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Encyclopedia > Khorramshahr

Khorramshahr (Persian: خرمشهر) is a port city in Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. It is approximately ten kilometres north of Abadan. The city extends to the right bank of the Shatt al-Arab near its confluence with the Karun river. It has been suggested that Scripts used for Persian be merged into this article or section. ... Seaport, a painting by Claude Lorrain, 1638 The Port of Wellington at night. ... Map showing Khuzestan in Iran Domes like this are quite common in Khuzestan province. ... Arvand river between Abadan (left) and khorramshahr (right). ... The Shatt al-Arab (Arabic: شط العرب, Stream of the Arabs) or Arvand (called اروندرود: arvandrÅ«d in Persian), also called the Shatt-al-Arab waterway, is a river in Southwest Asia of some 200 km in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in the town of al... Karun River passing the Iranian city of Ahvaz The Karun (also Karoun) is Irans most effluent, and the only navigable, river. ...


The estimates for the population vary widely between 338,922 (2006, [1]) and 624,321 (2005, [2]).

Contents

History

In ancient times it had been known as Piyan, and later Bayan. The modern city was founded in (1812) AD by Sheikh Yusuf bin Mardo, when steam navigation began on the Karun. For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... Look up AD, ad-, and ad in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Sheikhdom

In the early eighteenth century Mohammerah (محمرة which means "reddened" in Arabic) became a Sheikhdom. In 1925, Reza Shah changed its Arabic name to the Persian name Khorramshahr. Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Etymologically an emirate or amirate (Arabic: إمارة Imarah, plural: إمارات Imarat) is the quality, dignity, office or territorial competence of any Emir (prince, governor etc. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Reza Shah, also Reza Shah the Great, Reza Shah Pahlavi and Reza Pahlavi (Persian: , Rez̤ā PahlavÄ«), (March 16, 1878 – July 26, 1944), was Shah of Iran[1] from December 15, 1925 until he was forced to abdicate after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran in September 16, 1941 by British...


The first Sheikh was Ali Mardan of the Muhaisin clan of the Bani Kaab Arab tribe. Succeeding Sheikhs were: The Bani Kaab are an Arab tribal group of Kuwaiti origin which settled in western Khuzestan, a province in southwestern Iran, during the 16th century CE. Categories: Ethnic group stubs | Arab groups ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ...

// Invention of the Jacquard loom in 1801. ... 1819 common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Sheikh Jabir al-Kaabi (?-1897?) was the leader of the Bani Kaab Arab tribe during the 19th century. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Sheikh Mazal (?-1897) was the son of Sheikh Jabir al-Kaabi and took over as tribal leader of the Bani Kaab upon his fathers death. ... Sheikh Khazal Khan, of royal Kuwaiti lineage, was the self-appointed ruler of a virtually autonomous Arab region (which came to be known as the emirate of Arabistan or Al-Ahwaz under his reign) which he established in the Khuzestan province of Iran from 1897-1925. ... The Nishan-e-Aqdas (Imperial Order or Most Sacred Order of the Aqdas) was an Imperial Iranian Order founded in 1870 by the Qajar Shah of Iran Nassereddin. ...

The Iran-Iraq War

During the Iran-Iraq War it was extensively ravaged by Iraqi forces as a result of Saddam Hussein's scorched earth policy. Prior to the war, Khorramshahr had grown extensively to become one of the world's major port cities, and home to some of the most exclusive neighborhoods in Iran. The population was predominantly wealthy and upper class, and along with Abadan, the prevalent culture was that of modern Iranian cosmopolitanism. Combatants  Iran Iraq Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani Ali Shamkhani Mostafa Chamran â€  Saddam Hussein Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength 305,000 soldiers 500,000 Pasdaran and Basij militia 900 tanks 1,000 armored vehicles 3,000 artillery pieces 470 aircraft 750 helicopters[1] 190,000 soldiers 5,000 tanks... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... A scorched earth policy is a military tactic which involves destroying anything that might be useful to the enemy while advancing through or withdrawing from an area. ... Cosmopolitanism is the idea that all of humanity belongs to a single moral community. ...


As the Iraqis drew near at the beginning of the war, the Iranian Army evacuated much of the city. In the defense of Khorramshahr, the Iranians prepared a series of dykes on the outskirts of the city, the first dyke holding regular soldiers and the second dyke holding tanks, artillery, and anti-tank weapons. Personnel wise, the Iranian Regular Army was responsible for the city’s external defenses and the Pasdaran were responsible for the center. // Introduction The Iranian Army is the national army of Iran and called the Artesh. ... Pasdaran str. ...


The Iraqi objectives were to occupy the city outskirts, the Dej Barracks in the north, and the port in the south. In the first days of the fighting, beginning on September 30th, the Iraqis cleared the dykes and captured the area around the city, cutting it off from both Abadan and the rest of the Khuzestan province. The first two attempts to enter the city, launched by an armored division and Special Forces, were met with heavy losses for the Iraqi forces. In response, the Iraqis planned on sending in additional commando units with armor providing backup. Iraqi Special Forces and Commando units took the port whilst Iraqi armored brigades took Dej, both before moving into the suburbs. Special Forces (SF) or Special Operations Forces (SOF) are highly-trained military units that conduct specialized operations such as reconnaissance, unconventional warfare, and counter-terrorism actions. ...


It was in the suburbs that the Iraqi attack stalled when they encountered Iranian Pasdaran and Chieftain tanks. Local counterattacks by tank-infantry teams turned back the Iraqi forces at several points. The sheer weight of the Iraqi tank force settled the issue in their favor, but when Iranian armor was encountered on the defense, it stopped attacks cold. Only repeated combined arms assaults broke the ability of the Chieftains to dominate the open areas within the suburban battle space. The FV 4201 Chieftain was the Main battle tank of the United Kingdom during the 1960s and 1970s. ...


As the fighting moved toward the city center, armor operations were reduced to a supporting role, since the tanks couldn’t fire as effectively through the tight and narrow streets. The Iraqis tended to attack at night to advance troops and gain surprise, and place observation points on tall buildings. The Iranians would often move in snipers at night, which also bogged the battle down for the invading Iraqis. Due to the fanaticism of Pasdaran and Basij, battles were often fought house-to-house, floor-to-floor, and room-to-room. Reports indicate that Iraqis would at times encounter Pasdaran who were armed with anything from assault rifles all the way down to sticks and knives. Basij (also Bassij or Baseej, Persian: ‎), is an Islamic Republic paramilitary force that was founded by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini in November of 1979 to provide volunteers for human wave attacks in the Iran-Iraq War. ...

An Iranian woman in front of a mosque during Iraqi invasion to Khorramshahr in September-October 1981.

The final objectives towards the end of the battle were the Government building where the Iranian headquarters was located, as well as the nearby bridge connecting the road from Khorramshahr to Abadan. Fighting for possession of the bridge took 48 hours. The last Iraqi attack started at dawn on 24 October and lasted five hours. The city was cleared by 26 October. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 438 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (585 × 800 pixel, file size: 85 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) An Iranian woman in front of a mosque during Iraqi invasion to Khorramshahr in September-October 1981 This photo is copied from sajed. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 438 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (585 × 800 pixel, file size: 85 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) An Iranian woman in front of a mosque during Iraqi invasion to Khorramshahr in September-October 1981 This photo is copied from sajed. ...


The city practically became a ghost town afterward with the exception of the Iraqi army occupants. During the occupation, soldiers looted goods from the Iranian ports and had them transferred to Basra. According to other claims, soldiers raped several Iranian women in the city as well. Due to both the strategically high loss of men and the harsh weather following the battle, the Iraqis were unable to conduct any further offensives against Iran. This article is about the city of Basra. ...


The city remained in Iraqi hands until April of 1982, when the Iranians launched Operation Jerusalem to recapture the Khuzestan province. The first attack (April 24 to May 12) consisted of 70,000 Pasdaran and succeeded in pushing the Iraqis out of the Ahvaz-Susangerd area. The Iraqis withdrew back to Khorramshahr and, on May 20th, launched a counter attack against the Iranians, which was repulsed. The Iranians then launched an all out assault on Khorramshahr, capturing two of the defense lines in the Pol-e No and Shalamcheh region. The Iranians gathered around the Arvand river, surrounding the city and, thus, beginning the second siege. The Iranians finally recaptured the city on May 24th after two days of bitter fighting, capturing 19,000 soldiers from a demoralized Iraqi Army after the fighting was over. Over 2,000 of these prisoners were executed to retaliate for the rape of several Iranian women in the city at the beginning of the war.[citation needed] As a result, the Iraqis now know May 24th as “Martyr’s Day”, although the Iranians celebrate this day as the Liberation of Khorramshahr. Combatants  Iraq  Iran Commanders Unknown Unknown Strength Unknown 70,000 Pasdaran fighters Casualties 12,000 Iraqi prisoners. ... Combatants  Iraq  Iran Strength 70,000 70,000 Casualties 6,000 dead, 19,000 captured, 2,000 executed dead:Unknown but estimated higher than Iraq The Liberation of Khorramshahr is celebrated in Iran on its anniversary, May 24. ...


By the end of the war, Khorramshahr had been completely decimated by Saddam Hussein's forces, with very few buildings left intact. Other major urban centres such as Abadan and Ahvaz were also left in ruins, though nowhere nearly as bad as Khorramshahr. The city of Khorramshahr was one of the primary and most important frontlines of the war and has thus achieved mythic status amongst the Iranian population. Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... The city of Ahvaz or Ahwaz[1] (Persian: ahvāz, Arabic: ), is the capital of the Iranian province of Khūzestān. ...


Economy

The economy of Khorramshahr is still largely affected by the destruction and depopulation of the city's residents in the 1980's during the first years of the Iraqi-imposed war on Iran. The main activities are, however, essentially the same as before the war, petroleum production and exports and imports through the city port, though on a much smaller scale as restoration is not yet totally complete, even though over seventeen years have past since the end of the war. Residents originally from Khorramshahr have also slowly been returning to the city, rebuilding their houses and businesses. Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ...


Bibliography

  1. Khomeini’s Forgotten Sons: Child Victims of Saddam’s Iraq, by Ian Brown, Grey Seal Books, 1990
  2. Essential Histories: The Iran Iraq War 1980-1988, by Efraim Karsh, Osprey Publishing, 2002
  3. Ghost Town On The Gulf, TIME Magazine, November 24th, 1980
  4. A Holy War’s Troublesome Fallout, by William E. Smith, TIME Magazine, June 7th, 1982

External links

  • Khorramshahr.net
  • Khorramshahr Photo Gallery from the Khuzestan Governorship
  • Khorramshahr Post-War Photo Slideshow
  • Liberation of Khorramshahr, Triumph of True Faith
  • I Persian Gulf War: Iraqi Invasion of Iran, September 1980
  • Foreign Military Studies Office: MOUT in Iraq: Population Dependent?
  • Armor Evens the Odds in Two Urban Battles A Tale of Two Cities – Hue and Khorramshahr
  • [3]

Coordinates: 30°26′N, 48°11′E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Khorramshahr (205 words)
Town in southwestern Iran with about 150,000 inhabtants (2005 estimate) on the west bank of the Karun River, where it enters the Shatt El Arab, close to the border to Iraq.
The economy of Khorramshahr is still largely affected by the destruction and depopulation of the city in the 1980's during the first years of the.
The main activities are however the same as before the war, petroleum production and some exports and imports through the city port.
Khorramshahr, Iran, Pictures (281 words)
Khorramshahr, city in southwestern Iran, located at the junction of the Karun and Shatt al Arab rivers, on the border between Iran and Iraq.
Khorramshahr's importance in the 20th century stemmed from its nearness to Abadan, which is situated on a nearby river island and was home to the world's largest oil refinery at one time.
Khorramshahr was captured by Iraq during the opening weeks of the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), and occupied until 1982.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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