Khorramshahr is celebrated in Iran on its anniversary, May 24. ...


Struggle over the province

Parthian era Bronze plate with Pegasus depiction ("Pegaz" in Persian). Excavated in Masjed Soleiman.
Parthian era Bronze plate with Pegasus depiction ("Pegaz" in Persian). Excavated in Masjed Soleiman.

Domination of Khuzestan was Saddam Hussein's primary strategic objective that launched the Iran-Iraq war, which forced thousands of Iranians to flee the province. Image File history File linksMetadata Pegasus_iran. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Pegasus_iran. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Pegasus and Bellerophon, Attic red-figure In Greek mythology, Pegasus (Greek name: ) was a winged horse that was the son of Poseidon, in his role as horse-god, and the Gorgon Medusa. ... Masjed Soleyman (also Masjid Soleiman and Masjid-al-Salaman) (مسجد سلیمان in Persian) is a town in the southwestern province of Khuzestan, Iran. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majidida al-Tikriti (Arabic: ‎ [1]; born April 28, 1937[2]), was the President of Iraq from July 16, 1979 until April 9, 2003, when he was deposed during the United States-led 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...


The government of the Islamic Republic of Iran does not conduct any official ethnic census in Iran, thus it is difficult to determine the exact demographics. Beginning in the early nineties, many ethnic Persian Khuzestanis began returning to the province, a trend which continues to this day as the major urban centres are being rebuilt and restored. Restoration has been slow due to neglect by the regime of the Islamic Republic. The city of Khorramshahr was almost completely destroyed as a result of Saddam's scorched earth policy. Fortunately, Iranian forces were able to prevent the Iraqis from attempting to spread the execution of this policy to other major urban centres. Demographics is a shorthand term for population characteristics. Demographics include race, age, income, mobility (in terms of travel time to work or number of vehicles available), educational attainment, home ownership, employment status, and even location. ... An Islamic republic in its modern context has come to mean several different things, some contradictory to others. ... Khorramshahr (Persian: خرمشهر) is a port city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran (Persia). ... A scorched earth policy is a military tactic which involves destroying anything that might be useful to the enemy while advancing through or withdrawing from an area. ...


The Iranian Embassy Siege of 1980 was a siege of the Iranian Embassy in London initiated by an Arab separatist group. Initially it emerged the terrorists wanted autonomy for Khuzestan; later they demanded the release of 91 of their comrades held in Iranian jails. [19] The group which claimed responsibility for the siege- the Arab Popular Movement in Arabistan- gave a number of press conferences in the following months, referring to what it described as "the racist rule of Khomeini". It threatened further international action as part of its campaign to gain self- rule for Khuzestan. But its links with Baghdad served to undermine its argument that it was a purely Iranian opposition group; there were allegations that it was backed by Iran's regional rival, Iraq. Their leader ("Salim" - Awn Ali Mohammed) along with four other members of the group were killed and the fifth member, Fowzi Badavi Nejad, was sentenced to life imprisonment.[20] The Iranian Embassy Siege of 1980 was a terrorist siege of the Iranian Embassy in London, United Kingdom. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... London (pronounced ) is the capital city of England and the United Kingdom. ... Baghdad ( translit: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ...


Khuzestan in literature

Image:Danielburial2.jpg
Tomb of Daniel, in the city of Susa, is a popular attraction in Iran's Jewish community.

Daniel (Hebrew: דָּנִיֵּאל; transliterated as Daniyyel in Standard Hebrew and Dāniyyêl in Tiberian Hebrew, Arabic: Danyel, دانيال) is the name of at least three people from the Hebrew Bible: A Jewish exile in Babylon, the subject of the Book of Daniel and the most well-known of the three Daniels. ... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... Jewish children in Iran in a specially designated Jewish school. ...

In Persian literature

Khuzestan has long been the subject of many a writer and poet of Persia. Some popular verses are:


زبس کز دامن لب شکر افشاند
شکر دامن به خوزستان بر افشاند


"Her lips aflow with sweet sugar,
The sweet sugar that aflows in Khuzestan."
Nizami External links The Legend of Leyli and Majnun Nizami, Jamal al-Din Ilyas. ...


قد رعنای تو و قامت سرو کشمر
لب شیرین تو و شکر خوزستانی


"Your graceful figure like the cypress in Kashmar,
Your sweet lips like the sugar of Khuzestan."
Nizari Qohistani Cypress is the name applied to many plants in the conifer family Cupressaceae (cypress family). ... Kashmar (Persian:کاشمر) is a city located near the river Sish Taraz in the western part of the Khorassan province, in Iran. ...


که باشد که پیوند سام سوار
نخواهد از اهواز تا قندهار


"So Sām hath not need ride afar
from Ahvaz up to Qandehar."
Firdawsi The city of Ahvaz sometimes transcribed Ahwaz [1] (Persian: اهواز ahvāz); , is capital of the Iranian province of Khuzestan. ... For the 2001 movie by Mohsen Makhmalbaf, see Kandahar (film). ... فردوسی Ferdowsi Ferdowsi Ferdowsi Tousi (فردوسی طوسی in Persian) (more commonly transliterated Firdausi) (935–1020) is considered to be one of the greatest Persian poets to have ever lived. ...


Economy

The government of Iran is spending large amounts of money in Khuzestan province. The massive Karun-3 dam, was inaugurated recently as part of a drive to boost Iran's growing energy demands.
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The government of Iran is spending large amounts of money in Khuzestan province. The massive Karun-3 dam, was inaugurated recently as part of a drive to boost Iran's growing energy demands.

Khuzestan is the major oil-producing region of Iran, and as such is one of the wealthiest province in Iran, though it is claimed that this wealth does not benefit the average citizen. The government of Iran claims the province to rank third among Iran's provinces in GDP. [21] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (640x639, 383 KB)Karun-3 Dam, Khuzestan. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (640x639, 383 KB)Karun-3 Dam, Khuzestan. ...


In 2005, Iran's government announced it was planning the country's second nuclear reactor to be built in Khuzestan province.[22] The 360 MW reactor will be a Light Water PWR Reactor.[23] Light water, in the terminology of nuclear reactors, is ordinary water. ... Pressurized water reactors (PWRs) are generation II nuclear power reactors that use water under high pressure as coolant and neutron moderator. ...


Khuzestan is also home to the [24]. It is one of six economic Free Trade Zones in Iran.[25]


Shipping

Karun River passing the Iranian city of Ahvaz
Karun River passing the Iranian city of Ahvaz

Karun river is the only navigable river in Iran. The British, up until recent decades, after the discovery by Sir Henry Layard, transported their merchandise via Karun's waterways, passing through Ahvaz all the way up to Masjed Soleiman, the site of their first oil wells in the Naftoon oil field. Karun is capable of the sailing of fairly large ships as far up as Shushtar. Image File history File linksMetadata Ahvaz_pol. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ahvaz_pol. ... The city of Ahvaz sometimes transcribed Ahwaz [1] (Persian: اهواز ahvāz); , is capital of the Iranian province of Khuzestan. ... Karun River passing the Iranian city of Ahvaz The Karun river is Irans longest, and only navigable, river. ... Masjed Soleyman (also Masjid Soleiman and Masjid-al-Salaman) (مسجد سلیمان in Persian) is a town in the southwestern province of Khuzestan, Iran. ... Shûshtar is an ancient fortress city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ...


Karkheh, Jarrahi, Arvand, Handian, Shavoor, Bahmanshir (Bahman-Ardeshir), Maroon-Alaa', Dez, and many other rivers and water sources in the form of Khurs, lagoons, ponds, and marshes demonstrate the vastness of water resourses in this region, and are the main reason for the variety of agricultural products developed in the area. The Shatt al-Arab (Arabic: شط العرب) or Arvand (called اروندرود: arvandrūd in Persian), also called the Shatt-al-Arab waterway, is a river in Southwest Asia of some 200 km in length, formed by the...


Agriculture

The abundance of water and fertility of soil have transformed this region into a rich and well-endowed land. The variety of agricultural products such as wheat, barley, oily seeds, rice, eucalyptus, medical herbs; the existence of many palm and citrus farms; having mountains suitable for raising olives, and of course sugar cane - from which Khuzestan takes its name - all show the great potential of this fertile plain. The abundance of water supplies, rivers, and dams, also have an influence on the fishery industries, which are prevalent in the area. Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Binomial name Hordeum vulgare L. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is a major food and animal feed crop, a member of the grass family Poaceae. ... Species Oryza glaberrima Oryza sativa Rice is two species (Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima) of grass, native to tropical and subtropical southern & southeastern Asia and to Africa, which together provide more than one fifth of the calories consumed by humans[1]. (The term wild rice can refer to wild species... Species About 700; see the List of Eucalyptus species Eucalyptus is a diverse genus of trees (and a few shrubs), the members of which dominate the tree flora of Australia. ... Species & major hybrids Species Citrus aurantifolia - Key lime Citrus maxima - Pomelo Citrus medica - Citron Citrus reticulata - Mandarin & Tangerine Major hybrids Citrus ×sinensis - Sweet Orange Citrus ×aurantium - Bitter Orange Citrus ×paradisi - Grapefruit Citrus ×limon - Lemon Citrus ×latifolia - Persian lime See also main text for other hybrids Citrus is a common term... Binomial name Olea europaea L. 19th century illustration The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean region, from Lebanon and the maritime parts of Asia Minor and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian... Species Ref: ITIS 42058 as of 2004-05-05 Sugarcane is one of six species of a tall tropical southeast Asian grass (Family Poaceae) having stout fibrous jointed stalks whose sap at one time was the primary source of sugar. ...


Industry

Iran has some major industrial facilities located in Ahvaz. The Fulad-e-Ahvaz steel facility is one of them.
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Iran has some major industrial facilities located in Ahvaz. The Fulad-e-Ahvaz steel facility is one of them.

The Karun 3 and 4, and Karkheh Dam, as well as the petroleum reserves provide Iran with national sources of revenue and energy. The petrochemical and steel industries, pipe making, the power stations that feed the national electricity grid, the chemical plants, and the large refineries are some of Iran's major industrial facilities. Fulad e Ahvaz steel factory. ... Fulad e Ahvaz steel factory. ... The government of Iran is spending large amounts of money in Khuzestan province. ...


The province is also home to Yadavaran Field, a major oil field. Yadavaran Field is an oil field located in Khuzestan, Iran. ...


Higher education

Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences (AJUMS), is a medical school in Khuzestan Province of Iran. ... Soon after the founding of Jondishapur University, Dr. Talat Basāri was appointed vice chancellor of the university, the first woman to reach such a post in any university in Iran. ... Amirkabir University of Technology (AUT, دانشگاه صنعتی امیرکبیر), formerly named Tehran Polytechnic, is a leading research university in Iran. ...

Attractions of Khuzestan

Iran National Heritage Organization lists 140 sites of historical and cultural significance in Khuzestan, reflecting the fact that the province was once the seat of Iran's most ancient empire. Iran Cultural Heritage Organization (سازمان میراث فرهنگی) is an educational and research institution overseeing numerous associated museum complexes throughout Iran. ...


Some of the more popular sites of attraction include:

The Parthian Prince, found in Khuzestan circa AD 100, is kept at The National Museum of Iran, Tehran.
The Parthian Prince, found in Khuzestan circa AD 100, is kept at The National Museum of Iran, Tehran.
  • Choqa Zanbil: The seat of the Elamite Empire, this ziggurat is a magnificent five-story temple that is one of the greatest ancient monuments in the Middle-East today. The monolith, with its labyrinthine walls made of thousads of large bricks with Elamite inscription, manifest the sheer antiquity of the shrine. The temple was religiously sacred and built in the honor of Inshushinak, the protector deity of the city of Susa.
  • Shush-Daniel: Burial site of the Jewish prophet Daniel, who was revered by Cyrus The Great. He is said to have died in Susa on his way to Jerusalem upon the order of Darius. The grave of Ya'qub bin Laith as-Saffar, who rose against the oppression of the Umayyad Caliphate, is also located nearby.
  • Dezful (Dezh-pol), whose name is taken from a bridge (pol) over Dez river having 12 spans built by the order of Shapur I. This is the same bridge that was called "Andamesh Bridge" by historians such as Istakhri who says the city of Andimeshk takes its name from this bridge. Muqaddasi called it "The City of the Bridge."
  • Shushtar, one of the oldest fortress cities in Iran, known as the "City of Forty Elders" in local dialect. The Friday Mosque of Shushtar was built by the Abbasids. The mosque, which features "Roman" arches, has 54 pillars and balconies.
  • Izeh, or Izaj, was one of the main targets of the invading Islamic army in their conquest of Persia. Kharezad Bridge, one of the strangest bridges of the world, is situated in this city and was named after Ardeshir Babakan's mother. It is built over casted pillars of lead each 104 meters high. Ibn Battuta, who visited the city in the 14th century, refers to many monasteries, caravanserais, aqueducts, schools, and fortresses in the town. The brass statue of The Parthian Man, kept at the National Museum of Iran, is from here.
  • Masjed Soleiman, another ancient town, has ancient fire alters and temples such as Sar-masjed and Bard-neshondeh. It is also the winter's resting area of the Bakhtiari tribe, and where William Knox D'Arcy dug Iran's first oil well.
  • Abadan is said to be where the tomb of Elias, the long lived Hebrew prophet is.
  • Iwan of Hermes, and Iwan of Karkheh, two enigmatic ruins north of Susa.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 693 KB) Summary Taken by --Aytakin 01:16, 8 December 2005 (UTC). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 693 KB) Summary Taken by --Aytakin 01:16, 8 December 2005 (UTC). ... Dionysius Exiguus invented Anno Domini years to date Easter. ... -1... Entrance of the National Museum of Iran, the vault is built in the style of Persias Sassanid vaults The National Museum of Iran (in Persian: موزه ایران باستان Muze-ye Irân-e Bâstân) is... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... A model of the current Chogha Zanbil ziggurat, showing the other buildings in the vicinity of the main structure. ... An Elamite Man in Persepolis The ancient Elamite Empire (تمدن عیلام in Persian) lay to the east of Sumer and Akkad, in what is now southwestern Iran. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Inshushinak was one of the major gods of the Elamites and the protector deity of Susa. ... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... Daniel (Hebrew: דָּנִיֵּאל; transliterated as Daniyyel in Standard Hebrew and Dāniyyêl in Tiberian Hebrew, Arabic: Danyel, دانيال) is the name of at least three people from the Hebrew Bible: A Jewish exile in Babylon, the subject of the Book of Daniel and the most well-known of the three Daniels. ... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... Panoramic view from Mt. ... Yaqub bin Laith as-Saffar (?-879?) was the founder of the Saffarid dynasty. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Dezful (Dezh-pol, Dez Bridge) is a city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... Dez (born October 17, 1976 in Irvine, California) is an American born porn star. ... A coin of Shapur I Shapur I, son of Ardashir I, was king of Persia from 241 to 272. ... A map by Istakhri from the text Al-aqalim. ... Andimeshk is a city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... Muhammad ibn Ahmad Shamsuddin Al-Muqaddasi (or Al-Maqdisi) was a notable medieval Arab geographer, author of Ahsan at-Taqasim fi Ma`rifat il-Aqalim (The Best Divisions for Knowledge of the Regions). ... Shûshtar is an ancient fortress city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid (Arabic: العبّاسيّون, AbbāsÄ«yÅ«n) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... Izeh is an ancient city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Battuta (Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد ابن بطوطة) (born February 24, 1304; year of death uncertain, possibly 1368 or 1377) was a Moroccan Sunni Islamic scholar and jurisprudent from the Maliki Madhab (a school of Fiqh, or Sunni Islamic law), and at times a Qadi or judge. ... A caravanserai (also spelt caravansarai, caravansary Persian كاروانسرا, Turkish: kervansaray), means home or shelter for caravans (caravan meaning a group or convoy of soldiers, traders or pilgrims engaged in long distance travel). ... Pont du Gard, France, a Roman aqueduct built circa 19 BC. It is one of Frances top tourist attractions and a World Heritage Site. ... Entrance of the National Museum of Iran, the vault is built in the style of Persias Sassanid vaults The National Museum of Iran (in Persian: موزه ایران باستان Muze-ye Irân-e Bâstân) is... Masjed Soleyman (also Masjid Soleiman and Masjid-al-Salaman) (مسجد سلیمان in Persian) is a town in the southwestern province of Khuzestan, Iran. ... The Bakhtiari (or Bakhtiyari) are a group of southwestern Iranian people. ... The entrepreneur William Knox DArcy (October 11, 1849 - May 1, 1917) was one of the main founders of the oil and petrochemical industry in Persia (Iran). ... Abadan (آبادان in Persian) is a city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran (Persia). ... The Prophet Elias, by Daniele da Volterra Elias is the latinised version of the Greek name Ηλια(Ï‚), pronounced e-lee-a(s) in Greek and English e-lie-us. ... Hebrews (or Heberites, Eberites, Hebreians; Hebrew: עברים or עבריים, Standard , Tiberian , ; meaning descendants of biblical Patriarch Eber), were people who lived in Canaan, an area encompassing Israel, both banks of the Jordan River (The West Bank and Jordan), Sinai, Lebanon, and the coastal portions of Syria. ... An Iwan is a large, vaulted chamber with a monumental arched opening on one side. ... Hermes bearing the infant Dionysus, by Praxiteles Hermes (Greek IPA: ), in Greek mythology, is the Olympian god of boundaries and of the travelers who cross them, of shepherds and cowherds, of orators and wit, of literature and poets, of athletics, of weights and measures and invention and commerce in general... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ...

Khuzestan celebrities

Mehrangiz Kar(Born 1944 Ahvaz Iran) is a prominent Iranian lawyer, human right activist and author. ... Ezzat Allah Negahban (Born 1921, Ahvaz,Iran) is a celebrated Iranian archaeologist who is known as the patriarch of Iranian modern archaeology. ... Archaeology, archeology, or archology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech/discourse) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Siavash Ghomeyshi (سیاوش قمیشی) Born 1945 in Ahwaz. ... Hamid Dabashi (Persian: ‎ ​) is an Iranian-born American intellectual historian, cultural and literary critic best known for his scholarship on Iran and Shia Islam. ... Patrick Monahan is also the name of a British Comedian. ... Parviz Abnar (in Persian: پرویز آبنار) Sound recordist. ... Kianoush Ayarri (in Persian: کیانوش عیاری) Cinematographer. ... Nasser Taghvaee (in Persian: ناصر تقوایی). Director, screenwriter, Born 1941, Abadan, Iran. ... Ahmad Nadjafi Shoushtari (in Persian: احمد نجفی شوشتری) born in 1948, Khorramshahr, Iran. ... Mohammad Mousavi (b. ... Bizhan Emkanian (in Persian: بیژن امکانیان); Actor, Born in 1953, Abadan, Iran. ... Ali Shamkhani is an Iranian admiral. ... Maosoud Shojaei Soleimani (In Persian: مسعود شجاعی) is an Iranian Football midfielder. ... Hossein Kaabi (also spelled Kaebi, Persian: حسين كعبى , born September 23, 1985 in Ahvaz, Khuzestan, Iran) is an Iranian Arab football player, currently playing for Al-Emarat club in the UAE as well as Iran national football team. ... Jalal Kameli Mofrad is a solid young football player hailing from the Khuzestan region of Southern Iran. ... Kamran Delan (KÁMRÁN DELÁN) - www. ... Bakhtshooa Gondishapoori (also spelled Bukhtishu in many a literature) were a family of Nestorian Christian Persian physicians from the 7th, 8th, and 9th centuries. ... Iman Mobali (born in Eizeh, 1983) is considered the creative dynamo of the highly talented Foolad Ahvaz squad, based in Irans oil-rich Khuzestan province. ... Ahmad Mahmoud (احمد محمود ;in Persian) (December 25, 1931–October 4, 2002) was an Iranian novelist. ... Akbar Golrang, born April 12, 1945, is an Iranian author and film director. ... Mohsen Rezaee Mirghaed (محسن رضائی), born Sabzevar Rezaee Mirghaed in September 1954, is an Iranian politician, professor, and military commander, currently the Secretary of the Expediency Discernment Council of Iran. ... The Expediency Discernment Council of the System (Persian: مجمع تشخیص مصلحت نظام), is an establishment in the Constitution of Islamic Republic of Iran. ... A drawing of Abu Nuwas Abu-Nuwas al-Hasan ben Hani al-Hakami (750?–815?) was a renowned Arabic poet. ... Ali ibn Abbas al-Majusi, that is, the Magian, was a famous Persian physician. ... Nobakht Ahvazi (also spelled Naubakht in many a literature) and his sons were Astronomers from Ahvaz in Persia. ...

References

  1. ^ According to the german "Gazetteer" website: [1]
  2. ^ See entry in Dictionary of Dehkhoda
  3. ^ Ibid.
  4. ^ See the following links: [2], [3], [4] and [5]. Also see [6] under "Al-Ahwaz (Arabistan)".
  5. ^ According to: S. Percy Sykes, A History of Persia, RoutledgeCurzon Publishers. 3rd edition. October 16, 2003. ISBN 0-415-32678-8 p.38
  6. ^ According to The Cambridge History of Iran, 2, 259, ISBN 0-521-06035-1
  7. ^ See introduction of: E. Booth-Clibborn. The Splendour of Iran, Feb 2001. ISBN 1-86154-011-6
  8. ^ Elton L. Daniel. The History of Iran, ISBN 0-313-00030-1 p.26
  9. ^ Encyclopaedia Iranica: p.202. Link: [7]
  10. ^ Encyclopaedia Iranica, p.210-211 Link: [8]
  11. ^ Hoyland, Robert G., Seeing Islam as Others Saw It, Darwin Press, 1998, ISBN 0-87850-125-8 p184
  12. ^ Encyclopedia Iranica, p.206
  13. ^ Encyclopaedia Iranica, page 204, under "Arab conquest of Persia"
  14. ^ Encyclopedia Iranica, p.212
  15. ^ Encyclopaedia Iranica, p.215, under "Arab Tribes of Iran"
  16. ^ See J.R. Perry, "The Banu Ka'b: An Amphibious Brigand State in Khuzestan", Le Monde Iranien et L'Islam I, 1971, p133
  17. ^ Encyclopedia Iranica, p216
  18. ^ See map: http://www.iranmiras.ir/fr_site/history/jomhoori/Image-104.jpg
  19. ^ See:
  20. ^ BBC link: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/in_depth/uk/2000/iranian_embassy_siege/720640.stm
  21. ^ (Persian) Link: http://www.ostan-kz.ir/papercutdetail_afa_pi_191.html
  22. ^ BBC Link: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/4498932.stm
  23. ^ BBC link: http://www.bbc.co.uk/persian/iran/story/2005/12/051210_ss-irannuclearaghazadeh.shtml
  24. ^ Link: Arvand Free Trade Zone
  25. ^ Link: http://www.iftiz.org.ir

Dehkhoda Dictionary is the largest ever lexical compilation of the Persian language. ... Elton L. Daniel, Ph. ... Encyclopædia Iranica is a project in Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian studies, to create an English language encyclopedia about Iran and Persia. ... Encyclopædia Iranica is a project in Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian studies, to create an English language encyclopedia about Iran and Persia. ... Encyclopædia Iranica is a project of Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian Studies to create a comprehensive and authoritiative English language encyclopedia about the history and culture of Iran and Persia. ... Encyclopædia Iranica is a project in Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian studies, to create an English language encyclopedia about Iran and Persia. ... Encyclopædia Iranica is a project of Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian Studies to create a comprehensive and authoritiative English language encyclopedia about the history and culture of Iran and Persia. ... Encyclopædia Iranica is a project in Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian studies, to create an English language encyclopedia about Iran and Persia. ... Encyclopædia Iranica is a project of Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian Studies to create a comprehensive and authoritiative English language encyclopedia about the history and culture of Iran and Persia. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, invariably known as the BBC (and also informally known as the Beeb or Auntie) is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world, employing 26,000 staff in the UK alone and with a budget of £4 billion. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, invariably known as the BBC (and also informally known as the Beeb or Auntie) is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world, employing 26,000 staff in the UK alone and with a budget of £4 billion. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, invariably known as the BBC (and also informally known as the Beeb or Auntie) is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world, employing 26,000 staff in the UK alone and with a budget of £4 billion. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, invariably known as the BBC (and also informally known as the Beeb or Auntie) is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world, employing 26,000 staff in the UK alone and with a budget of £4 billion. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, invariably known as the BBC (and also informally known as the Beeb or Auntie) is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world, employing 26,000 staff in the UK alone and with a budget of £4 billion. ...

See also

The city of Ahvaz sometimes transcribed Ahwaz [1] (Persian: اهواز ahvāz); , is capital of the Iranian province of Khuzestan. ... Shûshtar is an ancient fortress city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... A model of the current Chogha Zanbil ziggurat, showing the other buildings in the vicinity of the main structure. ... Khuzestan is a province of the Islamic Republic of Iran, located in the area between the Tigris-Euphrates delta and the Zagros Mountains (border of the Iranian plateau). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Map showing Khuzestan in Iran This article focuses on the politics of Khuzestan, an oil-rich and ethnically diverse province in southwestern Iran Ethnic groups in Iran // Unlike most other Iranian provinces, Khuzestan is ethnically diverse, home to a number of distinct peoples and tribal groups. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Islamic conquest of Afghanistan. ... Another map from the same author, Khuzestan is overlined in red. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

External links

  • Haft Tappe archeological site in Khuzestan
  • Choqa Zanbil Ziggurat Official website
  • Official website of Khuzestan Governorship
  • Ayapir archeological site
  • The History of Khuzestan according to Bakhtiari tribes of Khuzestan
  • Khuzestan Province Department of Education (in Persian)
  • Images of Khuzestan
  • Khuzestan branch of the Iranian Students' News Agency (ISNA)

 
 

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