FACTOID # 17: Though Rhode Island is the smallest state in total area, it has the longest official name: The State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Khreshchatyk
Kreschatyk in the early 1980s
Kreschatyk in the early 1980s

Khreschatyk (Ukrainian: Хрещатик, Khreshchatyk, Russian: Крещатик, Kreshchatik) is probably the best-known street in Kiev, the capital of Ukraine. One of the shortest and the widest among the main city streets in the world (1,225 metres long and 75 to 100 metres wide), Khreschatyk goes through the very center of Kiev. The entire street was completely destroyed in the Second World War and rebuilt anew in the post-war years. Image File history File links Kreschatik_classic. ... Image File history File links Kreschatik_classic. ... A monument to St. ... The metre (Commonwealth English) or meter (American English) (symbol: m) is the SI base unit of length. ... Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Commanders {{{commander1}}} {{{commander2}}} Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties 17 million military deaths 7 million military deaths World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a mid-20th century conflict that engulfed much of the globe and is accepted as the largest and deadliest...

Contents


History

Legendary accounts and early history

Iconic depiction of the Baptism of Kiev by St. Vladimir
Iconic depiction of the Baptism of Kiev by St. Vladimir

The name of the street derives from the Slavic word krest or khrest ('cross'). This may be explained by the fact that the surrounding valley used to be crossed by many ravines, hence its ancient name Kreshchataya, or Khreshchata, 'crossed'. Image File history File links Kreschenie_rusi_ikona. ... Image File history File links Kreschenie_rusi_ikona. ... Clandestine Christian communities existed in Kiev for decades before the official baptism. ... Detail of the Millenium of Russia monument in Novgorod (1862) representing St Vladimir and his family. ... The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup of Indo-European languages, have speakers in most of Eastern Europe, in much of the Balkans, in parts of Central Europe, and in the northern part of Asia. ... A cross is a geometrical figure consisting of two lines or bars intersecting each other at a 90° angle, dividing one or two of the lines in half. ... Grand Canyon, Arizona A canyon, or gorge, is a valley walled by cliffs. ...


According to another legend, the valley owes its name to the Baptism of Kiev (Kreshchenie or Khreshchennya) that took place in 988. Legend has it that Vladimir the Great, ruler of Kiev, herded his subjects through the valley into the Dnieper River to have them baptized. Clandestine Christian communities existed in Kiev for decades before the official baptism. ... Detail of the Millennium of Russia monument in Novgorod (1862) representing St Vladimir and his family. ... A monument to St. ... The Dnieper River (also: Dnepr, Dniapro, or Dnipro) is a river (2,290 km length) which flows from Russia through Belarus and then Ukraine. ...


Times of the Russian Empire

Kreschatyk remained a mere ravine between the older neighborhoods of Kiev: Podil, the quarters of early trade and commerce, the ancient Upper City, where most of administrative buildings were located, and the prosperous Pechersk built around the ancient Pechersk Lavra ('Monastery of the Caves') with the latter district being poorly connected to the other two by a shabby road that went through the ravine, woods and swamps. Podil is a historic neighborhood in the city of Kiev, which houses the citys funiculaire and the Dnieper river station. ... Pechersk or Pechersk (Ukrainian: ) is a neighborhood in Kiev (Kyiv), the capital of Ukraine, located on the hills adjoining the right bank of the Dnieper river. ... Roofs of the Holy Trinity Church Kievo-Pecherskaya Lavra, 1890s Kiev Pechersk Lavra (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ), also known as the Kiev Monastery of the Caves, is an ancient cave monastery in Kiev. ...

Khreschatyk at the end of the nineteenth century. The first tram lines in the Russian Empire were built in Kiev.
Khreschatyk at the end of the nineteenth century. The first tram lines in the Russian Empire were built in Kiev.

The development of the area only started in the nineteenth century. The ravine was filled and an accelerating construction quickly followed. By the mid-nineteenth century Khreschatyk was developed as Kiev's main thoroughfare, in the climate of rapid growth of the city during the Industrial Revolution in Imperial Russia. The street soon became the center of Kiev's commercial life, as the city itself developed into the main commercial center in the Empire's south-west. Image File history File links Khresch_XIXcent. ... Image File history File links Khresch_XIXcent. ... A modern tram in the Töölö district of Helsinki, Finland Map showing the tramway system in Oslo, Norway Volkswagen Cargo-Tram in Dresden. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... A monument to St. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Industrial Revolution was the major technological, socioeconomic and cultural change in the late 18th and early 19th century resulting from the replacement of an economy based on manual labour to one dominated by industry and machine manufacture. ... The Russian Empire in 1913 Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last...


In 1892 the first electric tram line in the Russian Empire was running in Kiev and by 1894 the line was extended to Khreschatyk. The street was served by the tram for about forty years. A modern tram in the Töölö district of Helsinki, Finland Map showing the tramway system in Oslo, Norway Volkswagen Cargo-Tram in Dresden. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start...


Times of revolutionary unrest

During the period of chaos after the Russian Revolution of 1917 many Khreschatyk buildings were heavily damaged as the city changed hands many times. On May 9, 1920, the Polish army of General Rydz-Śmigły celebrated their capture of Kiev by a ceremonial parade on Khreschatyk, only to be driven out by the Bolshevik counter-offensive within weeks. The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a political movement in Russia which reached its peak in 1917 with the overthrow of the Provisional Government that had replaced the Russian Czarist system, and led to the establishment of the Soviet Union, which lasted until its collapse in 1991. ... May 9 is the 129th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (130th in leap years). ... 1920 (MCMXX) is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y (March 11, 1886 - December 2, 1941); nom de guerre ÅšmigÅ‚y, TarÅ‚owski, Adam Zawisza) was a Polish politician, an officer of the Polish Army, painter and poet. ... Kiev Offensive (1920) Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date April-June, 1920 Place Ukraine Result inconclusive The Kiev Offensive (or Kiev Operation) was an important military operation, carried out by Polish Army and allied Ukrainian forces during the Polish-Bolshevik War, from April 1920 to June of the same year. ... Combatants Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic Second Polish Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Józef PiÅ‚sudski Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Strength 800,000 738,000 Casualties 30,337 dead 51,374 missing 113,510 wounded Unknown, dead estimated at 60,000 The Polish-Soviet War was the war (February 1919...


Interbellum

During the inter-war period, Khreschatyk underwent major development and reconstruction in the booming city. Between 1923 and 1937 the street carried the name of Vaclav Vorovsky — an early Bolshevik diplomat assassinated in Switzerland. In the mid-1930s the electric tram lines were dismantled, and the trams replaced by electric trolleybuses. Leaders of the Bolshevik Party and the Communist International, a painting by Malcolm McAllister on the Pathfinder Mural in New York City and on the cover of the book Lenin’s Final Fight published by Pathfinder. ... An articulated trolleybus in Arnhem A trolleybus (also known as electric bus, trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram or simply trolley) is a bus powered by two overhead electric wires, from which the bus draws electricity using two trolley poles. ...


Second World War: total demolition of the street

Destroyed Khreschatyk (1943).
Destroyed Khreschatyk (1943).

During World War II, almost every building on the street was mined with explosives by the retreating Red Army. In September 1941, after German troops occupied the city, explosions were set off by radio-controlled fuses from over 400 kilometres away. The demolition of over three hundred buildings on Khreschatyk became the first operation in history using long-distance radio-controlled explosives. Fires raged on the street for weeks following the first blasts, and much of the surviving historic center of Kiev was demolished. This unprecedented method of warfare caused panic and caused heavy casualties among both the occupiers and the city's remaining civilian population. Image File history File links Destroyed_Khreschatyk_1943. ... Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Commanders {{{commander1}}} {{{commander2}}} Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties 17 million military deaths 7 million military deaths World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a mid-20th century conflict that engulfed much of the globe and is accepted as the largest and deadliest... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organised by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ...


Under German occupation, the street was renamed Eichhornstrasse, after the German World War I Field Marshal Hermann von Eichhorn, the "Military dictator of Ukraine" during the previous German occupation, who had been assassinated in Kiev in 1918 [1]. Clockwise from top: Trenches in frontline, a British Mark I Tank crossing a trench, the Royal Navy battleship HMS Irresistible sinking after striking a mine at the battle of the Dardanelles, a Vickers machine gun crew with gas masks and a Sopwith Camel biplane. ... Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ...


Post-war Soviet times

Kievans cleanup the Khreschatyk following the destruction in the war.
Kievans cleanup the Khreschatyk following the destruction in the war.

During the late 1950s to early 1960s, Khreschatyk was rebuilt anew (currently, there are just a few pre-war building standing on the street). The street was widened to 75 to 100 metres and new building were erected in the Neoclassical Stalinist architectural style. Important buildings of the new ensemble include the City Council House (Kyivrada), the Central Post Office and the Central Department Store. Image File history File links Khreschatyk_cleanup. ... Never executed design for the Palace of Soviets in Moscow. ... Kyivrada (Ukrainian: ) is the city council of Kiev municipality, the highest representative body of the community. ...

Central Post Office on Khreschatyk one of several buildings in the Socialist Neoclassical architectural style
Central Post Office on Khreschatyk one of several buildings in the Socialist Neoclassical architectural style
Khreschatyk at the turn of the millennium.
Khreschatyk at the turn of the millennium.
Tent city on Khreschatyk during the Orange Revolution
Tent city on Khreschatyk during the Orange Revolution

On May 1, 1986, a few days after the nuclear accident in Chornobyl about 110 km north of the city, Soviet authorities held a traditional parade on Khreschatyk, in order to "calm people" and "prevent panic" caused by the disaster. Thousands of Kievites, including many children, were exposed to dangerous doses of radiation. Image File history File linksMetadata Kiev_8. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Kiev_8. ... Never executed design for the Palace of Soviets in Moscow. ... Image File history File links Khresch_1998. ... Image File history File links Khresch_1998. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Orange_rev2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Orange_rev2. ... Orange-clad supporters of Viktor Yushchenko gather in Independence Square in Kiev. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... United States Marines on parade. ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ...


In the late 1980s, the porch of the Central Post Office building partially collapsed, killing and injuring several people. A porch is an architectural feature relating to a floor-like platform structure attached to the front or back entrance of a residence. ...


In 1990, the first official raising of Ukraine's national flag took place on Khreschatyk, on the large City Council flagstaff. The street became the traditional place for political rallies. This article is about the year. ...


Independent Ukraine

In 2000–01, Khreschatyk and Maidan Nezalezhnosti, a main city square located on the street, became the center of the mass protest campaign known as UBK (Ukrayina bez Kuchmy! - 'Ukraine without Kuchma!'). Allegedly to keep the protesters out, Mayor Oleksandr Omelchenko ordered a major reconstruction of the street, which led to significant rebuilding of Maidan Nezalezhnosti, and construction of two large underground shopping malls. Maidan Nezalezhnosti (literally: Independence Square ) is a main square in Kyiv, capital city of Ukraine. ... Ukrayina bez Kuchmy! or UBK (Ukrainian: Україна без Кучми!—Ukraine without Kuchma!) was a mass protest campaign that took place in Ukraine in 2000–2001. ... Leonid Kuchma Leonid Danylovych Kuchma (Леонід Кучма) (born August 9, 1938) was the second President of Ukraine from July 19, 1994 to January 23, 2005. ... Oleksander Omelchenko was a candidate in the 2004 Ukrainian presidential election, nominated by the Unity party, which he chairs. ... The Mall of America in Bloomington, Minnesota — the third-largest in the world. ...


In the winter of 2004, Khreschatyk, especially its parts adjacent to Maidan Nezalezhnosti, became the center of the main public protests of the Orange Revolution. The protesters' main tent encampment was situated in the street, and many Khreschatyk buildings served as makeshift feeding and warming sites for the protesters, including the City Council House. In total, over a million people from around Ukraine attended the rally. Orange-clad supporters of Viktor Yushchenko gather in Independence Square in Kiev. ...


Attractions

Khreschatyk is a popular destination for tourists and Kievans. During weekends, the street is closed to road traffic and reserved for pedestrians. Khreschatyk contains many prestigious stores, cafes, and restaurants.


Points of interest situated along Khreschatyk are the following (south to north):

  • Besarabska Square, including:
    • Besarabsky indoor Market (nineteenth century)
    • "Besarabsky Quarter" (shops and offices complex, partly nineteenth century)
    • Metrohrad, underground shopping center
  • Central Department Store (TsUM)
  • City Council Building (Kyivrada)
  • Maidan Nezalezhnosti, including:
    • Central Post Office (Poshtamt)
    • National Musical Academy Concert Hall
    • Globus underground shopping center, and the preserved ruins of Medieval Liadski Gate beneath the square
  • Yevropeyska Square ("European Square"), including:
    • Dnipro Hotel
    • UNIAN news agency building
    • Ukrayinskyi Dim ("Ukrainian House") conference and exhibitions hall
  • Kiev Philarhmony

Khreschatyk is a traditional setting for outdoor concerts and festivals, and is frequented by street musicians. Major parades and celebrations are held on Kiev Day (the last Sunday of May) and Ukrainian Independence Day (August 24). The Besarabsky Market (Ukrainian: ), also frequently called Besarabka (Бесарабка) is an indoor market located in the center of Kiev at the west end of Khreshchatyk, the main and best known street of the city. ... Kyivrada (Ukrainian: ) is the city council of Kiev municipality, the highest representative body of the community. ... Maidan Nezalezhnosti (literally: Independence Square ) is a main square in Kyiv, capital city of Ukraine. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... The UNIAN or Ukrainian Independent Information Agency (Ukrainian: Українське Незалежне Інформаційне Агентство, УНІАН; Ukrayinske Nezalezhne Informatsiyne Ahentstvo) is a Kyiv-based Ukrainian news agency. ... An Independence Day is an annual celebration commemorating the anniversary of a nations assumption of independent statehood, usually after ceasing to be a colony or part of another state. ...


References

  • Link to a Ukrainian language website The concept of Khreschatyk architecture after WWII
  • Link to a Ukrainian language website Article in Wiki Encyclopedia Kyiv
  • Link to a Russian language website 19th-century views of Khreschatyk
  • Link to a Russian language website Collective work (1986). Киев. Энциклопедический справочник, УРЕ.
  • Link to a Russian language website А. Анисимов (1992). Скорбное бесчуствие, Tabachuk Ltd..
  • Link to a Ukrainian language website Collective work (1995). Вулиці Києва, Довідник, УЕ.
  • Link to a Russian language website Khreschatyk, the history of the main street, in Zerkalo Nedeli, September 13-19, 1997
  • Link to a Ukrainian language website/ Link to a Russian language website "Khreschatyk, the dry bed of the future river", in Zerkalo Nedeli, January 13-19, 2001, in Russian, in Ukrainian
  • Link to a Russian language website Khreschatyk was blown up by saboteurs
  • Link to a Russian language website An optimistic avenue in Vokrug Sveta (Around the World), November, 2005.

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m