FACTOID # 8: Bookworms: Vermont has the highest number of high school teachers per capita and third highest number of librarians per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Khosrau I
A coin of Khosrau I.
A coin of Khosrau I.

Khosrau I, (Chosroes I in classical sources, most commonly known in Persian as Anooshiravan also spelled Anushirvan, Persian: انوشيروان meaning the immortal soul), also known as Anooshiravan the Just (انوشیروان عادل, Anooshiravan-e-ādel) (ruled 531579), was the favourite son and successor of Kavadh I (488–531), and the most famous and celebrated of the Sassanid Kings. He laid foundations of many new cities and magnificent palaces, trade roads were repaired and new bridges and dams were built. During Khosrau I's ambitious reign art and science flourished in Persia and the Sassanid empire was in its peak of glory and prosperity. His rule preceded by his father's and succeeded by Khosrau II's (590–628) reign altogether is considered the Second golden era in the history of the Sassanid empire. Image File history File links Khusrau_i. ... Persian is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Events End of the reign of Northern Wei Chang Guang Wang, ruler of the Chinese Northern Wei Dynasty. ... Events End of the Northern Qi Dynasty in China. ... Kavadh I (449–531), son of Peroz I (457–484), was a Sassanid King from 488 to 531. ... The Sassanid Empire in the time of Shapur I; the conquest of Cappadocia was temporary Official language Pahlavi (Middle Persian) Dominant Religion Zoroastrianism Capital Ctesiphon Sovereigns Shahanshah of the Iran (Eranshahr) First Ruler Ardashir I Last Ruler Yazdegerd III Establishment 224 AD Dissolution 651 AD Part of the History of... Khosrau II, the Victorious (Parvez), king of Persia, son of Hormizd IV, grandson of Khosrau I, 590 - 628. ...

Contents


Early life

According to one account, Khosrau I was Kavadh I's son through a peasant girl, and was originally considered unworthy of inheriting his father's throne. His brothers contested his claim, so Khosrau I had them killed (ca. 532). He appears to have had a major influence over his father Kavadh I of Persia and helped him in the worst situations during the later years of his rule. He was apparently also behind many of his father's decisions. Kavadh I also known as Qobad I (449–531), son of Peroz I of Persia (457–484), was a Sassanid King from 488 to 531. ...


According to the Roman Historian Procopius of Caesarea, Kavadh I tried to have his third son Khosrau adopted by the Eastern Roman emperor Justin I. in the mid-520s. This is the first time that Khosrau is mentioned in the sources. After Romans and Persians had failed to reach an agreement about the adoption, a new war began in 526 which was to last until 532. The writings of Procopius of Caesarea (500 ? - 565 ?), in Palestine, are the primary source of information for the rule of the emperor Justinian. ...


Conquests

Hunting scene showing king Khosrau I.
Hunting scene showing king Khosrau I.

At the beginning of his reign Khosrau I concluded an "eternal" peace with the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I (527–565), who wanted to have his hands free for the conquest of Africa and Sicily. But his successes against the Vandals and Goths caused Khosrau I to begin the war again in 540. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1176, 882 KB) Summary Hunting scene depicting King Chosroes. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1176, 882 KB) Summary Hunting scene depicting King Chosroes. ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... Justinian I depicted on one of the famous mosaics of the Basilica of San Vitale. ... Carthage and the Berbers Phoenician traders arrived on the North African coast around 900 BC and established Carthage (in present-day Tunisia) around 800 BC. By the sixth century BC, a Phoenician presence existed at Tipasa (east of Cherchell in Algeria). ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian, Σικελία in Greek) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,700 sq. ... The Vandals sacking Rome, by Heinrich Leutemann (1824-1904) Vandal and Vandali redirect here. ... Invasion of the Goths: a late 19th century painting by O. Fritsche portrays the Goths as cavalrymen. ... Events Byzantine general Belisarius conquers Milan and the Ostrogoth capital Ravenna. ...


He invaded Syria and carried the inhabitants of Antioch to his residence, where he built for them a new city near Ctesiphon under the name of Khosrau-Antioch or Chosro-Antioch. During the next years he fought successfully in Lazica or Lazistan (the ancient Colchis) in the Lazic War, on the Black Sea, and in Mesopotamia. Antioch on the Orontes (Greek: Αντιόχεια η επί Δάφνη, Αντιόχεια ή επί Ορόντου or Αντιόχεια η Μεγάλη; Latin: Antiochia ad Orontem, also Antiochia dei Siri), the Great Antioch or Syrian Antioch was an ancient city located on the eastern side (left bank) of the Orontes River about 30 km from the sea and its port, Seleucia of Pieria (Suedia, now Samanda... Ctesiphon, 1932 Ctesiphon (Parthian: Tyspwn as well as Tisfun) is one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia and the capital of the Parthian Empire and its successor, the Sassanid Empire, for more than 800 years located in the ancient Iranian province of Khvarvaran. ... In ancient geography, Colchis (sometimes spelled also as Kolchis) (Greek: Κολχίς, kŏl´kĬs; Georgian: კოლხეთი, Kolkheti) was a nearly triangular district in Caucasus. ... The Lazic War, or Egrisi Great War as it is known in Georgian historiography, refers to the twenty-year war between Byzantium and Iran Sassanid Empire for controlling the western Georgian Kingdom of Egrisi/ Lazica in 542-562. ... Map of the Black Sea. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The Byzantines, though led by Belisarius, could do little against him. In 545, an armistice was concluded, but the Lazic War went on till 557. At last, in 562, a peace was concluded for fifty years, in which the Persians left Lazica to the Romans, and promised not to persecute the Christians, if they did not attempt to make proselytes among the Zarathustrians; on the other hand, the Romans had again to pay subsidies to Persia. Belisarius, to the right of Emperor Justinian I, in the mosaic in Ravenna that celebrates the reconquest of Italy, performed by the Byzantine army under the skilful leadership of Belisarius himself. ... Events The Ostrogoths besiegeRome. ... Events Beginning of the Northern Zhou Dynasty in northern China. ... For the area code 562 see Area Code 562 Events Nan Xiao Ming Di succeeds Nan Liang Xuan Di as ruler of the Chinese Nan Liang Dynasty. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centred on Jesus of Nazareth, and on his life and teachings as presented in the New Testament. ... Zoroaster, in a popular Parsi Zoroastrian depiction. ...


Meanwhile in the east, the Hephthalites had been attacked by the Turks (Gokturks). About 565, Khosrau I united with them and in 567 conquered Bactria, while he left the country north of the Oxus to the Turks. Many other rebellious tribes were subjected. About 570 the dynasts of Yemen, who had been subdued by the Ethiopians of Axum, applied to Khosrau I for help. The King sent a fleet with a small army under Vahriz, who expelled the Ethiopians. From that time till the conquests of Muhammad, Yemen was dependent on Persia, and a Persian governor resided here. In 571 a new war with Rome broke out about Armenia, in which Khosrau I conquered the fortress Dara on the Euphrates, invaded Syria and Cappadocia, and returned with large booty. During the negotiations with the Emperor Tiberius II (578–582), Khosrau I died in 579, and was succeeded by his son Hormizd IV (579–590). The Hephthalites, also known as White Huns, were a nomadic people who lived across northern China, Central Asia, and northern India in the fourth through sixth centuries. ... The Göktürks or Kök-Türks known as Tujue (突厥 tu2 jue2) in medieval Chinese sources, established the first known Turkic state around 552, after the Huns, under the leadership of Bumin/Tuman Khan/Khaghan (d. ... It has been suggested that Ta-Hsia be merged into this article or section. ... The Amu Darya (in Persian آمودریا; Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ... Events First mention of the Spear of Destiny (approximate date). ... King Ezanas Stele in Axum. ... Vahriz was head of the small expedition army sent by Khosrau I to Yemen to help them against the invading Ethiopians of Axum. ... For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (disambiguation). ... Events The Monophysites again reject the Council of Chalcedon, causing another schism. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Location within Province of Rome in the Region of Latium Coordinates: Region Latium Porvince Province of Rome Mayor of Rome Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1,285 km²  (496. ... Location the governorate of Dara within Syria Dara (fortress, compare Dura-Europos) (Arabic: درعا) is a city in southwestern Syria, near the border with Jordan. ... The Euphrates (the traditional Greek name, Arabic: الفرات; Al-Furat, Hebrew: פְּרָת Perath, Kurdish: Firat, Turkish: Fırat, Old Persian: Ufrat, Syriac: ܦܪܘܬ or ܦܪܬ; Frot or Prâth, Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu) is the westernmost of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (the other being the Tigris). ... Cappadocia in 188 BC In ancient geography, Cappadocia (Greek: Καππαδοκία; see also List of traditional Greek place names; Turkish Kapadokya) was an extensive inland district of Asia Minor (modern Turkey). ... Tiberius II Constantine, wearing consular robes. ... Events End of the Northern Qi Dynasty in China. ... Hormizd IV, son of Khosrau I, reigned as king of Persia from 578 to 590. ...


Religious tolerance

Silver bowl showing Khosrau I Anushirvan, of the righteous soul seated on his throne. This became a model representation of kingship for Byzantine art and from there, in Carolingian art.
Silver bowl showing Khosrau I Anushirvan, of the righteous soul seated on his throne. This became a model representation of kingship for Byzantine art and from there, in Carolingian art.

Although Khosrau I had in the last years of his father extirpated the heretical and communistic Persian sect of the Mazdakites (see Kavadh I of Persia), he was a sincere adherent of Zoroastrian orthodoxy and even ordered that the religion's holy text, the Avesta be codified, but he was not fanatical or prone to persecution. He tolerated every Christian confession. When one of his sons had rebelled about 550 and was taken prisoner, he did not execute him; nor did he punish the Christians who had supported him. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (691x681, 77 KB) (c) http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (691x681, 77 KB) (c) http://www. ... The most famous of the surviving Byzantine mosaics of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople - the image of Christ on the walls of the upper southern gallery. ... Also see: France in the Middle Ages. ... Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the Catholic or Orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Mazdak was a proto-socialist Persian philosopher who gained influence under the reign of the Sassanian king Kavadh I. He was hanged and his followers were massacred by Khosrau I, Kavadhs son. ... Kavadh I also known as Qobad I (449–531), son of Peroz I of Persia (457–484), was a Sassanid King from 488 to 531. ... Zoroaster, in a popular Parsi Zoroastrian depiction. ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... Events By Place Byzantine Empire Silk reaches Constantinople (approximate date). ...


When Justinian I closed the Academy of Athens in 529, the last seat of paganism in the Roman Empire, the last seven teachers of Neoplatonism emigrated to Persia. But they soon found out that neither Khosrau I nor his state corresponded to the Platonic ideal, and Khosrau I, in his treaty with Justinian I, stipulated that they should return unmolested. Raphaels portrait of Plato, a detail of The School of Athens fresco An an institution for the study of (usually) higher learning. ... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα, Athína IPA: ) is the capital and largest city of Greece, and the birthplace of democracy. ... For other uses, see number 529. ... The Roman Empire was a phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by an autocratic form of government. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is a school of philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century A.D. Based on the teachings of Plato and the Platonists, it contained enough unique interpretations of Plato that some view Neoplatonism as substantively different from what Plato wrote and believed. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ...


Reforms

Khosrau I introduced a rational system of taxation, based upon a survey of landed possessions, which his father had begun, and tried in every way to increase the welfare and the revenues of his empire. In Babylonia he built or restored the canals. His army was in discipline decidedly superior to the Romans, and apparently was well paid. He was also interested in literature and philosophical discussions. Under his reign, chess was introduced from India, and the famous book of Kalilah and Dimnah was translated. He thus became renowned as a wise prince. Landed property or landed estates is a real estate term that usually refers to a property that generates income for the owner without himself having to do the actual work at the estate. ... Babylonia, named for its capital city, Babylon, was an ancient state in the south part of Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... The Canal du Midi in Toulouse, France. ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from an article revision dated 2006-09-26, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ...


Under Khosrau I's auspices, many books were brought from India and translated into Pahlavi. Some of these later found their way into the literature of the Islamic world. His famous minister Burzoe translated Indian Panchatantra from Sanskrit into middle persian language of Pahlavi and named it Kelileh va Demneh which later on from its Persian version it transmitted to Arabia and Europe. The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... The Islamic world is the world-wide community of those who identify with Islam, known as Muslims, and who number approximately one-and-a-half billion people. ... Burzoe (Bozorgmehr or Borzoyeh) is a famous Iranian man of learning and politician who lived and worked in the Sassanid Empire of Persia in the sixth century. ... The Panchatantra[1] (also spelled Pañcatantra, Sanskrit पञ्चतन्त्र Five Chapters) or Kelileh va Dimneh or Anvar-i-Suhayli [2][3] or The Lights of Canopus (in Persian) [4] or Kalilag and Damnag (in Syriac)[5] or Kalila and Dimna (also Kalilah and Dimnah, in Arabic)[6] or The Fables of... The Sanskrit language ( , ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 22 official languages of India. ... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... The Panchatantra[1] (also spelled Pañcatantra, Sanskrit पञ्चतन्त्र Five Chapters) or Kelileh va Dimneh or Anvar-i-Suhayli [2][3] or The Lights of Canopus (in Persian) [4] or Kalilag and Damnag (in Syriac)[5] or Kalila and Dimna (also Kalilah and Dimnah, in Arabic)[6] or The Fables of...


See also

Burzoe (Bozorgmehr or Borzoyeh) is a famous Iranian man of learning and politician who lived and worked in the Sassanid Empire of Persia in the sixth century. ... Persian classical music dates to the sixth century B.C. During the time of the Achaemenid Empire (550-331 B.C.), music played an important role in prayer and in royal and national events. ... The Academy of Gundishapur (also Jondishapoor, Jondishapur, and Jondishapour, Gondeshapur, GONDÊ SHÂPÛR, etc. ...

References

  • Abd al-Husayn Zarrin’kub: Ruzgaran : tarikh-i Iran az aghz ta saqut saltnat Pahlvi Sukhan, 1999. ISBN 964-6961-11-8
  • Henning Börm: Der Perserkönig im Imperium Romanum. Chosroes I. und der sasanidische Einfall in das Oströmische Reich 540 n. Chr. In: Chiron 36 (2006).
  • John Martindale: The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire IIIa. Cambridge 1992, p. 303–306.
  • Zeev Rubin: The Reforms of Khusro Anurshiwan. In: Averil Cameron (Hrsg.): The Byzantine and early Islamic Near East. Bd. 3, Princeton 1995, p. 227–298.
  • Klaus Schippmann: Grundzüge der Geschichte des sasanidischen Reiches. Darmstadt 1990.
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External links

  • Khosrau In Iran Science Island(In Persian)
  • The Reforms of Khosrow Anushirvan
Preceded by:
Kavadh I
Sassanid Ruler
531579
Succeeded by:
Hormizd IV

  Results from FactBites:
 
Khosrau I - Picture - MSN Encarta (48 words)
Considered one of Persia’s greatest rulers, Khosrau I is depicted in the center of this contemporary decorative plate.
In 531 he began a series of battles with the Byzantine Empire that led to the expansion of Persia’s borders.
Khosrau also streamlined government administration and reformed the tax system.
Khosrau I of Persia - Academic Kids (618 words)
Khosrau I, "the Blessed" (Anushirvan), (531 - 579) was the favourite son and successor of Kavadh I, and the most famous of the Sassanid kings.
Khosrau united with them and conquered Bactria, while he left the country north of the Oxus to the Turks.
During the negotiations with the emperor Tiberius, Khosrau died in 579, and was succeeded by his son Hormizd IV.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m