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Encyclopedia > Khosrau I of Persia
A coin of Khosrau I
A coin of Khosrau I

Khosrau I, (Most commonly known as Anooshiravan also spelled Anushirvan, Persian: انوشيروان meaning the immortal soul), also known as Anooshiravan the Just (انوشیروان عادل, Anooshiravan-e-ādel) (ruled 531579), was the favourite son and successor of Kavadh I of Persia (488–531), and the most famous and celebrated of the Sassanid Kings. He laid foundations of many new cities and magnificent palaces, trade roads were repaired and new bridges and dams were built. During Khosrau I's ambitious reign art and science flourished in Persia and the Sassanid empire was in its peak of glory and prosperity. His rule preceded by his father's and succeeded by Khosrau II's (590–628) reign altogether is considered the Second golden era in the history of the Sassanid empire. Image File history File links Khusrau_i. ... Persian (known variously as: فارسی Fârsi, local name in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, پارسی Pârsi, older, local name still used by some speakers, Tajik, a Central Asian dialect, or Dari, another local name in Tajikistan and Afghanistan) is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia... Events End of the reign of Northern Wei Chang Guang Wang, ruler of the Chinese Northern Wei Dynasty. ... Events End of the Northern Qi Dynasty in China. ... Kavadh I also known as Qobad I (449–531), son of Peroz I of Persia (457–484), was a Sassanid King from 488 to 531. ... The Sassanid Empire in the time of Shapur I; the conquest of Cappadocia was temporary Official language Pahlavi (Middle Persian) Dominant Religion Zoroastrianism Capital Ctesiphon Sovereigns Shahanshah of the Iran (Eranshahr) First Ruler Ardashir I Last Ruler Yazdegerd III Establishment 224 AD Dissolution 651 AD Part of the History of... Khosrau II, the Victorious (Parvez), king of Persia, son of Hormizd IV, grandson of Khosrau I, 590 - 628. ...

Contents


Early life

Please improve this section according to the posted request for expansion.

According to one account, Khosrau I was Kavadh I's son through a peasant girl, and was originally considered unworthy of inheriting his father's throne. His brothers contested his claim, so Khosrau I had them killed. He had a major influence over his father Kavadh I of Persia and helped him in worst situations during his rule. He was also behind many of his father's decisions. Kavadh I also known as Qobad I (449–531), son of Peroz I of Persia (457–484), was a Sassanid King from 488 to 531. ...


Conquests

Silver bowl showing Khosrau I Anushirvan, of the righteous soul seated on his throne. This became a model representation of kingship for Byzantine art and from there, in Carolingian art.
Silver bowl showing Khosrau I Anushirvan, of the righteous soul seated on his throne. This became a model representation of kingship for Byzantine art and from there, in Carolingian art.

At the beginning of his reign Khosrau I concluded an "eternal" peace with the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I (527–565), who wanted to have his hands free for the conquest of Africa and Sicily. But his successes against the Vandals and Goths caused Khosrau I to begin the war again in 540. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (691x681, 77 KB) (c) http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (691x681, 77 KB) (c) http://www. ... The most famous of the surviving Byzantine mosaics of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople - the image of Christ on the walls of the upper southern gallery. ... The Carolingians (also known as the Carlovingians) were a dynasty of rulers that eventually controlled the Frankish realm and its successors from the 8th to the 10th century, officially taking over the kingdoms from the Merovingian dynasty in 751. ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... Justinian I depicted on one of the famous mosaics of the Basilica of San Vitale. ... Carthage and the Berbers Phoenician traders arrived on the North African coast around 900 BC and established Carthage (in present-day Tunisia) around 800 BC. By the sixth century BC, a Phoenician presence existed at Tipasa (east of Cherchell in Algeria). ... Sicilian disambiguates here; see also Sicilian language or Sicilian Defence. ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century and created a state in North Africa, centered on the city of Carthage. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche portrays the Goths as cavalrymen. ... Events Byzantine general Belisarius conquers Milan and the Ostrogoth capital Ravenna. ...


He invaded Syria and carried the inhabitants of Antioch to his residence, where he built for them a new city near Ctesiphon under the name of Khosrau-Antioch or Chosro-Antioch. During the next years he fought successfully in Lazica or Lazistan (the ancient Colchis), on the Black Sea, and in Mesopotamia. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Ctesiphon, 1932 Ctesiphon (Parthian: Tyspwn as well as Tisfun) is one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia and the capital of the Parthian Empire and its successor, the Sassanid Empire, for more than 800 years located in the ancient Iranian province of Khvarvaran. ... In ancient geography, Colchis (sometimes spelled also as Kolchis) (Greek: Κολχίς, kŏl´kĬs; Georgian: კოლხეთი, Kolkheti) was a nearly triangular district in Caucasus. ... Map of the Black Sea. ... Mesopotamia (Greek: Μεσοποταμία, translated from Old Persian Miyanrudan between rivers; Aramaic name being Beth Nahrain house of rivers) is a region of Southwest Asia. ...


The Byzantines, though led by Belisarius, could do little against him. In 545, an armistice was concluded, but in Lazica the war went on till 556. At last, in 562, a peace was concluded for fifty years, in which the Persians left Lazistan to the Romans, and promised not to persecute the Christians, if they did not attempt to make proselytes among the Zarathustrians; on the other hand, the Romans had again to pay subsidies to Persia. Belisarius, by Jacques-Louis David (1781); the depiction is now believed to be fictionalized. ... Events The Ostrogoths besiegeRome. ... Events End of the Western Wei Dynasty in China. ... For the area code 562 see Area Code 562 Events Nan Xiao Ming Di succeeds Nan Liang Xuan Di as ruler of the Chinese Nan Liang Dynasty. ... Christianity is a monotheistic religion centered on the life, teachings, and actions of Jesus of Nazareth, known by Christians as Jesus Christ, as recounted in the New Testament. ... Zoroaster, in a popular Parsi Zoroastrian depiction. ... The term Persian Empire refers to a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau. ...


Meanwhile in the east, the Hephthalites had been attacked by the Turks (Gokturks). Khosrau I united with them and conquered Bactria, while he left the country north of the Oxus to the Turks. Many other rebellious tribes were subjected. About 570 the dynasts of Yemen, who had been subdued by the Ethiopians of Axum, applied to Khosrau I for help. The King sent a fleet with a small army under Vahriz, who expelled the Ethiopians. From that time till the conquests of Muhammad, Yemen was dependent on Persia, and a Persian governor resided here. In 571 a new war with Rome broke out about Armenia, in which Khosrau I conquered the fortress Dara on the Euphrates, invaded Syria and Cappadocia, and returned with large booty. During the negotiations with the Emperor Tiberius II (578–582), Khosrau I died in 579, and was succeeded by his son Hormizd IV of Persia (579–590). The Hephthalites, also known as White Huns, were a nomadic people who lived across northern China, Central Asia, and northern India in the fourth through sixth centuries. ... The Göktürks or Kök-Türks known as Tujue (突厥 tu2 jue2) in medieval Chinese sources, established the first known Turkic state around 552, after the Huns, under the leadership of Bumin/Tuman Khan/Khaghan (d. ... Bactria (Bactriana) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra (now Balkh), was located in what is now northern Afghanistan, southern Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan. ... The Amu Darya (in Persian آمودریا; Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ... Events First mention of the Spear of Destiny (approximate date). ... Axum, properly Aksum, is a city in Tigray, northern Ethiopia, located at 14°07. ... Vahriz was head of the small expedition army sent by Khosrau I to Yemen to help them against the invading Ethiopians of Axum. ... For other people named Muhammad, see Muhammad (disambiguation). ... Events The Monophysites again reject the Council of Chalcedon, causing another schism. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Left-Wing Democrats) Area  - City Proper  1285 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,553,873 almost 4,300,000 1. ... Dara (fortress, compare Dura-Europos) was a Byzantine fort in Syria. ... The Euphrates (the traditional Greek name for the river, Arabic: الفرات; Al-Furat, Old Persian: Ufrat, Syriac: ܦܪܘܬ/ܦܪܬ; Prâth/Frot, Turkish: Fırat, Assyrian Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu, Hebrew: פְּרָת) River is the westernmost of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (Beth Nahrain in Syriac), the other being the Tigris. ... Cappadocia in 188 BC In ancient geography, Cappadocia (spelled Kapadokya in Turkish) (Greek: Καππαδοκία; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was an extensive inland district of Asia Minor (modern Turkey). ... Tiberius II Constantine, wearing consular robes. ... Events End of the Northern Qi Dynasty in China. ... Hormizd IV, son of Khosrau I of Persia (531–579), reigned as King of Persia from 579 to 590. ...


Religious tolerance

Please improve this section according to the posted request for expansion.

Although Khosrau I had in the last years of his father extirpated the heretical and communistic Persian sect of the Mazdakites (see Kavadh I of Persia), he was a sincere adherent of Zoroastrian orthodoxy and even ordered that the religion's holy text, the Avesta be codified, but he was not fanatical or prone to persecution. He tolerated every Christian confession. When one of his sons had rebelled about 550 and was taken prisoner, he did not execute him; nor did he punish the Christians who had supported him. Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the Catholic or Orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ... Communism - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... Mazdak was a proto-socialist Persian philosopher who gained influence under the reign of the Sassanian king Kavadh I. He was hanged and his followers were massacred by Khosrau I, Kavadhs son. ... Kavadh I also known as Qobad I (449–531), son of Peroz I of Persia (457–484), was a Sassanid King from 488 to 531. ... Zoroaster, in a popular Parsi Zoroastrian depiction. ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... Events End of the Eastern Wei Dynasty and beginning of the Northern Qi Dynasty in northern China. ...


When Justinian I closed the Academy of Athens in 529, the last seat of paganism in the Roman Empire, the last seven teachers of Neoplatonism emigrated to Persia. But they soon found out that neither Khosrau I nor his state corresponded to the Platonic ideal, and Khosrau I, in his treaty with Justinian I, stipulated that they should return unmolested. An academy is an institution for the study of higher learning. ... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα Athína IPA ) is the capital of Greece and one of the most famous cities in the world. ... For other uses, see number 529. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is a school of philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century A.D. Based on the teachings of Plato and the Platonists, it contained enough unique interpretations of Plato that some view Neoplatonism as substantively different from what Plato wrote and believed. ... Plato Plato (Greek: Πλάτων, Plátōn) (c. ...


Reforms

Khosrau I introduced a rational system of taxation, based upon a survey of landed possessions, which his father had begun, and tried in every way to increase the welfare and the revenues of his empire. In Babylonia he built or restored the canals. His army was in discipline decidedly superior to the Romans, and apparently was well paid. He was also interested in literature and philosophical discussions. Under his reign, chess was introduced from India, and the famous book of Kalilah and Dimnah was translated. He thus became renowned as a wise prince. Landed property or landed estates is a real estate term that usually refers to a property that generates income for the owner without himself having to do the actual work at the estate. ... Babylonia, named for the city of Babylon, was an ancient state in Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... The Canal du Midi in Toulouse, France. ... Literature is literally acquaintance with letters as in the first sense given in the Oxford English Dictionary (from the Latin littera meaning an individual written character (letter)). The term has generally come to identify a collection of texts, which in Western culture are mainly prose, both fiction and non-fiction... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from an article revision dated 2006-03-08, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ...


Under Khosrau I's auspices, many books were brought from India and translated into Pahlavi. Some of these later found their way into the literature of the Islamic world. His famous minister Burzoe translated indian Panchatantra from Sanscrit into middle persian language of Pahlavi and named it Kelileh va Demneh which later on from its Persian version it transmitted to Arabia and Europe. The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... The Islamic world is the world-wide community of those who identify with Islam, known as Muslims, and who number approximately one-and-a-half billion people. ... Burzoe (Bozorgmehr or Borzoyeh) is a famous Iranian man of learning and politician who lived and worked in the Sassanid Empire of Persia in the sixth century. ... The Panchatantra (also spelled Pañcatantra, Sanskrit पञ्चतन्त्र Five Chapters , Kelileh va Demneh or Kalilag and Damnag in Persian) is a collection of Sanskrit fables in prose and verse. ... ... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... The Panchatantra (also spelled Pañcatantra, Sanskrit पञ्चतन्त्र Five Chapters , Kelileh va Demneh or Kalilag and Damnag in Persian) is a collection of Sanskrit fables in prose and verse. ...


See also

Burzoe (Bozorgmehr or Borzoyeh) is a famous Iranian man of learning and politician who lived and worked in the Sassanid Empire of Persia in the sixth century. ... Persian classical music dates to the sixth century B.C. During the time of the Achaemenid Empire (550-331 B.C.), music played an important role in prayer and in royal and national events. ... The Academy of Gundishapur (also Jondishapoor, Jondishapur, and Jondishapour, Gondeshapur, GONDÊ SHÂPÛR, etc. ...

References

  • Dr. Abd al-Husayn Zarrin’kub "Ruzgaran : tarikh-i Iran az aghz ta saqut saltnat Pahlvi" Sukhan, 1999. ISBN 964-6961-11-8
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication in the public domain.
Preceded by:
Kavadh I
Sassanid Ruler
531579
Succeeded by:
Hormizd IV

  Results from FactBites:
 
Kids.Net.Au - Encyclopedia > Khosrau I of Persia (640 words)
Khosrau I, "the Blessed" (Anushirvan), (531-579) was the favourite son and successor of Kavadh I, and the most famous of the Sassanid kings.
Khosrau united with them and conquered Bactria, while he left the country north of the Oxus to the Turks.
During the negotiations with the emperor Tiberius, Khosrau died in 579, and was succeeded by his son Hormizd IV.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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