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Encyclopedia > Khosrau II
Gold coin of Khosrau II.
Gold coin of Khosrau II.
Silver coin of Khosrau II, dating to ca. A.D. 600.
Silver coin of Khosrau II, dating to ca. A.D. 600.
Egyptian woven pattern woolen curtain or trousers, which was a copy of a Sassanid silk import, which was in turn based on a fresco of Persian King Khosrau II fighting Ethiopian forces in Yemen, 5-6th century.
Egyptian woven pattern woolen curtain or trousers, which was a copy of a Sassanid silk import, which was in turn based on a fresco of Persian King Khosrau II fighting Ethiopian forces in Yemen, 5-6th century.

Khosrau II or Khosrow II (Chosroes II in classical sources, sometimes called Parvez, "the ever Victorious" – in Persian: خسرو پرویز) was the twenty-second Sassanid King of Persia from 590 to 628. He was the son of Hormizd IV (579–590) and grandson of Khosrau I (531–579). This Manual of Style has the simple purpose of making things easy to read by following a consistent format — it is a style guide. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 614 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (907 × 885 pixel, file size: 904 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Gold coin of Kosrau II. Cabinet des Medailles. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 614 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (907 × 885 pixel, file size: 904 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Gold coin of Kosrau II. Cabinet des Medailles. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 401 pixel Image in higher resolution (854 × 428 pixel, file size: 155 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Silver coin of Khosrau II, minted ca. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 401 pixel Image in higher resolution (854 × 428 pixel, file size: 155 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Silver coin of Khosrau II, minted ca. ... Image File history File links Khosrau_I_Textile. ... Image File history File links Khosrau_I_Textile. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... The Sassanid Empire in the time of Shapur I; the conquest of Cappadocia was temporary Official language Pahlavi (Middle Persian) Dominant Religion Zoroastrianism Capital Ctesiphon Sovereigns Shahanshah of the Iran (Eranshahr) First Ruler Ardashir I Last Ruler Yazdegerd III Establishment 224 AD Dissolution 651 AD Part of the History of... Events September 3 - St. ... Events Khusro II of Persia overthrown Pippin of Landen becomes Mayor of the Palace Brahmagupta writes the Brahmasphutasiddhanta Births Deaths Empress Suiko of Japan Theodelinda, queen of the Lombards Categories: 628 ... Hormizd IV, son of Khosrau I, reigned as king of Persia from 578 to 590. ... A coin of Khosrau I. Khosrau I, (Chosroes I in classical sources, most commonly known in Persian as Anooshiravan also spelled Anushirvan, Persian: انوشيروان meaning the immortal soul), also known as Anooshiravan the Just (انوشیروان عادل, Anooshiravan-e-ādel) (ruled 531–579), was the favourite son and successor of Kavadh I (488–531...


Khosrau's Personality Traits and Skills

Khosrau II was much inferior to his grandfather. He was haughty and cruel, rapacious and given to luxury; he was neither a general nor an administrator. This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy, usually within an institution of the government. ...


Accession to the Throne

Khosrau II was raised to the throne by the magnates who had rebelled against Hormizd IV, who soon after had his father blinded and killed. But at the same time the general Bahram Chobin had proclaimed himself King Bahram VI (590–591), and Khosrau II was not able to maintain himself. Bahram Chobin (in Persian بهرام چوبین) was a famous Eran spahbod (military commander) during Khosrau IIs rule in Sassanid Iran. ...


The war with the Romans, which had begun in 571, had not yet come to an end. Khosrau II fled to Syria, and persuaded the Emperor Maurice (582–602) to send help. Many leading men and part of the troops acknowledged Khosrau II, and in 591 he was brought back to Ctesiphon. Bahram VI was defeated and he fled to the Turks of Central Asia, among whom he was murdered. Peace with Rome was then concluded. Maurice made no use of his advantage; he merely restored the former frontier and abolished the subsidies which had formerly been paid to the Persians. Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Events The Monophysites again reject the Council of Chalcedon, causing another schism. ... A solidus of Maurikios reign. ... Ctesiphon, 1932 Ctesiphon (Parthian and Pahlavi: Tyspwn as well as Tisfun, Persian: ‎, also known as in Arabic Madain, Maden or Al-Madain: المدائن) is one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia and the capital of the Parthian Empire and its successor, the Sassanid Empire, for more than 800 years...


Military Exploits and Early Victories

At the beginning of his reign, Khosrau II favoured the Christians; but when in 602 Maurice had been murdered by Phocas (602–610), he began war with Rome to avenge his death. His armies plundered Syria and Asia Minor, and in 608 advanced to Chalcedon. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Christianity. ... Events Phocas kills Byzantine Emperor Maurice I and makes himself emperor Beginning of a series of wars between the Byzantine Empire and the Sassanids Births Muawiyah, founder of the Umayyad Dynasty of caliphs (approximate date) Xuanzang, famous Chinese Buddhist monk. ... Phocas on a contemporary coin Flavius Phocas Augustus, Eastern Roman Emperor (reigned 602–610), is perhaps one of the most maligned figures to have held the Imperial title in the long history of Rome and Byzantium. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... Events September 15 - Boniface IV becomes pope. ... Chalcedon (Χαλκηδών, sometimes transliterated as Chalkedon; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient maritime town of Bithynia, in Asia Minor, almost directly opposite Byzantium, south of Scutari (modern Ãœsküdar). ...


In 613 and 614 Damascus and Jerusalem were taken by the general Shahrbaraz, and the True Cross was carried away in triumph. Soon after, General Shahin marched trough Anatolia and conquered Egypt in 618. The Romans could offer but little resistance, as they were torn by internal dissensions, and pressed by the Avars and Slavs. Events Clotaire II reunites the Frankish kingdoms by ordering the murder of Sigebert II. Saint Columbanus founds the monastery of Bobbio in northern Italy. ... Events The Persian Empire under general Shahrbaraz captures and sacks Jerusalem; the Church of the Holy Sepulchre is damaged by fire and the True Cross is captured. ... Damascus at sunset Damascus ( translit: Also commonly: الشام ash-Shām) is the largest city of Syria and is also the capital. ... Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim) (Standard) Yerushalayim or Yerushalaim Arabic commonly القـُدْس (Al-Quds); officially in Israel أورشليم القدس (Urshalim-Al-Quds) Name Meaning Hebrew: (see below), Arabic: The Holiness Government City District Jerusalem Population 724,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 123,000 dunams (123 km²) Jerusalem (Hebrew:  , Yerushaláyim or Yerushalaim; Arabic:  , al-Quds, the Holiness)[2... Shahrbaraz (died June 9, 630) was a general, with the rank of Eran Spahbod, in the Persian army under Khosrau II of Persia (590–628). ... According to Christian tradition, the True Cross is the cross upon which Jesus was crucified. ... Shahin (Persian شاهین, ŠāhÄ«n meaning Peregrine falcon), (died c. ... Events End of the Sui Dynasty and beginning of the Tang Dynasty in China. ... Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ...


Turn of Tides

Ultimately, in 622, the Emperor Heraclius (who had succeeded Phocas in 610 and ruled until 641) was able to take the field. In 624 he advanced into northern Media, where he destroyed the great fire-temple of Ganzhak (Gazaca); in 626 he fought in Lazistan (Colchis). In 626, Persian general Shahrbaraz advanced to Chalcedon and tried to capture Constantinople with the help of Persia's Avar allies. His attempt failed, and he withdrew his army from Anatolia later in 628. Events Hijra - Muhammad and his followers withdraw from Mecca to Medina - year one of the Islamic calendar. ... Heraclius and his sons Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas. ... Phocas on a contemporary coin Flavius Phocas Augustus, Eastern Roman Emperor (reigned 602–610), is perhaps one of the most maligned figures to have held the Imperial title in the long history of Rome and Byzantium. ... Events October 4 - Heraclius arrives by ship from Africa at Constantinople, overthrows Byzantine Emperor Phocas and becomes Emperor. ... Events Justus becomes Archbishop of Canterbury. ... Takht e Soleyman, or Takht e Soleiman, is the holiest shrine of Zoroastrism and Sassanid Empire, now a World Heritage Site near the town of Takab in West Azarbaijan, Iran. ... Events July 2 - In the early morning, Li Shimin, the future Emperor Tang Taizong of China, eliminated two of his brothers, Li Yuanji and the crown prince Li Jiancheng in a coup détat at the Xuanwu Gate in Changan. ... In ancient geography, Colchis (sometimes spelled also as Kolchis) (Greek: Κολχίς, kŏl´kĬs; Georgian: კოლხეთი, Kolkheti) was a nearly triangular district in Caucasus. ... Shahrbaraz (died June 9, 630) was a general, with the rank of Eran Spahbod, in the Persian army under Khosrau II of Persia (590–628). ... Chalcedon (Χαλκηδών, sometimes transliterated as Chalkedon; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient maritime town of Bithynia, in Asia Minor, almost directly opposite Byzantium, south of Scutari (modern Ãœsküdar). ... Map of Constantinople. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In 627 Heraclius defeated the Persian army at the Battle of Nineveh and advanced towards Ctesiphon. Khosrau II fled from his favourite residence, Dastgerd (near Baghdad), without offering resistance; some of the grandees freed his eldest son Kavadh II (he ruled briefly in 628), whom Khosrau II had imprisoned, and proclaimed King (night of 23-4 February, 628).[1] Four days afterwards, Khosrau II was murdered in his palace. Meanwhile, Heraclius returned in triumph to Constantinople; in 629 the Cross was given back to him and Egypt evacuated, while the Persian empire, from the apparent greatness which it had reached ten years ago, sank into hopeless anarchy. It was overtaken by the armies of the first Islamic Caliphs beginning in 634. Events April 11 - Paulinus, a Roman missionary, baptizes King Edwin of Deira December 12 - Battle of Nineveh: Byzantine Emperor Heraclius defeats the Persians Births Deaths November 10 - Justus, Archbishop of Canterbury Categories: 627 ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Sassanid Empire Commanders Heraclius Rhahzadh† Strength  ?  ? Casualties  ?  ? The Battle of Nineveh was the climactic battle of the last of the Roman-Persian Wars between the Byzantine Empire and the Sassanid Empire, in 627. ... Ctesiphon, 1932 Ctesiphon (Parthian and Pahlavi: Tyspwn as well as Tisfun, Persian: ‎, also known as in Arabic Madain, Maden or Al-Madain: المدائن) is one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia and the capital of the Parthian Empire and its successor, the Sassanid Empire, for more than 800 years... Baghdad (Arabic: ‎ ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Kavadh II (Siroes), King of Persia, son of Khosrau II (590–628), was raised to the throne in opposition to his father in February 628, after the great victories of the Emperor Heraclius (610–641). ... (Redirected from 23 February) February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events Jerusalem reconquered by Byzantine Empire from the Persian Empire (September). ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... For main article see: Caliphate Khalif is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, or global Islamic nation. ... Events The Arabs invade Palestine. ...


In reality, the Sassanid empire had been brought on the verge of anarchy and disintegration as a result of Khosrau II's ambitious wars. Destruction of tax system, irrigation systems in Mesopotamia, heavy tax burdens on peasants and merchants (to support the war with Byzantium), and a decade-long intrigue of courtiers, generals and Zoroastrian magi attempting to occupy the throne following Khosrau's murder, brought the empire to its knees. Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Letter of Prophet Mohammad to Khosrau II

Khosrau II (Arabic كسري) is also remembered in muslim tradition to be the Persian king to whom the Islamic prophet Muhammed had sent had sent a messenger, Abdullah ibn Hudhafah as-Sahmi together with a letter to preach the religion of Islam. In Tabari’s original Arabic manuscript the letter to Khosrau II reads: The Quran identifies a number of men as prophets of Islam. ... For other people named Muhammad, see Muhammad (disambiguation). ... Abdullah ibn Hudhafah as-Sahmi was a close Sahaba (companion) of the Prophet Muhammad. ... Balamis 14th century Persian version of Universal History by al-Tabari Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari 838–923 (father of Jafar, named Muhammad, son of Jarir from the province of Tabaristan, Arabic الطبري), was an author from Persia, one of the earliest, most prominent and famous Persian...

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
من محمد رسول الله الى كسرى عظيم الفارس . سلام على من اتبع الهدى و آمن بالله و رسوله و شهد ان لااله الا الله وحده لاشريك له و ان محمد عبده و رسوله. ادعوك بدعاء الله، فانى رسول الله الى الناس كافة لانذر من كان حيا و يحق القول على الكافرين. فاسلم تسلم . فان ابيت فان اثم المجوس عليك .

English translation:

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Ever Merciful
From Muhammad, Messenger of Allah, to Chosroes, Ruler of Persia (Iran). Peace be on him who follows the guidance, believes in Allah and His Messenger and bears witness that there is no one worthy of worship save Allah, the One, without associate, and that Muhammad is His Servant and Messenger. I invite you to the Call of Allah, as I am the Messenger of Allah to the whole of mankind, so that I may warn every living person and so that the truth may become clear and the judgment of God may overtake the infidels. I call upon you to accept Islam and thus make yourself secure. If you turn away, you will bear the sins of your Zoroastrian subjects. Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ...

Tabari continues that in refusal and outrage, Khosrau tore up Mohammed's letter and commanded Bazan (باذان), his vassal ruler of Yemen, to dispatch two valiant men to identify, seize and bring this man from Hijaz (Prophet Mohammed) to him. The narration carries on with trivial accounts of their encounter and dialogue with Mohammed and conversion of Bazan and the whole Yemenite Persians to Islam subsequent to receipt of shocking tidings of Khosrau’s murder by his own son, Kavadh II (شيرويه in Persian). [2]
In other chapters Tabari gives two more detailed accounts. One on how Islam had been presented in three consequent years to the Persian monarch (Khosrau II) by an angel of Allah while he had refused the whole time; and the other on how Khosrau II orders Persians thrice to construct a dam and iwan on Tigris river with untold toil and outlay with exact intervals of 8 months, only to see each one break once Khosrau himself embarked it to celebrate. [3] Balamis 14th century Persian version of Universal History by al-Tabari Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari 838–923 (father of Jafar, named Muhammad, son of Jarir from the province of Tabaristan, Arabic الطبري), was an author from Persia, one of the earliest, most prominent and famous Persian... Kavadh II (Siroes), King of Persia, son of Khosrau II (590–628), was raised to the throne in opposition to his father in February 628, after the great victories of the Emperor Heraclius (610–641). ... Balamis 14th century Persian version of Universal History by al-Tabari Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari 838–923 (father of Jafar, named Muhammad, son of Jarir from the province of Tabaristan, Arabic الطبري), was an author from Persia, one of the earliest, most prominent and famous Persian... An Iwan is a large, vaulted chamber with a monumental arched opening on one side. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ...


Some Criticism of Muslim Accounts

In the early twentieth century, Leone Caetani in his ten volume book, Annali dell' Islam that was based on previous researches conducted by German scholar, Hubert Grimme in Das Leben Muhammed, dismisses Mohammed having ever sent any envoys to rulers of neighboring kingdoms, much less having received any responses; he also refutes that whatever is told or written in this regard is merely a myth fabricated many years after demise of Prophet Mohammed by the Islamic Caliphate. Leone Caetani (1869-1935) was born into Italian family, a very prominent one. ... Annali dell Islam is a ten volume collection about Islam authored by Leone Caetani between 1904 and 1926. ... Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalifah, Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ...


In his work, Caetani alludes to a number of facts to prove his point of view:

  1. All the information from historical sources (Persian, Armenian, Georgian, Syriac, Egyptian, etc.) suggest that Sassanid court ceremonies have been the most intricate in the ancient world, and among the most elaborate of such formalities had been granting audience to individuals seeking to meet with the Sassanid Shahanshah. Ibn Khordadbeh in Kitāb al-Masālik w’al- Mamālik describes how each and every foreign envoy had to submit his message to the marzban of the bordering province (in this case: vassal kingdom of Al-Hirah) whose bureaucratic system would evaluate the contents of the message and the envoy’s purpose of audience with the monarch. The envoy was then allowed to proceed only if the message was considered pertinent for the court in Ctesiphon or if the said marzban would not be capable of resolving a much complicated diplomatic issue. In all other cases, the embassy was refused. Even second-class marzbans and spahbods were not exempted from such cumbersome formalities, not to mention an envoy arriving from a relatively obscure source to the Sassanid court; and even then during the royal audience one had to observe certain strict customs such as kissing the floor, covering one’s mouth by panam (Persian: پنام), conversing with particular etiquette and, carefully avoid approaching Shahanshah’s throne. [4]
  2. According to Nöldeke’s calculations in ‘’Aufsätze zur Persischen Geschichte’’, Khosrau was murdered on February 29, 628 AD by the order of his son, Kavadh II which corresponds to Shawal 17, 6 AH. As related by Ibn Sa’d, Tabari - and later muslim historians – the said letter had been presented to Khosrau’s attention by Abdullah ibn Hudhafah as-Sahmi either during the last weeks of 627 AD or the first weeks of 628 AD, whereas at the same time, the very same Sahaba had been assigned by Muhammed to parley with Quraish on the subject of Hudaybiyyah (حديبيه) peace treaty in Mecca. Naturally, he could not have been present both in Ctesiphon and Mecca simultaneously.
  3. As regards to Khosrau’s challenging dam project on Tigris, Caetani elaborates that the years 6 and 7 AH (627-628 AD) had been the most tumultuous periods of the Sassanid era: Heraclius is closing in on gates of Ctesiphon following his decisive victory at Nineveh; Khosrau II is about to be dethroned, incarcerated and murdered by his son; coffers are exhausted and the empire itself is on the brink of collapse. It would then be negligence towards historical facts to imagine an unstable monarch triply commencing the ambitious task of “untold toil and outlay” with a bankrupted treasury and lack of safety on the Tigris riverside. [5]
  4. Caetani also hints at the fact that none of the Persian historical chronicles recording the ending years of the Sassanid era - specifically khodaynamehs (Persian: خداينامه meaning “book of lords”) that later became sources of information for Ferdowsi and other scientists and historians such as Birouni, Tha’alebi, Masudi, Isfahani – do not mention such embassy, and whatever narrated in this context is exclusively limited to Arabic sources while Iranians have never been aware of this matter. Inasmuch as there is no reference to these letters in Latin, Greek, Armenian, Georgian and Syriac sources signifying that these letters for all non-Arabic sources are entirely unheard-of. [6]

Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... Darius the Great, the first to bear the title Shahanshah. ... Abul Qasim UbaidAllah ibn Khordadbeh (c. ... The Book of Roads and Kingdoms (Arabic: ‎, Kitāb al-Masālik w’al- Mamālik) is a 9th century geography text by ibn Khordadbeh. ... The word Marzban consists of two sections: Marz (border or boundary in Persian) and the suffix -ban (guardian in Persian). ... Al Hirah was an ancient city located south of al-Kufah in south-central Iraq. ... Ctesiphon, 1932 Ctesiphon (Parthian and Pahlavi: Tyspwn as well as Tisfun, Persian: ‎, also known as in Arabic Madain, Maden or Al-Madain: المدائن) is one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia and the capital of the Parthian Empire and its successor, the Sassanid Empire, for more than 800 years... The word Marzban consists of two sections: Marz (border or boundary in Persian) and the suffix -ban (guardian in Persian). ... Spahbod or Spahbed (Persian: سپهبد, in new Persian Sepahbod, is derived from the words Spah سپه army bod بد master ) also alternatively Spah Salar (سپهسالار) and was a rank used in the Parthian empire and more widely in the Sassanid Empire of Persia (Iran). ... Theodor Nöldeke (March 2, 1836 - 1930), German Semitic scholar, was born at Harburg, and studied at Göttingen, Vienna, Leiden and Berlin. ... Kavadh II (Siroes), King of Persia, son of Khosrau II (590–628), was raised to the throne in opposition to his father in February 628, after the great victories of the Emperor Heraclius (610–641). ... Abdullah ibn Hudhafah as-Sahmi was a close Sahaba (companion) of the Prophet Muhammad. ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... Banu Quraish was the dominant tribe of Mecca. ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Ctesiphon, 1932 Ctesiphon (Parthian and Pahlavi: Tyspwn as well as Tisfun, Persian: ‎, also known as in Arabic Madain, Maden or Al-Madain: المدائن) is one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia and the capital of the Parthian Empire and its successor, the Sassanid Empire, for more than 800 years... Combatants Byzantine Empire Sassanid Empire Commanders Heraclius Rhahzadh† Strength  ?  ? Casualties  ?  ? The Battle of Nineveh was the climactic battle of the last of the Roman-Persian Wars between the Byzantine Empire and the Sassanid Empire, in 627. ... Ferdowsi Tousi (فردوسی طوسی in Persian) (more commonly transliterated Firdausi, Ferdosi or Ferdusi) (935–1020) is considered to be one of the greatest Persian poets to have ever lived. ... A statue of Biruni adorns the southwest entrance of Laleh Park in Tehran, Iran. ... Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn al-Husayn Masudi (أبو الحسن ØŒ علي بن الحسين المسعودي) (?, Baghdad , Iraq - 956, Cairo,Egypt), was an Arab historian, geographer and philosopher. ...

In art

The battles between Heraclius and Khosrau are depicted in a famous early Renaissance fresco by Piero della Francesca, part of the History of the True Cross cycle in the church of San Francesco, Arezzo. The Baptism of Christ, 1450 (National Gallery, London). ... The Dream of Constantine, the first nocturnal scene in Western art (pre-restoration image). ... Façade of the church. ...


See also

  • Shirin Beloved wife of Khosrau
  • Non-Muslims Interactants with Muslims During Muhammad's Era

Shirin (? – 628) was the Christian wife of the Persian Shah, Khosrau II. In the revolution after the death of Khosraus father Hormizd IV, the General Bahram Chobin took power over the Persian empire. ... This is a list of the non-muslims that had contact with the Sahaba // list Meccans Uqba ibn Abi Mohit Abu Lahab ibn abd al-Muttalib Umm Jamil Hakam ibn Al-Aas Amr ibn Hisham aka Abu Jahl Musaylimah aka the Liar Walid ibn Mughira Khalids father Walid ibn Utba...

References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ According James Howard-Johnston in his notes to The Armenian History attributed to Sebeos (trans. R.W. Thomson; Liverpool: University Press, 1999), p. 221
  2. ^ Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, History of the Prophets and Kings (تاريخ الرسل و الملوك)
  3. ^ Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, History of the Prophets and Kings (تاريخ الرسل و الملوك)
  4. ^ For a comprehensive research about Sassanid court ceremonies and bureaucratic procedures, you may refer to Arthur Christensen’s “Sassanid Persia”
  5. ^ Leone Caetani, Annali dell' Islam, vol. 2, chapter 1, paragraph 45-46
  6. ^ Leone Caetani, Annali dell' Islam, vol. 4, p. 74
Preceded by
Hormizd IV
Sassanid Ruler
590628
Succeeded by
Bahram Chobin (590591), Kavadh II

  Results from FactBites:
 
Khosrau II - Search Results - MSN Encarta (210 words)
Khosrau II, also spelled Khosrow II, called Parvez (“the victorious”) (died 628), Persian king (590-628) of the Sassanid dynasty, the grandson of...
Khosrau II or Khosrow II (Chosroes II in classical sources, sometimes called Parvez, "the ever Victorious" – in Persian : خسرو پرویز) was the twenty-second Sassanid...
His rule preceded by his father's and succeeded by Khosrau II 's (590–628) who's reign altogether is considered the dark age in the history of the Sassanid empire.
Khosrau II of Persia (438 words)
Khosrau II, "the Victorious" (Parvez), king of Persia, son of Hormizd IV, grandson of Khosrau I, 590-628.
But at the same time the general Bahram Chobin[?] had proclaimed himself king, and Khosrau II was not able to maintain himself.
Khosrau II was much inferior to his grandfather.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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