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Encyclopedia > Khuzestan
Map showing Khuzestan in Iran
Map showing Khuzestan in Iran
Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. The shape is an architectural trademark of craftsmen of this province. Daniel's shrine, located in Khuzestan, has such a shape. The shrine pictured here, belongs to Imamzadeh Hamzeh, located between Mah-shahr and Hendijan.
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Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. The shape is an architectural trademark of craftsmen of this province. Daniel's shrine, located in Khuzestan, has such a shape. The shrine pictured here, belongs to Imamzadeh Hamzeh, located between Mah-shahr and Hendijan.

Khuzestan ( خوزستان in Persian) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. It is in the south-west of the country, bordering Iraq and the Persian Gulf. Its center is Ahvaz and covers an area of 63,238 sq. km. Other major cities include Behbahan, Abadan, Andimeshk, Khorramshahr, Bandar Imam, Dezful, Shushtar, Omidiyeh, Izeh, Baq-e-Malek, Mah Shahr, Dasht-e-Azadegan, Ramhormoz, Shadegan, Susa, Masjed Soleiman, Minoo Island and Hoveizeh. Image File history File links province of Iran File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Picture of the dome of Emamzadeh Hamzeh. ... Image File history File links Picture of the dome of Emamzadeh Hamzeh. ... Daniel (דָּנִיֵּאל, Standard Hebrew Daniyyel, Tiberian Hebrew Dāniyyêl) is the name of at least three people from the Bible: A Jewish exile in Babylon, the subject of the Book of Daniel - this article refers to this best-known Daniel. ... Persian (فارسی = Fârsi . ... Iran consists of 30 provinces: Provinces are governed from a local center, mostly the largest local city. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Map of Iran and surrounding lands, showing location of Ahvaz Arial photo of Bustan park and Karun river. ... Behbahan is a city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... Abadan (آبادان in Persian) is a city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran (Persia). ... Andimeshk is a city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... Khorramshahr (Persian: خرمشهر) is a port city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran (Persia). ... Bandar Imam Khomeini (Persian بندرامام خمینی) is a port city on the Persian Gulf in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... Dezfoul is a city in Khuzestan in Iran. ... Shûshtar is an ancient fortress city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... Omidiyeh is a city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... Izeh is an ancient city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... Baq-e Malek is a city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... Mah Shahr is an ancient city and port in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... Dasht-e Azadegan is a city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... Ramhormoz is an ancient city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... Shadegan is an ancient city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... For other uses of the name Susa please see this page. ... Masjed Soleyman (also Masjid Soleiman and Masjid-al-Salaman) (مسجد سلیمان in Persian) is a town in the southwestern province of Khuzestan, Iran. ... Minoo Island is an Iranian island and city in the Persian Gulf. ... Hoveizeh (alternative name: Huzgan) is a city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran near the border with Iraq. ...


Historically Khuzestan is what historians refer to as ancient Elam, whose capital was in Susa, and in previous ages, Iranians referred to this province as Elam. The Old Persian term for Elam was Hujiyā, which is present in the modern name. Khuzestan is the most ancient Iranian province and is often referred to in Iran as the "birthplace of the nation," as this is the area where Aryan tribes first settled, assimilating the native Elamite population, and thus laying the foundation for the future empires of Persia, Media, and Parthia. Elam (Persian: ایلام) is one of the first civilizations on record based in the far west and south-west of what is modern-day Iran (in the Ilam Province and the lowlands of Khuzestan). ... For other uses of the name Susa please see this page. ... Elam (Persian: ایلام) is one of the first civilizations on record based in the far west and south-west of what is modern-day Iran (in the Ilam Province and the lowlands of Khuzestan). ... Elam (Persian: ایلام) is one of the first civilizations on record based in the far west and south-west of what is modern-day Iran (in the Ilam Province and the lowlands of Khuzestan). ... Aryan is an English word derived from the Indo-Aryan Vedic Sanskrit and Iranian Avestan terms ari-, arya-, ārya-, and/or the extended form aryāna-. The Old Persian ariya- is a cognate as well. ... The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Parthian Empire at its greatest extent, c60 BC. The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Parthia was the arch-enemy of the Roman Empire in the east and...


Khuzestan is also where Jondishapour was located. The Academy of Gundishapur (also Jondishapoor, Jondishapur, and Jondishapour, Gondeshapur etc. ...


Khuzestan has 18 representatives in Iran's parliament, The Majles, and 6 representatives in the Assembly of Experts. مجلس شورای اسلامی - The Majles; Irans Parliament. ... The Assembly of Experts of Iran (مجلس خبرگان in Persian), is a congress-like body for selecting the Supreme Leader and supervising his activities. ...

Contents


Geography and Climate

According to the 1996 census, the province had an estimated population of 3.7 million people, of which approximately 62.5% were in the urban centres, 36.5% were rural dwellers and the remaining 1% were non-residents. 1996 (MCMXCVI) is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ...


The province of Khuzestan can be basically divided into two regions, i.e. the plains and mountainous regions. The former being in the south and west of the province. This area is irrigated by the Karun, Karkheh and Jarahi rivers. The mountainous regions are situated to the north and east of the province, and are considered to be a part of southern regions of the Zagros mountain ranges. The Karun river as it flows into Ahvaz The Karun river is Irans longest, and only navigable river. ... The Zagros Mountains (In Persian:رشته‌کوه‌های زاگرس) make up Irans second largest mountain range. ...


With regard to natural conditions, Khuzestan has unrivaled potentials unmatched by any other province in the country. Large permanent rivers flow over the entire territory contributing to the fertility of the land. Karun, Iran's largest river, 850 kilometers long, flows into the Persian Gulf through this province.


The climate of Khuzestan is generally hot and humid, particularly in the south, while winters are much more pleasant and dry.


People and Culture

A bust from The National Museum of Iran of Queen Musa, wife of Phraates IV of Parthia, excavated by a French team in Khuzestan in 1939.
A bust from The National Museum of Iran of Queen Musa, wife of Phraates IV of Parthia, excavated by a French team in Khuzestan in 1939.

Khuzestan, unlike other provinces in Iran, is inhabited by a number of ethnic minorities and peoples. Autochthonous Persians in major cities, Arabic-speakers and Iranian Arab tribes, the Bakhtiari, Behbahani and Luri of the north, the Qashqai and Afshari tribes, the peoples of Dezful, Shushtar and the inhabitants of the coastal regions of the Persian Gulf all make up the population of the province of Khuzestan. There are no official ethnic statistics released by Iran's government. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x640, 169 KB)Photo taken by Zereshk. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (480x640, 169 KB)Photo taken by Zereshk. ... Entrance of the National Museum of Iran, the vault is built in the style of Persias Sassanid vaults The National Museum of Iran (in Persian: موزه ایران باستان Muze-ye Irân-e Bâstân) is an archeological and historical museum located in Tehran. ... Coin of Phraataces (obverse, with Nike on each side) and Musa (reverse). ... Coin of Phraates IV from the mint at Seleucia. ... Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... Arabic (; , less formally, ) is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... The Arabs of Khuzestan are a Semitic people in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... This article is on the social structure. ... The Bakhtiari (or Bakhtiyari) are a group of southern Iranian people. ... Lurs can refer to: Ancient wind instruments, see Lur An Iranian ethnic group; see: Lorestan Lurs, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, a commune of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, France This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Qashqai (also spelled Ghashghai, Qashqay, Kashgai and Qashqai). ...


The Persian and Lur groups of western Khuzestan all speak distinct dialects unique to their areas. Many Khuzestanis are bilingual, speaking both Persian and Arabic. It is also not uncommon to find people able to speak a variety of indigenous dialects in addition to their own. Persian may refer to more than one article: the Western name for Iranian (see Iran/Persia naming controversy) Persian, an Iranian language the Persians, an ethnic group a Persian, a breed of cat Persian, a Pokémon character Etymology English Persian < Old English, < Latin *Persianus, < Latin Persia, < ancient Greek Persis... See Lurs for other uses Lur is a name given to two distinct types of wind musical instrument. ... The term bilingualism (from bi meaning two and lingua meaning language) can refer to rather different phenomena. ... Persian (فارسی = Fârsi . ... Arabic (; , less formally, ) is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ...


Khuzestani folk music is colorful and festive, and each native group has their own rich traditions and legacy in this area.


The people of Khuzestan are predominantly Shi'a, with small Sunni, Jewish, Christian, and Mandean minorities. Khuzestanis are also very well regarded for their hospitality and generosity. Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Over at least the last two thousand years, Judaism has not been monolithic in practice, and has not had any centralized authority or binding dogma. ... The history of Christianity is difficult to extricate from that of the European West (and several other culture-regions) in general. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Mandaeism. ...


Seafood is the most important part of Khuzestani cuisine, but many other dishes are also featured. A popular dish that is prepared with heavy spices, onions and cilantro is simply called soboor ("shad"), after its main ingredient, a species of fish found in southern Iranian waters. Other provincial specialties include qæliye-mæhi ("fish stew"), qæliye-meygu ("shrimp stew"), ashe-mohshala (a Khorramshahri breakfast soup), sær shir (an Andimeshki breakfast of heavy cream) and hælim (a Shushtari breakfast of wheatmeal with shredded lamb). Also see Persian cuisine. Spaghetti with seafood (Spaghetti allo scoglio). ... A cuisine (from French cuisine, meaning cooking; culinary art; kitchen; itself from Latin coquina, meaning the same; itself from the Latin verb coquere, meaning to cook) is a specific set of cooking traditions and practices, often associated with a place of origin. ... Species (Caspian shad) (Caspian anadromous shad) (Alewife) (American or Atlantic shad) (Persian Gulf shad) many others The shads or river herrings comprise the genus Alosa, fishes related to herring in the family Clupeidae. ... Groups Conodonta Hyperoartia Petromyzontidae (lampreys) Pteraspidomorphi (early jawless fish) Thelodonti Anaspida Cephalaspidomorphi (early jawless fish) Galeaspida Pituriaspida Osteostraci Gnathostomata (jawed vertebrates) Placodermi Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish) Acanthodii Osteichthyes (bony fish) Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish) Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fish) Actinistia (coelacanths) Dipnoi (lungfish) A fish is a poikilothermic (cold-blooded) water-dwelling... Khorramshahr (Persian: خرمشهر) is a port city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran (Persia). ... Andimeshk is a city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... Shûshtar is an ancient fortress city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... Kabab Koobideh, served with doogh (yoghurt drink) and pickles. ...


Many scientists, philosophers, and poets have come from Khuzestan, including Abu Nuwas, Abdollah ibn-Meymun Ahvazi, the astronomer Nowbækht-e Ahvazi and his sons; as well as Jorjis, the son of Bakhtshua Gondishapuri; Ibn Sakit, Da'bal-e Khazai, and many more. Abu-Nuwas al-Hasan ben Hani al-Hakami (750?–813?) was a renowned Arabic poet. ... Nobakht Ahvazi (also spelled Naubakht in many a literature) and his sons were Astronomers from Ahvaz in Persia. ... Bakhtshooa Gondishapoori (also spelled Bukhtishu in many a literature) were a family of Nestorian Christian Persian physicians from the 7th, 8th, and 9th centuries. ...


The origin of the name Khuzestan

Main article: Origin of the name Khuzestan Another map from the same author, Khuzestan is overlined in red. ...


The name Khuzestan, which means "The Land of the Khuzi," refers to the original inhabitants of this province, the Khuzi people.


The province, however, has also been called Arabistan or Arabestan at times, particularly after the Arab Muhammad ibn Falah, leader of the Msha'sha'iya, initiated a wave of attacks on Khuzestan in AD 1440, leading to a gradual increase in the Arab population of Khuzestan. (See [1], [2], [3] and [4]. Also see [5] under "Al-Ahwaz (Arabistan)".) The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ʻarab) are a large and heterogenous ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa, originating in the Arabian Peninsula of southwest Asia. ... Muhammad ibn Falah (b. ... The Msha’sha’iya were an extremist Shia sect founded and led by Muhammad ibn Falah. ...


Reza Pahlavi, however, restored the original name of the province in 1923. Reza Shah Pahlavi Reza Shah Pahlavi (Persian: رضا پهلوی), (March 16, 1877–July 26, 1944), styled His Imperial Majesty, and by decision of parliament refered to as Reza Shah the Great was Shah of Persia (Iran) from 1925 until 1941. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


History

Pre-Islamic History

History of Iran
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The ziggurat of Choqa Zanbil in Khuzestan was a magnificent structure of the Iranian Elamite Empire. Khuzestan's Elamites were "precursors of the royal Persians", and were "the founders of the first Iranian empire in the geographic sense."
The ziggurat of Choqa Zanbil in Khuzestan was a magnificent structure of the Iranian Elamite Empire. Khuzestan's Elamites were "precursors of the royal Persians", and were "the founders of the first Iranian empire in the geographic sense."
L'Acropole de Suse, Susa, Iran.
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L'Acropole de Suse, Susa, Iran.

The province of Khuzestan is one of the centres of ancient civilization, based around Susa. French archeologists such as Jaques De Morgan date the civilization here as far back as 8000 BC when excavating areas such as Tal e Ali Kosh. The first large scale empire based here was that of the powerful 4th millennium BC Elamites, a non-Semitic kingdom independent of Mesopotamia. The historyof Iran (Persia) covers thousands of years, from the ancient civilaztion in Iranian plateau, Mani civilization in Azarbaijan and Shar-e sookhteh in Zabol and ancient Kingdom of Jiroft, followed by established kingdom of Elam to the modern Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Horned figure with Serpents, one of thousands of newly excavated artifacts from the area. ... Elam (Persian: ایلام) is one of the first civilizations on record based in the far west and south-west of what is modern-day Iran (in the Ilam Province and the lowlands of Khuzestan). ... The Medes were an Iranian people, who lived in the western and north-western portion of present-day Iran. ... Achaemenid empire at its greatest extent The Achaemenid Dynasty (Hakamanishiya in the Old Persian (Avestan ??) language - transliterated Hakamanshee in Modern Persian) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... The Seleucid Empire was one of several political states founded after the death of Alexander the Great, whose generals squabbled over the division of Alexanders empire. ... Parthian Empire at its greatest extent, c60 BC. The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Parthia was the arch-enemy of the Roman Empire in the east and... The Sassanid Empire in the time of Shapur I; the conquests west of the Euphrat were only temporally Official language Pahlavi (Middle Persian) Dominant Religion Zoroastrianism Capital Ctesiphon Sovereigns Shahanshah of the Iran (Eranshahr) First Ruler Ardashir I Last Ruler Yazdegerd III Establishment 224 AD Dissolution 651 AD Part of... The Islamic conquest of Iran (637-651 CE) destroyed the Sassanid Empire and led to the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran. ... The Tahirid dynasty ruled the northeastern Persian region of Khorasan between AD 821-873. ... The Saffarid dynasty of Persia ruled a short-lived empire centred on Seistan, a border district between modern-day Afghanistan and Iran, between 861-1003. ... Tomb of Ghaboos ebne Voshmgir, built in 1007AD, rises 160 ft from its base. ... The famous Samanid mausoleum of Ismail of Samanid in Bukhara. ... The Buwayhids were a Shiite Muslim tribal confederation from the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. ... The Ghaznavid Empire was a state in the region of todays Afghanistan that existed from 963 to 1187. ... The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq;in Turkish Selçuklu, in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān ; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa;) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turkics and a dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th... The Khwarezmid Empire (also known as the Khwarezmian Empire) was a Muslim state formed by Oghuz Turks in the 11th century in Khwarezmia that lasted until the Mongol invasion in 1220. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... The Muzaffarids were a Sunni Arab family that came to power in Iran following the breakup of the Ilkhanate in the 14th century. ... Timurids Map The Timurids were a mixed Turkic-Mongol and Persian (Turco-Persian) dynasty of Central Asia established by Timur (Tamerlane). ... The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... Tomb of Nader Shah Afshar, a popular tourist attraction in Mashad. ... Vakeel mosque, Shiraz. ... Mullahs in the royal presence. ... The Pahlavi dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Iran from 1925 to 1979, from which two Shahs were drawn. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... Choghazanbil Ziggurat, Iran. ... Choghazanbil Ziggurat, Iran. ... A model of the current Chogha Zanbil ziggurat, showing the other buildings in the vicinity of the main structure. ... An Elamite Man in Persepolis The ancient Elamite Empire (تمدن عیلام in Persian) lay to the east of Sumer and Akkad, in what is now southwestern Iran. ... Image File history File links Shush castle, Khuzestan provincce, Iran. ... Image File history File links Shush castle, Khuzestan provincce, Iran. ... LAcropole de Suse, Susa, Iran. ... For other uses of the name Susa please see this page. ... An Elamite Man in Persepolis The ancient Elamite Empire (تمدن عیلام in Persian) lay to the east of Sumer and Akkad, in what is now southwestern Iran. ... Semitic is a linguistic term referring to a subdivision of largely Middle Eastern Afro-Asiatic languages, the Semitic languages, as well as their speakers corresponding cultures, and ethnicities. ...


Archeological ruins verify the entire province of Khuzestan to be home to the Elamite civilization, "the earliest civilization of Persia" (according to A History of Persia, S. Percy Sykes, p38). As was stated in the preceding section, the name Khuzestan is derived from the Elamites (Ūvja according to The Cambridge History of Iran, 2, 259, ISBN 0521060351), a non-Semitic people unrelated to their northern neighbors in Mesopotamia. (see introduction of The Splendour of Iran, E. Booth-Clibborn, ISBN 1861540116) An Elamite Man in Persepolis The ancient Elamite Empire (تمدن عیلام in Persian) lay to the east of Sumer and Akkad, in what is now southwestern Iran. ...


In fact, in the words of Elton Daniel, the Elamites were "the founders of the first Iranian empire in the geographic sense." (The History of Iran, p26, ISBN 0313000301) Hence the central geopolitical significance of Khuzestan, the seat of Iran's first empire.


In 640 BC, the Elamites were defeated by Ashurbanipal coming under the rule of the Assyrians who wrought destruction upon Susa and Chogha Zanbil. But in 538 BC Cyrus the Great was able to re-conquer the Elamite lands. The city of Susa was then proclaimed as one of the Achaemenian capitals. Darius the Great then erected a grand palace known as Hadish there in 521 BC. But this astonishing period of glory and splendour of the Achaemenian dynasty came to an end by the conquests of Alexander of Macedon. And after Alexander, the Seleucid dynasty ruled the area. Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC - 640s BC - 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC 600s BC 590s BC Events and Trends Assyrian king Ashurbanipal founds library, which includes our earliest complete copy of the Epic... Ashurbanipal, or Assurbanipal, (reigned 669 - 627 BCE), the son of Esarhaddon and Naqia-Zakutu, was the last great king of ancient Assyria. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC Events and Trends 538 BC - Babylon occupied by Jews transported to Babylon are allowed to return to... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Seal of Darius I, showing the king hunting on his chariot, and the Faravahar Darius the Great (ca. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC Events 529 BC - Cambyses II succeeds his father Cyrus as ruler of Persia. ... Bust of Alexander the Great in the British Museum. ... After the death of Alexander the Great in the afternoon of 11 June 323 BC, his empire was divided by his generals, the Diadochi(successors). ...


As the Seleucid dynasty weakened, Mehrdad I the Parthian (171-137 BC), gained victory over the region. During the Sassanid dynasty this area thrived tremendously and flourished, and this dynasty was responsible for the many constructions that were erected in Ahvaz, Shushtar, and the north of Andimeshk. After the death of Alexander the Great in the afternoon of 11 June 323 BC, his empire was divided by his generals, the Diadochi(successors). ... Image:Cerasdery. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... Map of Iran and surrounding lands, showing location of Ahvaz Arial photo of Bustan park and Karun river. ... Shûshtar is an ancient fortress city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... Andimeshk is a city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ...


Over the centuries, Nestorian missionaries brought Christianity to the region, using the Aramaic language. From at least the 500s AD, the region was called "Beth Huzaye". As of AD 639, the Nestorian seat was at Mahoze, the complex encompassing Ctesiphon and Seleucia on the Tigris; and the Nestorian Catholicos was Ishoyahb II of Gadala. The term Nestorianism is eponymous, even though the person who lent his name to it always denied the associated belief. ... Ctesiphon (Parthian: Tyspwn as well as Tisfun) is one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia and the capital of the Iranian Parthian Empire and its successor, the Sassanid Empire, for more than 800 years located in ancient Iranian province of Khvarvaran. ... The name Seleucia may denote any one of several cities in the Seleucid Empire. ...


During the early years of the reign of Shapur II (A.D. 309 or 310-379), Arabs crossed the Persian Gulf from Bahrain to "Ardashir-Korra" of Fars and raided the interior. In retaliation, Shapur II led an expedition through Bahrain, defeated the combined forces of the Arab tribes of "Taghleb", "Bakr bin Wael" and "Abd Al-Qays" and advanced temporarily into Yamama in central Najd. The Sassanids resettled these tribes in Kerman and Ahvaz. Arabs named Shapur II, as "Shabur Zol-aktaf" after this battle. (see page 202 under "Arab-Persian relations, pre-Islamic Period" in online Encyclopaedia Iranica). [6] Shapur II was king of Persia (310 - 379). ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... // Introduction Fars is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Shapur II was king of Persia (310 - 379). ... Najd or Nejd (Arabic: Naǧd) is a region in central Saudi Arabia and the location of the nations capital, Riyadh. ... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ... External links Iran Chamber Societys page on Kerman Tourist information on Kerman Photos of historic sites in Kerman Categories: Iran geography stubs | Cities in Iran ... Map of Iran and surrounding lands, showing location of Ahvaz Arial photo of Bustan park and Karun river. ... Shapur II was king of Persia (310 - 379). ...


It should be pointed out that the Arab presence in Iran, did not begin with the Arab destruction of the Sassanid Empire. The Arab infiltration into Iran, began before the Muslim conquests and continued as a result of joint exertions of the civilized Arabs (ahl al-madar) as well as the desert Arabs (ahl al-wabar). There were tribesmen of "Bakr bin Wael" and "Tamim( or Thamim)" in Khuzestan and Fars prior to the arrival of the Arab Muslim Armies. Some of these Arab groups were sedentary while others were nomadic. Some fought on behalf of the Sassanid Empire (Taghleb, Eyad), while others (Lakhmid, Shayban, Bakr bin Wael) began struggling against the Sassanids. These latter group had already won a celebrated, if limited, victory at "Du Qar" around AD 604. Some local Arabs led by "Al-Motanna bin Hareta Al-Shaybani" helped to direct the attention of the nascent Muslim state to wards Iran by converting to Islam and negotiating with Madina for support in their anti-Sassanid moves. (see pp.210,211 under "Arab Settlements in Persia" entry in the online Encyclopaedia Iranica [7]). Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... // Introduction Fars is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) (sometimes also spelled Moslem) is an adherent of Islam. ... Islām is described as a dīn, meaning way of life and/or guidance. Six articles of belief There are six basic beliefs shared by all Muslims: 1. ... This article is about the Saudi city of Medina. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate...


The Arab Conquest of Khuzestan

Masjed Jame' Dezful. In spite of Saddam's devastating bombs, Khuzestan still possesses a rich heritage of architecture from Islamic, Sassanid, and earlier times.
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Masjed Jame' Dezful. In spite of Saddam's devastating bombs, Khuzestan still possesses a rich heritage of architecture from Islamic, Sassanid, and earlier times.

The Arab invasion of Khuzestan took place in 639 AD under the command of Abu Musa Al-Ash'ari from Basra, who drove the Persian Hormozan out of Ahvaz. Susa fell in two days, so Hormozan fled to Shushtar. There his forces were besieged by Abu Musa for 18 months. Shushtar finally fell in 642 AD; the Khuzistan Chronicle records that a Qatari living in the city befriended a man in the army, and dug tunnels through the wall in return for a third of the spoil. The Basrans purged the Nestorians - the Exegete of the city and the Bishop of Hormizd, and all their students - but kept Hormozan alive. (Seeing Islam as Others Saw It, p184) Image File history File links The Dezful Congregation Mosque. ... Image File history File links The Dezful Congregation Mosque. ... Location of Basra Basra (also spelled BaÅŸrah or Basara; historically sometimes written Busra, Busrah, and the early form Bassorah; Arabic: , Al-Basrah) is the second largest city of Iraq with an estimated population of c. ... Map of Iran and surrounding lands, showing location of Ahvaz Arial photo of Bustan park and Karun river. ... For other uses of the name Susa please see this page. ... Shûshtar is an ancient fortress city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ...


There followed the conquests of Jondishapoor and of many other districts along the Tigris. The battle of Nehavand finally secured Khuzestan for the Muslim armies. (Encyclopedia Iranica, p206) The Academy of Gundishapur (also Jondishapoor, Jondishapur, and Jondishapour, Gondeshapur etc. ... Encyclopædia Iranica is a project of Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian Studies to create a comprehensive and authoritiative English language encyclopedia about the history and culture of Iran and Persia. ...


It is interesting to notice that there was much cooperation between Sassanids and non-Muslim Arabs during the Muslim conquest period, which shows that those wars were not Arab vs. Persian, rather Muslim vs. non-Muslims. For instance in 633-634, Khaled ibn Walid leader of the Mulsim Army, defeated a force of the Sassanids' Christian Arab auxiliaries from the tribes of "Bakr", "'Ejl", "Taghleb" and "Namer" at "'Ayn Al-Tamr". (see online Encyclopaedia Iranica,[8], page 204, under "Arab conquest of Persia"). Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ... Khalid bin Walid (AKA:Syaifullah/Sword of Allah);(584 - 642) was a Muslim Arab soldier and general. ...


The Arab settlements by military garrisons in southern Iran was soon followed by other types of colonization. Some Arab families, for example, took the opportunity to gain control of private estates. (Encyclopedia Iranica, p212). Like the rest of Iran, the Arab invasion thus brought Khuzestan under occupation of the Arabs of the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates, until Ya'qub bin Laith as-Saffar, from eastern Iran, raised the flag of independence once more, and ultimately regained control over Khuzestan, among other parts of Iran, founding the short-lived Saffarid dynasty. From that point on, Iranian dynasties would continue to rule the region in succession as an important part of Iran. Encyclopædia Iranica is a project of Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian Studies to create a comprehensive and authoritiative English language encyclopedia about the history and culture of Iran and Persia. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid (Arabic: العبّاسيّون AbbāsÄ«yÅ«n) was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Islamic empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs. ... Yaqub bin Laith as-Saffar (?-879?) was the founder of the Saffarid dynasty. ... The Saffarid dynasty of Persia ruled a short-lived empire centred on Seistan, a border district between modern-day Afghanistan and Iran, between AD 861-1003. ... Elamite Empire, 2700BC-660BC The Elamites were an Iranian people located in Susa, in what is now Khuzestan province. ...


In the Omayyad period, large groups of nomads from "Hanifa","Tamim" and "Abd Al Qays" tribes crossed the Persian Gulf and occupied some of the richest Basran territories around Ahvaz and in Fars (during the second Islam civil war, 661-665/680-684 A.D.)(online Encyclopaedia Iranica, page 215, under "Arab Tribes of Iran"). During the Abbassid period, in the second half of the 10th century, a group (the Assad), taking advantage of quarrels unedr the Buwayhids, penetrated into Khuzestan, where a group of "Tamim" had been living, since pre-Islamic times. However, following the fall of the Abbassid dynasty, the flow of Arab immigrants into Persia gradually diminished, but it nonetheless continued. At the end of 16th century, the "Ka'ab" tribe settled down in Khuzestan. During the succeeding centuries many more Arab tribes moved from southern Iraq to Khuzestan. As a result, Khuzestan, which until recently was called "Arabestan", became extensively arabized. (online Encyclopaedia Iranica, page 216, under "Arab Tribes in Iran"). The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the Quraish. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Map of Iran and surrounding lands, showing location of Ahvaz Arial photo of Bustan park and Karun river. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire. ... The Buwayhids were a Shiite Muslim tribal confederation from the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire. ... Persia can refer to: the Western name for Iran. ...


In the latter part of the 16th century, the Bani Kaab, from Kuwait, settled in Khuzestan. (see J.R. Perry, "The Banu Ka'b: An Amphibious Brigand State in Khuzestan", Le Monde Iranien et L'Islam I, 1971, p133) And during the succeeding centuries, many more Arab tribes moved from southern Iraq to Khuzestan, and as a result, Khuzestan became "extensively Arabized". (Encyclopedia Iranica, p216). (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... The Bani Kaab are an Arab tribal group of Kuwaiti origin which settled in western Khuzestan, a province in southwestern Iran, during the 16th century CE. Categories: Ethnic group stubs | Arab groups ... Encyclopædia Iranica is a project of Columbia Universitys Center for Iranian Studies to create a comprehensive and authoritiative English language encyclopedia about the history and culture of Iran and Persia. ...


According to C.E. Bosworth in the Encyclopedia Iranica, under the Qajar dynasty "... the province was known, as in Safavid times, as Arabistan, and during the Qajar period was administratively a governor-generalate." The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ...


In the mid 1800s Britain initiated a war with Iran in a failed attempt to conquer Khuzestan. Having lost, the British continued in their attempts to wrest control of the province by supporting a number of foreign Arab tribes that had invaded Iran. The last remnants of these tribes (ruled over by Sheikh Khaz'al, of Kuwaiti origin) were finally defeated in 1925 by Reza Shah. In the past eighty years, except during the Iran-Iraq war, the province of Khuzestan thrived and prospered and today accounts for one of the regions in Iran that holds an economic and defensive strategic position. 1800 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Sheikh Khazal Khan, of royal Kuwaiti lineage, was the self-appointed ruler of a virtually autonomous Arab region (which came to be known as the emirate of Arabistan or Al-Ahwaz under his reign) which he established in the Khuzestan province of Iran from 1897-1925. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Shah Reza Pahlavi Reza Pahlavi (Persian: رضا پهلوی), (March 16, 1877–July 26, 1944), called Reza Shah the Great after his death, was Shah of Persia (later Iran) from December 15, 1925 to September 16, 1941. ... Combatants Iran Iraq Commanders Strength Casualties Est. ...


The existence of prominent scientific and cultural centers such as Academy_of_Gundishapur which gathered distinguished medical scientists from Egypt, Greece, India, and Rome, shows the importance and prosperity of this region during ancient times. The Jondi-Shapur Medical School was founded by the order of Shapur I (241-271 AD). It was repaired and restored by Shapur II (a.k.a. Zol-Aktaf: "The Possessor of Shoulder Blades") and was completed and expanded during the reign of Anushirvan. The Academy of Gundishapur (also Jondishapoor, Jondishapur, and Jondishapour, Gondeshapur, GONDÊ SHÂPÛR, etc. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Left-Wing Democrats) Area  - City Proper  1290 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,823,807 almost 4,000,000 1... The Academy of Gundishapur (also Jondishapoor, Jondishapur, and Jondishapour, Gondeshapur, GONDÊ SHÂPÛR, etc. ... A coin of Shapur I Shapur I, son of Ardashir I, was king of Persia from 241 to 272. ... Events Shapur I of Persia succeeds Ardashir I Births Deaths Ardashir I, first ruler of the Sassanids Categories: 241 ... Events Goths forced to withdraw across the Danube Roman Emperor Aurelian withdraws troops to the Danube frontier, abandoning Dacia. ... Shapur II the Great was king of Persia (309 - 379). ...


The Iran-Iraq war

Being on the border with Iraq, Khuzestan suffered the heaviest damage of all Iranian provinces during the Iran-Iraq war. Combatants Iran Iraq Commanders Strength Casualties Est. ...


What used to be Iran's largest refinery at Abadan was destroyed, never to fully recover. Many of the famous nakhlestans were annihilated, cities were destroyed, historical sites were demolished, and half the province went under the boots of Saddam's invading army. This created a mass exodus into provinces that did not have the logistical capability of taking in such a large number of refugees. Abadan (آبادان in Persian) is a city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran (Persia). ...


However, by 1982, Iranian forces managed to push Saddam's forces back into Iraq. The battle of "the Liberation of Khorramshahr" (one of Khuzestan's largest cities and the most important Iranian port prior to the war) was a turning point in the war, and is officially celebrated every year in Iran.


Struggle over the province

Parthian era Bronze plate with Pegasus depiction ("Pegaz" in Persian). Excavated in Masjed Soleiman.
Parthian era Bronze plate with Pegasus depiction ("Pegaz" in Persian). Excavated in Masjed Soleiman.

The first person to launch secessionist unrests in Khuzestan was Sheikh Khaz'al, who rose to power in 1897 and had originally been supported by the British colonialists. He was finally arrested in 1925 by Reza Shah and the area of Khuzestan he had dominated returned to the province. Image File history File linksMetadata Pegasus_iran. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Pegasus_iran. ... Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... Pegasus on roof of PoznaÅ„ Opera House In Greek mythology, Pegasus (Pegasos) was a winged horse that was the foal of Poseidon, in his role as horse-god, and the Gorgon Medusa. ... Masjed Soleyman (also Masjid Soleiman and Masjid-al-Salaman) (مسجد سلیمان in Persian) is a town in the southwestern province of Khuzestan, Iran. ... Sheikh Khazal Khan, of royal Kuwaiti lineage, was the self-appointed ruler of a virtually autonomous Arab region (which came to be known as the emirate of Arabistan or Al-Ahwaz under his reign) which he established in the Khuzestan province of Iran from 1897-1925. ... 1897 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Shah Reza Pahlavi Reza Pahlavi (Persian: رضا پهلوی), (March 16, 1877–July 26, 1944), called Reza Shah the Great after his death, was Shah of Persia (later Iran) from December 15, 1925 to September 16, 1941. ...


Domination of Khuzestan was also Saddam Hussein's primary strategic objective that launched the Iran-Iraq war, which forced thousands of Iranians to flee the province. Wikinews has news related to this article: Saddam Hussein Saddam Hussein Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti, (Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي), born April 28, 1937 , was President of Iraq from 1979 until his removal and capture after the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... Combatants Iran Iraq Commanders Strength Casualties Est. ...


The government of the Islamic Republic of Iran does not conduct any official ethnic census in Iran, thus it is difficult to determine the exact demographics. Beginning in the early nineties, many ethnic Persian Khuzestanis began returning to the province, a trend which continues to this day as the major urban centres are being rebuilt and restored. Restoration has been slow due to neglect by the regime of the Islamic Republic. The city of Khorramshahr was almost completely decimated as a result of Saddam's scorched earth policy. Fortunately, Iranian forces were able to prevent the Iraqis from attempting to spread the execution of this policy to other major urban centres. Demographics is a shorthand term for population characteristics. Demographics include age, income, mobility (in terms of travel time to work or number of vehicles available), educational attainment, home ownership, employment status, and even location. ... An Islamic republic in its modern context has come to mean several things. ... Khorramshahr (Persian: خرمشهر) is a port city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran (Persia). ... A scorched earth defense is a military tactic which involves destroying anything that might be useful to the enemy while advancing through or withdrawing from an area. ...


The Iranian Embassy Siege of 1980 was a terrorist siege of the Iranian Embassy in London initiated by an Arab separatist group. Initially it emerged the terrorists wanted autonomy for Khuzestan; later they demanded the release of 91 of their comrades held in Iranian jails. (see [9] and [10]) The group which claimed responsibility for the siege- the Arab Popular Movement in Arabistan- gave a number of press conferences in the following months, referring to what it described as "the racist rule of Khomeini". It threatened further international action as part of its campaign to gain self- rule for Khuzestan. But its links with Baghdad served to undermine its argument that it was a purely Iranian opposition group; there were allegations that it was backed by Iran's regional rival, Iraq. Their leader ("Salim" - Awn Ali Mohammed) along with four other members of the group were killed and the fifth member, Fowzi Badavi Nejad, was sentenced to life imprisonment. (see [11]) The Iranian Embassy Siege of 1980 was a terrorist siege of the Iranian Embassy in London, United Kingdom. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... Part of the London skyline viewed from the South Bank London is the most populous city in the European Union, with an estimated population on 1 January 2005 of 7. ... Average temperature (red) and precipitations (blue) in Baghdad Baghdad (Arabic: , Persian: بغداد prenounced in arabic as Barhdad) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Province. ...


Human Rights Situation

In 1997, Human Rights Watch reported "Iranian Arabs, an ethnic minority centered in southwest Iran, have cited significant restrictions on their language and culture, and on their right to participate effectively in decisions affecting the area in which they live." [12]. According to another report in the same year, "Arabic is not taught in elementary schools, and the Arabic teaching in secondary schools focuses exclusively on religious texts. The governor of Khuzestan is not an Arab" while "Arabs make up 70 percent of the three million inhabitants of Khuzestan Province in the southwest of Iran" [13] In 2005, there has been reports of unrest over grievances of local arabs such as "inadequate attention to their culture and language by state media, facing discrimination in getting jobs, unfair distribution of Khuzestan's oil wealth." [14] Human Rights Watch is an international non-governmental organization based in New York City, USA, that conducts advocacy and research on human rights issues. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ʻarab) are a large and heterogenous ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa, originating in the Arabian Peninsula of southwest Asia. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ...


In spite of the aforementioned, Iran claims that efforts to disproportionately accentuate the problems in Khuzestan are by certain foreign media or political groups such as British based [15] and pan-Arab nationalists trying to fish from muddy waters. Many Iranians have in fact critcized the heavily pro-Arab influence of Iran's government in all spheres of common life. While the Azeris, Kurds, Lurs, and other ethnic groups that contribute over 50% of Iran's population, are prohibited from studying their respective languages; contrary to the HRW report, all Iranians are obliged to take seven years of modern Arabic in schools in addition to classical Arabic. The government even operates several 24 hour Arabic networks inside Iran, with nearly all programs specializing on world affairs and politics (e.g. SAHAR TV, Al-ALAM TV). No other minority group enjoys such priviledges in Iran. And contrary to what is claimed about the disproportionality of public spending based on regional wealth and revenues, Iran's other wealthy regions fair no better than Khuzestan. In fact, most of Iran's lucrative massive gas fields and petrochemical industry and oil refineries are outside of Khuzestan, making Tehran, Isfahan, and Mashad the only centers of relative prosperity in Iran. Compared to Khuzestan, there are numerous far more destitute regions in Iran, such as Sistan and Baluchestan and Kohkiluyeh and Buyer Ahmad that rarely if ever receive the attention of the central government's inadequate economic policies. And all provincial governors in Iran are Persian, appointed by the central government, whether they be in Khuzestan or Azarbaijan. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Azerbaijanis. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... See Lurs for other uses Lur is a name given to two distinct types of wind musical instrument. ...


In effect, what Iran counter claims in the face of such charges is that the problems seen in Khuzestan are also found in other parts of Iran abundantly and are not specific to Ahvaz. Yet the "British backed foreign media" has been trying to shine an exclusive light on Khuzestan as a way of getting back at Iran for gaining the upperhand in current Iraq.[16]


Economy

The government of Iran is spending large amounts of money in Khuzestan province. The massive Karun-3 dam, was inaugurated recently as part of a drive to boost Iran's growing energy demands.
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The government of Iran is spending large amounts of money in Khuzestan province. The massive Karun-3 dam, was inaugurated recently as part of a drive to boost Iran's growing energy demands.

Khuzestan is the major oil-producing region of Iran, and as such is the wealthiest province in Iran, though it is claimed that this wealth does not benefit the average citizen. The government of Iran claims the province to rank third among Iran's provinces in GDP. source (in Persian) Image File history File links Download high resolution version (640x639, 383 KB)Karun-3 Dam, Khuzestan. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (640x639, 383 KB)Karun-3 Dam, Khuzestan. ...


In 2005, Iran's government announced it was planning the country's second nuclear reactor to be built in Khuzestan province.[17] The 360 MW reactor will be a Light Water PWR Reactor.[18] In speaking of nuclear reactors, light water is ordinary water. ... A pressurized water reactor (PWR) is a type of nuclear power reactor that uses ordinary light water for both coolant and for neutron moderation. ...


Shipping

Karun river is the only river in Iran capable of sailing. The British, up until recent decades, after the discovery by Sir Henry Layard, transported their merchandise via Karun's waterways, passing through Ahvaz all the way up to Masjed Soleiman, the site of their first oil wells in the Naftoon oil field. Karun is capable of the sailing of fairly large ships as far up as Shushtar. The Karun river as it flows into Ahvaz The Karun river is Irans longest, and only navigable river. ... Masjed Soleyman (also Masjid Soleiman and Masjid-al-Salaman) (مسجد سلیمان in Persian) is a town in the southwestern province of Khuzestan, Iran. ... Shûshtar is an ancient fortress city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ...


Karkheh, Jarrahi, Arvand, Handian, Shavoor, Bahmanshir (Bahman-Ardeshir), Maroon-Alaa', Dez, and many other rivers and water sources in the form of Khurs, lagoons, ponds, and marshes demonstrate the vastness of water resourses in this region, and are the main reason for the variety of agricultural products developed in the area.


Agriculture

The abundance of water and fertility of soil have transformed this region into a rich and well-endowed land. The variety of agricultural products such as wheat, barley, oily seeds, rice, eucalyptus, medical herbs; the existence of many palm and citrus farms; having mountains suitable for raising olives, and of course sugar cane - from which Khuzestan takes its name - all show the great potential of this fertile plain. The abundance of water supplies, rivers, and dams, also have an influence on the fishery industries, which are prevalent in the area.


Industry

Iran has some major industrial facilities located in Ahvaz. The Fulad-e-Ahvaz steel facility is one of them.
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Iran has some major industrial facilities located in Ahvaz. The Fulad-e-Ahvaz steel facility is one of them.

The Karun 3 and 4, and Karkheh Dam, as well as the petroleum reserves provide Iran with national sources of revenue and energy. The petrochemical and steel industries, pipe making, the power stations that feed the national electricity grid, the chemical plants, and the large refineries are some of Iran's major industrial facilities. Fulad e Ahvaz steel factory. ... Fulad e Ahvaz steel factory. ... The government of Iran is spending large amounts of money in Khuzestan province. ...


The province is also home to Yadavaran Field, a major oil field. Yadavaran Field is an oil field located in Khuzestan, Iran. ...


Universities

    1. Khorramshahr University of Nautical Sciences and Technologies
    2. Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences
    3. Petroleum University of Technology
    4. Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz
    5. Shahid Chamran University-Dezful
    6. Islamic Azad University of Abadan
    7. Islamic Azad University of Omidiyeh
    8. Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz
    9. Islamic Azad University of Behbahan
    10. Islamic Azad University of Izeh

Soon after the founding of Jondishapur University, Dr. Talat Basāri was appointed vice chancellor of the university, the first woman to reach such a post in any university in Iran. ...

Attractions of Khuzestan

Iran's National Heritage Organization lists 140 sites of Historical and Cultural significance in Khuzestan, reflecting the fact that the province was once the seat of Iran's most ancient empire.


Some of the more popular sites of attraction include:

The Parthian Prince, found in Khuzestan circa AD 100, is kept at The National Museum of Iran, Tehran.
The Parthian Prince, found in Khuzestan circa AD 100, is kept at The National Museum of Iran, Tehran.
  • Choqa Zanbil: The seat of the Elamite Empire, this ziggurat is a magnificent five-story temple that is one of the greatest ancient monuments in the Middle-East today. The monolith, with its labyrinthine walls made of thousads of large bricks with Elamite inscription, manifest the sheer antiquity of the shrine. The temple was religiously sacred and built in the honor of Inshushinak, the protector deity of the city of Susa.
  • Shush-Daniel: Burial site of the Jewish prophet Daniel, who was revered by Cyrus The Great. He is said to have died in Susa on his way to Jerusalem upon the order of Darius. The grave of Ya'qub bin Laith as-Saffar, who rose against the oppression of the Umayyad Caliphate, is also located nearby.
  • Dezful (Dezh-pol), whose name is taken from a bridge (pol) over Dez river having 12 spans built by the order of Shapur I. This is the same bridge that was called "Andamesh Bridge" by historians such as Istakhri who says the city of Andimeshk takes its name from this bridge. Muqaddasi called it "The City of the Bridge."
  • Shushtar, one of the oldest fortress cities in Iran, known as the "City of Forty Elders" in local dialect. The Friday Mosque of Shushtar was built by the Abbasids. The mosque, which features "Roman" arches, has 54 pillars and balconies.
  • Izeh, or Izaj, was one of the main targets of the invading Islamic army in their conquest of Persia. Kharezad Bridge, one of the strangest bridges of the world, is situated in this city and was named after Ardeshir Babakan's mother. It is built over casted pillars of lead each 104 meters high. Ibn Battuta, who visited the city in the 14th century, refers to many monasteries, caravanserais, aqueducts, schools, and fortresses in the town. The brass statue of The Parthian Man, kept at the National Museum of Iran, is from here.
  • Masjed Soleiman, another ancient town, has ancient fire alters and temples such as Sar-masjed and Bard-neshondeh. It is also the winter's resting area of the Bakhtiari tribe, and where William Knox D'Arcy dug Iran's first oil well.
  • Abadan is said to be where the tomb of Elias, the long lived Hebrew prophet is.
  • Iwan of Hermes, and Iwan of Karkheh, two enigmatic ruins north of Susa.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 693 KB) Summary Taken by --Aytakin 01:16, 8 December 2005 (UTC). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 693 KB) Summary Taken by --Aytakin 01:16, 8 December 2005 (UTC). ... Anno Domini Nostri Iesu Christi (In the Year of Our Lord Jesus Christ), commonly shortened to Anno Domini (In the Year of the Lord), abbreviated as AD or A.D., is the designation used to number years in the Christian Era, conventionally used with the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... -1... Entrance of the National Museum of Iran, the vault is built in the style of Persias Sassanid vaults The National Museum of Iran (in Persian: موزه ایران باستان Muze-ye Irân-e Bâstân) is an archeological and historical museum located in Tehran. ... Map of Iran and surrounding lands, showing location of Tehran Tehran is a metropolis of 14 million situated at the foot of the towering Alborz range. ... A model of the current Chogha Zanbil ziggurat, showing the other buildings in the vicinity of the main structure. ... An Elamite Man in Persepolis The ancient Elamite Empire (تمدن عیلام in Persian) lay to the east of Sumer and Akkad, in what is now southwestern Iran. ... Dur-Untash, or Choqa zanbil, built in 13th century BC by Untash Napirisha, is one of the worlds best preserved ziggurats. ... Inshushinak was one of the major gods of the Elamites and the protector deity of Susa. ... For other uses of the name Susa please see this page. ... Daniel (דָּנִיֵּאל, Standard Hebrew Daniyyel, Tiberian Hebrew Dāniyyêl) is the name of at least three people from the Bible: A Jewish exile in Babylon, the subject of the Book of Daniel - this article refers to this best-known Daniel. ... For other uses of the name Susa please see this page. ... Jerusalem and the Old City. ... Yaqub bin Laith as-Saffar (?-879?) was the founder of the Saffarid dynasty. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Dezfoul is a city in Khuzestan in Iran. ... Dez (born October 17, 1976 in Irvine, California) is an American born porn star. ... A coin of Shapur I Shapur I, son of Ardashir I, was king of Persia from 241 to 272. ... A map by Istakhri from the text Al-aqalim. ... Andimeshk is a city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... Muhammad ibn Ahmad Shamsuddin Al-Muqaddasi (or Al-Maqdisi) was a notable medieval Arab geographer, author of Ahsan at-Taqasim fi Ma`rifat il-Aqalim (The Best Divisions for Knowledge of the Regions). ... Shûshtar is an ancient fortress city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid (Arabic: العبّاسيّون AbbāsÄ«yÅ«n) was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Islamic empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs. ... Izeh is an ancient city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. ... Ibn Battuta (1304-1377). ... A caravanserai (also spelt caravansarai, caravansary) or khan (the usual term in Arab countries) was a roadside inn where caravans could rest and recover from the days journey. ... Pont du Gard, France, a Roman era aqueduct circa 19 BC, it is one of Frances top tourist attractions at over 1. ... Entrance of the National Museum of Iran, the vault is built in the style of Persias Sassanid vaults The National Museum of Iran (in Persian: موزه ایران باستان Muze-ye Irân-e Bâstân) is an archeological and historical museum located in Tehran. ... Masjed Soleyman (also Masjid Soleiman and Masjid-al-Salaman) (مسجد سلیمان in Persian) is a town in the southwestern province of Khuzestan, Iran. ... The Bakhtiari (or Bakhtiyari) are a group of southern Iranian people. ... The entrepreneur William Knox DArcy (October 11, 1849 - May 1, 1917) was one of the main founders of the oil and petrochemical industry in Persia (Iran). ... Abadan (آبادان in Persian) is a city in the Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran (Persia). ... Elijah (אֱלִיָּהוּ Whose/my God is the Lord, Standard Hebrew Eliyyáhu, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĔliyyāhû), also Elias (NT Greek Ἠλίας), is a prophet in the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament. ... Hebrews (syns. ... An Iwan is a large, vaulted chamber with a monumental arched opening on one side. ... Hermes bearing the infant Dionysus, by Praxiteles HermÄ“s (pronounced HUR-mees; Greek: Έρμης: pile of marker stones), in Greek mythology, is the god of boundaries and of the travelers who cross them, of shepherds and cowherds, of orators, literature and poets, of athletics, of weights and measures and invention and... For other uses of the name Susa please see this page. ...

See also

Map of Iran and surrounding lands, showing location of Ahvaz Arial photo of Bustan park and Karun river. ... For other uses of the name Susa please see this page. ... A model of the current Chogha Zanbil ziggurat, showing the other buildings in the vicinity of the main structure. ... Khuzestan is a province of the Islamic Republic of Iran, located in the area between the Tigris-Euphrates delta and the Zagros Mountains (border of the Iranian plateau). ... Combatants Iran Iraq Commanders Strength Casualties Est. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... The Islamic conquest of Iran (637-651 CE) destroyed the Sassanid Empire and led to the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran. ...

External links

  • Haft Tappe archeological site in Khuzestan
  • Choqa Zanbil Ziggurat Official website
  • Official website of Khuzestan Governorship
  • Ayapir archeological site
  • The History of Khuzestan according to Bakhtiari tribes of Khuzestan
  • Khuzestan Province Department of Education (in Persian)
  • Images of Khuzestan
  • Khuzestan ISNA Official News Agency



Provinces of Iran Flag of Iran
Ardabil | Bushehr | Chahar Mahaal and Bakhtiari | East Azerbaijan | Isfahan | Fars | Guilan | Golestan | Hamadan | Hormozgan | Ilam | Kerman | Kermanshah | Khuzestan | Kohkiluyeh and Buyer Ahmad | Kurdistan | Lorestan | Markazi | Mazandaran | North Khorasan | Qazvin | Qom | Razavi Khorasan | Semnan | Sistan and Baluchistan | South Khorasan | Tehran | West Azerbaijan | Yazd | Zanjan

  Results from FactBites:
 
Province of Khuzestan - WikIran (808 words)
As such, Khuzestan is the most ancient Iranian province and is often referred to in Iran as the "birthplace of the nation," as this is the area where Aryan tribes first settled, assimilating the indigenous Elamite population, and thus laying the foundation for the future empires of Persia, Media, and Parthia.
The name of the province, Khuzestan, literally means "Land of the Khuzi," and is in reference to the Khuz (or Khuzi) people, who were the original pre-Aryan ethnic group of the area and had formed one of the major population groups of the kingdom of Elam.
Khuzestan is situated between the Zagros mountain range to the north and the Persian Gulf to the south.
Iranian Provinces: Khuzestan (1869 words)
Khuzestan is situated on the southern part of the Zagros mountain ranges, which covers the north and east of the province.
The ziggurat of Choqa Zanbil in Khuzestan was a magnificent structure of the Iranian Elamite Empire.
Khuzestan is the most ancient Iranian province and is often referred to in Iran as the "birthplace of the nation", as this is the area where Aryan tribes first settled, assimilating the native Elamite population, and thus laying the foundation for the future Persian Empires of Median, Achaemenid, Parthian and Sassanid.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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