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Encyclopedia > Khmer Rouge

The Khmer Rouge (Khmer: ខ្មែរក្រហម Kmae Krɑhɑɑm) was the ruling political party of Cambodia—which it renamed the Democratic Kampuchea—from 1975 to 1979. Image File history File links Merge-arrows. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Democratic_Kampuchea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Democratic_Kampuchea. ... Flag Anthem Dap Prampi Mesa Chokchey Capital Phnom Penh Language(s) Khmer language Government Socialist republic Historical era Cold War  - Civil War 1967-1975  - Established April 17, 1975  - Fall of Phnom Pehn January 7, 1979  - Monarchy restored 1993-09-24 Currency Riel Democratic Kampuchea (French:Kampuchea démocratique, Khmer: ) was... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The ruling party in a parliamentary system is the party or coalition of the majority in parliament. ... Flag Anthem Dap Prampi Mesa Chokchey Capital Phnom Penh Language(s) Khmer language Government Socialist republic Historical era Cold War  - Civil War 1967-1975  - Established April 17, 1975  - Fall of Phnom Pehn January 7, 1979  - Monarchy restored 1993-09-24 Currency Riel Democratic Kampuchea (French:Kampuchea démocratique, Khmer: ) was...


The term "Khmer Rouge," meaning "Red Khmer" in French, was coined by Cambodian head of state Norodom Sihanouk and was later adopted by English speakers. It was used to refer to a succession of Communist parties in Cambodia which evolved into the Communist Party of Kampuchea (CPK) and later the Party of Democratic Kampuchea. The organization was also known as the Khmer Communist Party and the National Army of Democratic Kampuchea. The Khmer people are the predominant ethnic group in Cambodia, accounting for approximately 90% of the 13. ... French (le français, la langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... Time in office: Apr. ... In modern usage, the term communist party is generally used to identify any political party which has adopted communist ideology. ... The flag of the Khmer Rouge Party The Khmer Rouge (Khmer: Khmaey Krahom French: Khmers Rouges) were a Communist organization which ruled Cambodia from 1975 to 1979. ...


The Khmer Rouge is remembered mainly for the deaths of an estimated 1.5 million people (estimates range from 850,000 to two million) under its regime, through execution, starvation and forced labor. Following their leader Pol Pot, the Khmer Rouge imposed an extreme form of social engineering on Cambodian society—a radical form of agrarian communism where the whole population had to work in collective farms or forced labor projects. In terms of the number of people killed as a proportion of the population (est. 7.5 million people, as of 1975), it was one of the most lethal regimes of the 20th century. One of their mottos, in reference to the New People, was: "To keep you is no benefit. To destroy you is no loss." The ideology of the Khmer Rouge evolved over time. In the early days, it was an orthodox communist party and looked to the Vietnamese Communists for guidance. It became more Stalinist and anti-intellectual when groups of students who had been studying in France returned to Cambodia. The students, including future party leader Pol Pot, had been heavily influenced by the example of the French Communist Party (PCF). After 1960, the Khmer Rouge developed its own unique political ideas. For example, contrary to most Marxist doctrine, the Khmer Rouge considered the farmers in the countryside to be the proletariat and the true representatives of the working class, a form of Maoism which brought them onto the PRC side of the Sino-Soviet Split. By the 1970s, the ideology of the Khmer Rouge combined its own ideas with the anti-colonialist ideas of the PCF, which its leaders had acquired during their education in French universities in the 1950s. The Khmer Rouge leaders were also privately very resentful of what they saw as the arrogant attitude of the Vietnamese, and were determined to establish a form of communism very different from the Vietnamese model and also from other Communist countries, including China. Execution is a synonym for the actioning of something, of putting something into effect. ... This article is about extreme malnutrition. ... Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for forms of work, especially in modern or early modern history, in which adults and/or children are employed without wages, or for a minimal wage. ... Saloth Sar (May 19, 1925 – April 15, 1998), aliases Pol, Pouk, Hay, Grand-Uncle, First Brother, 87, Phem, 99, and best known as Pol Pot[1], was the leader of the communist movement called Khmer Rouge and the Prime Minister of Cambodia (officially renamed the Democratic Kampuchea during his rule... Social engineering has several meanings: Social engineering (political science) Social engineering (computer security) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Collective farming is an organizational unit in agriculture in which peasants are not paid wages, but rather receive a share of the farms net output. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ... Anti-intellectualism describes a sentiment of hostility towards, or mistrust of, intellectuals and intellectual pursuits. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ... Anti-imperialism, strictly speaking, is a term that may be applied to or movement opposed to some form of imperialism. ...


After four years of rule, the Khmer Rouge regime was removed from power in 1979 as a result of an invasion by the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and was replaced by moderate, pro-Vietnamese Communists. It survived into the 1990s as a resistance movement operating in western Cambodia from bases in Thailand. In 1996, following a peace agreement, their leader Pol Pot formally dissolved the organization. Pol Pot died April 15, 1998, having never been put on trial.[1] An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ... The Socialist Republic of Vietnam is a country in Southeast Asia. ... A resistance movement is a group or collection of individual groups, dedicated to fighting an invader in an occupied country or the government of a sovereign nation through either the use of physical force, or nonviolence. ... A peace treaty is an agreement between two hostile parties, usually countries or governments, that formally ends a war or armed conflict. ...

Contents

Origins

The Cambodian left: The early history

The history of the communist movement in Cambodia can be divided into six phases: the emergence of the Indochinese Communist Party (ICP), whose members were almost exclusively Vietnamese, before World War II; the ten-year struggle for independence from the French, when a separate Cambodian communist party, the Kampuchean (or Khmer) People's Revolutionary Party (KPRP), was established under Vietnamese auspices; the period following the Second Party Congress of the KPRP in 1960, when Saloth Sar (Pol Pot after 1976) and other future Khmer Rouge leaders gained control of its apparatus; the revolutionary struggle from the initiation of the Khmer Rouge insurgency in 1967-68 to the fall of the Lon Nol government in April 1975; the Democratic Kampuchea regime, from April 1975 to January 1979; and the period following the Third Party Congress of the KPRP in January 1979, when Hanoi effectively assumed control over Cambodia's government and communist party. Stamp featuring Ho Chi Minh commemorating the 70th anniversary of the Communist Party The Communist Party of Vietnam (Đảng Cá»™ng sản Việt Nam) is the currently and indefinitely ruling, as well as the only legal political party in Vietnam. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Peoples Revolutionary Party is a small political party in Chile (in Spanish: Partido Revolucionario del Pueblo). ... Saloth Sar (May 19, 1925 – April 15, 1998), aliases Pol, Pouk, Hay, Grand-Uncle, First Brother, 87, Phem, 99, and best known as Pol Pot[1], was the leader of the communist movement called Khmer Rouge and the Prime Minister of Cambodia (officially renamed the Democratic Kampuchea during his rule... Flag Anthem Dap Prampi Mesa Chokchey Capital Phnom Penh Language(s) Khmer language Government Socialist republic Historical era Cold War  - Civil War 1967-1975  - Established April 17, 1975  - Fall of Phnom Pehn January 7, 1979  - Monarchy restored 1993-09-24 Currency Riel Democratic Kampuchea (French:Kampuchea démocratique, Khmer: ) was...


Much of the movement's history has been shrouded in mystery, largely because successive purges, especially during the Democratic Kampuchea period, have left so few survivors to recount their experiences. One thing is evident, however: the North Vietnamese Communists helped the movement grow by providing political and military support, but became bitter rivals upon the success of Khmer Rouge. In the three decades between the end of World War II and the Khmer Rouge victory, the appeal of Communism to Western-educated intellectuals (and to a lesser extent its more inchoate attraction for poor peasants) was tempered by the apprehension that the much stronger Vietnamese movement was using communism as an ideological rationale for dominating the Khmer. The analogy between the Vietnamese communists and the Nguyen dynasty, which had legitimized its encroachments in the nineteenth century in terms of the "civilizing mission" of Confucianism, was persuasive. Thus, the new brand of indigenous communism that emerged after 1960 combined nationalist and revolutionary appeals and, when it could afford to, exploited the virulent anti-Vietnamese sentiments of the Khmers. Khmer Rouge literature in the 1970s frequently referred to the Vietnamese as yuon (Khmer term for Vietnamese[2]), a term dating from the Angkorian period. The Nguyễn Dynasty (阮朝) was a line of rulers of Vietnam in the 19th century to mid-20th century. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... Prehistory and early kingdoms Archaeological evidence indicates that parts of the region now called Cambodia were inhabited during the first and second millennia BCE by a Neolithic culture may have migrated from southeastern China to the Indochinese Peninsula. ...


In 1930 Ho Chi Minh founded the Vietnamese Communist Party by unifying three smaller communist movements that had emerged in Tonkin, in Annam, and in Cochinchina during the late 1920s. The name was changed almost immediately to the Indochinese Communist Party (ICP), ostensibly to include revolutionaries from Cambodia and Laos. Almost without exception, however, all the earliest party members were Vietnamese. By the end of World War II, a handful of Cambodians had joined its ranks, but their influence on the Indochinese communist movement and on developments within Cambodia was negligible. For the city named after him, see Ho Chi Minh City. ... Stamp featuring Ho Chi Minh commemorating the 70th anniversary of the Communist Party The Communist Party of Vietnam (Đảng Cộng Sản Việt Nam) is the ruling party in Vietnam. ... Tonkin, also spelled Tongkin or Tongking, is the northernmost part of Vietnam, south of Chinas Yunnan and Guangxi Provinces, east of northern Laos, and west of the Gulf of Tonkin. ... Annam, literally meaning Pacified South, is a region of central Vietnam that fell under Chinese rule in 111 BC as Annan (安南). Known locally as Trung Bá»™, meaning Central Boundary, it was formerly a kingdom the size of Sweden with its capital at Huế. It had been seized by the French... Cochinchina, from Cochin-China (see note below) (known locally as Nam Kỳ, meaning southern region), in French: Cochinchine) is a name used for various southern regions of Vietnam. ...


Viet Minh units occasionally made forays into Cambodian bases during their war against the French, and, in conjunction with the leftist government that ruled Thailand until 1947, the Viet Minh encouraged the formation of armed, left-wing Khmer Issarak bands. On April 17, 1950 (twenty-five years to the day before the Khmer Rouge captured Phnom Penh), the first nationwide congress of the Khmer Issarak groups convened, and the United Issarak Front was established. Its leader was Son Ngoc Minh (possibly a brother of the nationalist Son Ngoc Thanh), and a third of its leadership consisted of members of the ICP. According to the historian David P. Chandler, the leftist Issarak groups, aided by the Viet Minh, occupied a sixth of Cambodia's territory by 1952; and, on the eve of the Geneva Conference, they controlled as much as one half of the country. The Viet Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam ộc Lập ồng Minh Hội, League for the Independence of Vietnam) was formed by Ho Ngoc Lam and Nguyen Hai Than in 1941 to seek independence for Vietnam from France. ... The Khmer Issarak was an anti-French, Khmer nationalist political movement formed in 1945 with the backing of the goverment of Thailand. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Son Ngoc Minh on a 1985 Cambodian Postage Stamp Son Ngoc Minh (1920 - 1972) was a Cambodian politician whos first notable career achievement was in 1950 when he was appointed the head of provision revolutionary governmnet of the Khmer National United Front organized at Hongdan. ... The Viet Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam ộc Lập ồng Minh Hội, League for the Independence of Vietnam) was formed by Ho Ngoc Lam and Nguyen Hai Than in 1941 to seek independence for Vietnam from France. ... The Geneva Conference (April 26 - July 21, 1954) was a conference between many countries that agreed to end hostilities and restore peace in French Indochina and Korea. ...


In 1951 the ICP was reorganized into three national units—the Vietnam Workers' Party, the Lao Itsala, and the Kampuchean (or Khmer) People's Revolutionary Party (KPRP). According to a document issued after the reorganization, the Vietnam Workers' Party would continue to "supervise" the smaller Laotian and Cambodian movements. Most KPRP leaders and rank-and-file seem to have been either Khmer Krom, or ethnic Vietnamese living in Cambodia. The party's appeal to indigenous Khmers appears to have been minimal. The Communist Party of Vietnam (Đảng Cá»™ng sản Việt Nam) is the currently ruling, as well as the only legal political party in Vietnam. ... The Khmer Krom (Khmer: ) are the indigenous ethnic Khmer minority living in southern Vietnam, especially in the Mekong River delta. ...


According to Democratic Kampuchea's version of party history, the Viet Minh's failure to negotiate a political role for the KPRP at the 1954 Geneva Conference represented a betrayal of the Cambodian movement, which still controlled large areas of the countryside and which commanded at least 5,000 armed men. Following the conference, about 1,000 members of the KPRP, including Son Ngoc Minh, made a "Long March" into North Vietnam, where they remained in exile. In late 1954, those who stayed in Cambodia founded a legal political party, the Pracheachon Party, which participated in the 1955 and the 1958 National Assembly elections. In the September 1955 election, it won about four percent of the vote but did not secure a seat in the legislature. Members of the Pracheachon were subject to constant harassment and to arrests because the party remained outside Sihanouk's political organization, Sangkum. Government attacks prevented it from participating in the 1962 election and drove it underground. Sihanouk habitually labeled local leftists the Khmer Rouge, a term that later came to signify the party and the state headed by Pol Pot, Ieng Sary, Khieu Samphan, and their associates. Ieng Sary (born 1922, 1925 or 1929) was the foreign minister of Cambodia from 1976 to 1979 and a powerful figure in the Khmer Rouge. ... Khieu Samphan (born July 27, 1931) was the president of the state presidium of Democratic Kampuchea (Cambodia) from 1976 until 1979. ...


During the mid-1950s, KPRP factions, the "urban committee" (headed by Tou Samouth), and the "rural committee" (headed by Sieu Heng), emerged. In very general terms, these groups espoused divergent revolutionary lines. The prevalent "urban" line, endorsed by North Vietnam, recognized that Sihanouk, by virtue of his success in winning independence from the French, was a genuine national leader whose neutralism and deep distrust of the United States made him a valuable asset in Hanoi's struggle to "liberate" South Vietnam. Champions of this line hoped that the prince could be persuaded to distance himself from the right wing and to adopt leftist policies. The other line, supported for the most part by rural cadres who were familiar with the harsh realities of the countryside, advocated an immediate struggle to overthrow the "feudalist" Sihanouk. In 1959 Sieu Heng defected to the government and provided the security forces with information that enabled them to destroy as much as 90 % of the party's rural apparatus. Although communist networks in Phnom Penh and in other towns under Tou Samouth's jurisdiction fared better, only a few hundred communists remained active in the country by 1960. Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ...


The Paris Student Group

During the 1950s, Khmer students in Paris organized their own communist movement, which had little, if any, connection to the hard-pressed party in their homeland. From their ranks came the men and women who returned home and took command of the party apparatus during the 1960s, led an effective insurgency against Lon Nol from 1968 until 1975, and established the regime of Democratic Kampuchea. This article is about the capital of France. ...


Pol Pot, who rose to the leadership of the communist movement in the 1960s, was born in 1928 (some sources say in 1925) in Kampong Thum Province, northeast of Phnom Penh. He attended a technical high school in the capital and then went to Paris in 1949 to study radio electronics (other sources say he attended a school for printers and typesetters and also studied civil engineering). Described by one source as a "determined, rather plodding organizer," he failed to obtain a degree, but, according to the Jesuit priest, Father François Ponchaud, he acquired a taste for the classics of French literature as well as for the writings of Marx. Saloth Sar (May 19, 1925 – April 15, 1998), aliases Pol, Pouk, Hay, Grand-Uncle, First Brother, 87, Phem, 99, and best known as Pol Pot[1], was the leader of the communist movement called Khmer Rouge and the Prime Minister of Cambodia (officially renamed the Democratic Kampuchea during his rule... Kampong Thom is a province of Cambodia. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... French literature is, generally speaking, literature written in the French language, particularly by citizens of France; it may also refer to literature written by people living in France who speak other traditional non-French languages. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ...


Another member of the Paris student group was Ieng Sary. He was a Chinese-Khmer born in 1930 in South Vietnam. He attended the elite Lycée Sisowath in Phnom Penh before beginning courses in commerce and politics at the Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris (more widely known as Sciences Po) in France. Khieu Samphan, considered "one of the most brilliant intellects of his generation," was born in 1931 and specialized in economics and politics during his time in Paris[citation needed]. In talent he was rivaled by Hou Yuon, born in 1930, who was described as being "of truly astounding physical and intellectual strength,[citation needed]" and who studied economics and law. Son Sen, born in 1930, studied education and literature; Hu Nim, born in 1932, studied law. The Paris Institute of Political Studies (French: Institut détudes politiques de Paris), often referred to as Sciences-Po (pronounced see-ahns po), is a Grand Établissement in Paris, France. ...


These men were perhaps the most educated leaders in the history of Asian communism. Two of them, Khieu Samphan and Hou Yuon, earned doctorates from the University of Paris; Hu Nim obtained his degree from the University of Phnom Penh in 1965. In retrospect, it seems unlikely that these talented members of the elite, sent to France on government scholarships, could launch the bloodiest and most radical revolution in modern Asian history. Most came from landowner or civil servant families. Pol Pot and Hou Yuon may have been related to the royal family. An older sister of Pol Pot had been a concubine at the court of King Monivong. Three of the Paris group forged a bond that survived years of revolutionary struggle and intraparty strife, Pol Pot and Ieng Sary married Khieu Ponnary and Khieu Thirith (also known as Ieng Thirith), purportedly relatives of Khieu Samphan. These two well-educated women also played a central role in the regime of Democratic Kampuchea. The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: ) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganised as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ... Sisowath Monivong (born 1875, died 1941) was the king of Cambodia from 1927 until his death in 1941. ... Khieu Ponnary became the spouse of Pol Pot in 1956. ... Member of the Khmer Rouge Central Committee. ...


The intellectual ferment of Paris must have been a dizzying experience for young Khmers fresh from Phnom Penh or the provinces. A number sought refuge in the dogma of orthodox Marxism-Leninism. At some time between 1949 and 1951, Pol Pot and Ieng Sary joined the French Communist Party, the most tightly disciplined and orthodox Marxist-Leninist of Western Europe's communist movements. In 1951 the two men went to East Berlin to participate in a youth festival. This experience is considered to have been a turning point in their ideological development. Meeting with Khmers who were fighting with the Viet Minh (and whom they subsequently judged to be too subservient to the Vietnamese), they became convinced that only a tightly disciplined party organization and a readiness for armed struggle could achieve revolution. They transformed the Khmer Students' Association (KSA), to which most of the 200 or so Khmer students in Paris belonged, into an organization for nationalist and leftist ideas. Inside the KSA and its successor organizations was a secret organization known as the Cercle Marxiste. The organization was composed of cells of three to six members with most members knowing nothing about the overall structure of the organization. In 1952 Pol Pot, Hou Yuon, Ieng Sary, and other leftists gained notoriety by sending an open letter to Sihanouk calling him the "strangler of infant democracy." A year later, the French authorities closed down the KSA. In 1956, however, Hou Yuon and Khieu Samphan helped to establish a new group, the Khmer Students' Union. Inside, the group was still run by the Cercle Marxiste. Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... East Berlin was the name given to the eastern part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... The Viet Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam ộc Lập ồng Minh Hội, League for the Independence of Vietnam) was formed by Ho Ngoc Lam and Nguyen Hai Than in 1941 to seek independence for Vietnam from France. ...


The doctoral dissertations written by Hou Yuon and Khieu Samphan express basic themes that were later to become the cornerstones of the policy adopted by Democratic Kampuchea. The central role of the peasants in national development was espoused by Hou Yuon in his 1955 thesis, The Cambodian Peasants and Their Prospects for Modernization, which challenged the conventional view that urbanization and industrialization are necessary precursors of development. The major argument in Khieu Samphan's 1959 thesis, Cambodia's Economy and Industrial Development, was that the country had to become self-reliant and end its economic dependency on the developed world. In its general contours, Khieu's work reflected the influence of a branch of the "dependency theory" school, which blamed lack of development in the Third World on the economic domination of the industrialized nations. Main International Relations Theories Politics Portal This box:      Dependency theory is a body of social science theories, both from developed and developing nations, that create a worldview which suggests that poor underdeveloped states of the periphery are exploited by wealthy developed nations of the centre, in order to sustain economic... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ...


Path to power

KPRP Second Congress

After returning to Cambodia in 1953, Pol Pot threw himself into party work. At first he went to join with forces allied to the Viet Minh operating in the rural areas of Kampong Cham Province (Kompong Cham). After the end of the war, he moved to Phnom Penh under Tou Samouth's "urban committee" where he became an important point of contact between above-ground parties of the left and the underground secret communist movement. His comrades, Ieng Sary and Hou Yuon, became teachers at a new private high school, the Lycée Kambuboth, which Hou Yuon helped to establish. Khieu Samphan returned from Paris in 1959, taught as a member of the law faculty of the University of Phnom Penh, and started a left-wing, French-language publication, L'Observateur. The paper soon acquired a reputation in Phnom Penh's small academic circle. The following year, the government closed the paper, and Sihanouk's police publicly humiliated Khieu by beating, undressing and photographing him in public--as Shawcross notes, "not the sort of humiliation that men forgive or forget." Yet the experience did not prevent Khieu from advocating cooperation with Sihanouk in order to promote a united front against United States activities in South Vietnam. As mentioned, Khieu Samphan, Hou Yuon, and Hu Nim were forced to "work through the system" by joining the Sangkum and by accepting posts in the prince's government. Kampong Cham is a province in the east of Cambodia. ...


In late September, 1960, twenty-one leaders of the KPRP held a secret congress in a vacant room of the Phnom Penh railroad station. This pivotal event remains shrouded in mystery because its outcome has become an object of contention (and considerable historical rewriting) between pro-Vietnamese and anti-Vietnamese Khmer communist factions. The question of cooperation with, or resistance to, Sihanouk was thoroughly discussed. Tou Samouth, who advocated a policy of cooperation, was elected general secretary of the KPRP that was renamed the Workers' Party of Kampuchea (WPK). His ally, Nuon Chea (also known as Long Reth), became deputy general secretary; however, Pol Pot and Ieng Sary were named to the Political Bureau to occupy the third and the fifth highest positions in the renamed party's hierarchy. The name change is significant. By calling itself a workers' party, the Cambodian movement claimed equal status with the Vietnam Workers' Party. The pro-Vietnamese regime of the People's Republic of Kampuchea (PRK) implied in the 1980s that the September 1960 meeting was nothing more than the second congress of the KPRP. Nuon Chea, also known as Brother Number Two, was Deputy General Secretary of the Communist Party and chief lieutenant to Pol Pot during the Khmer Rouge era. ... The Communist Party of Vietnam (Đảng Cộng sản Việt Nam) is the currently ruling, as well as the only legal political party in Vietnam. ... The Peoples Republic of Kampuchea, The Vietnamese Occupation On January 10, 1979, the Vietnamese installed Heng Samrin as head of state in the new Peoples Republic of Kampuchea (PRK). ...


On July 20, 1962, Tou Samouth was murdered by the Cambodian government. In February 1963, at the WPK's second congress, Pol Pot was chosen to succeed Tou Samouth as the party's general secretary. Tou's allies, Nuon Chea and Keo Meas, were removed from the Central Committee and replaced by Son Sen and Vorn Vet. From then on, Pol Pot and loyal comrades from his Paris student days controlled the party center, edging out older veterans whom they considered excessively pro-Vietnamese. is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Keo Meas (b. ... Son Sen (June 12, 1930 – June 10, 1997) was a member of Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kampuchea/Party of Democratic Kampuchea from 1974 to 1992. ...


In July 1963, Pol Pot and most of the central committee left Phnom Penh to establish an insurgent base in Ratanakiri Province in the northeast. Pol Pot had shortly before been put on a list of thirty four leftists who were summoned by Sihanouk to join the government and sign statements saying Sihanouk was the only possible leader for the country. Pol Pot and Chou Chet were the only people on the list who escaped. All the others agreed to cooperate with the government and were afterward under 24-hour watch by the police. Ratanakiri is a province in the northeast of Cambodia. ...


From enemy to ally: Sihanouk and the GRUNK

The region Pol Pot and the others moved to was inhabited by tribal minorities, the Khmer Loeu, whose rough treatment (including resettlement and forced assimilation) at the hands of the central government made them willing recruits for a guerrilla struggle. In 1965, Pol Pot made a visit of several months to North Vietnam and China. He probably received some training in China, which must have enhanced his prestige when he returned to the WPK's liberated areas. Despite friendly relations between Norodom Sihanouk and the Chinese, the latter kept Pol Pot's visit a secret from Sihanouk. In September 1966, the party changed its name to the Communist Party of Kampuchea (CPK). The change in the name of the party was a closely guarded secret. Lower ranking members of the party and even the Vietnamese were not told of it and neither was the membership until many years later. The party leadership endorsed armed struggle against the government, then led by Sihanouk. In 1967, several small-scale attempts at insurgency were made by the CPK but they had little success. This article needs to be wikified. ... Time in office: Apr. ...


In 1968, the Khmer Rouge forces launched a national insurgency across Cambodia (see also Cambodian Civil War). Though North Vietnam had not been informed of the decision, its forces provided shelter and weapons to the Khmer Rouge after the insurgency started. Vietnamese support for the insurgency made it impossible for the Cambodian military to effectively counter it. For the next two years the insurgency grew as Sihanouk did very little to stop it. As the insurgency grew stronger, the party finally openly declared itself to be the Communist Party of Kampuchea (CPK). “Insurrection” redirects here. ... Combatants Khmer Republic, United States, Republic of Vietnam Khmer Rouge, Democratic Republic of Vietnam, National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (NLF) Strength ~250,000 FANK troops ~100,000 (60,000) Khmer Rouge Casualties ~600,000 dead, 1,000,000+ wounded[1] The Cambodian Civil War was a conflict that pitted...


The political appeal of the Khmer Rouge was increased as a result of the situation created by the removal of Sihanouk as head of state in 1970. Premier Lon Nol, with the support of the National Assembly, deposed Sihanouk. Sihanouk, in exile in Beijing, made an alliance with the Khmer Rouge and became the nominal head of a Khmer Rouge-dominated government-in-exile (known by its French acronym, GRUNK) backed by the People's Republic of China. Sihanouk's popular support in rural Cambodia allowed the Khmer Rouge to extend its power and influence to the point that by 1973 it exercised de facto control over the majority of Cambodian territory, although only a minority of its population. Many people in Cambodia who helped the Khmer Rouge against the Lon Nol government thought they were fighting for the restoration of Sihanouk. The Cambodian coup of 1970 refers to removal of Prince Norodom Sihanouk and the subsequent elevation of Lon Nol as head of state in Cambodia in 1970. ... Lon Nol (លន់នល់ in Khmer) (​November 13, 1913 - November 17, 1985) was a Cambodian politician and soldier who served as Prime Minister of Cambodia twice as well as serving repeatedly as Defense Minister. ... Peking redirects here. ...


The relation between the massive carpet bombing of Cambodia by the United States and the growth of the Khmer Rouge, in terms of recruitment and popular support, has been a matter of interest to historians. In 1984 Craig Etcheson of the Documentation Center of Cambodia argued that it is "untenable" to assert that the Khmer Rouge would not have won but for U.S. intervention and that while the bombing did help Khmer Rouge recruitment, they "would have won anyway." [3] However, more recently historians have cited the U.S. intervention and bombing campaign (spanning 1965-1973) as a significant factor leading to increased support of the Khmer Rouge among the Cambodian peasantry. Historian Ben Kiernan and Taylor Owen have used a combination of sophisticated satellite mapping, recently unclassified data about the extent of bombing activities, and peasant testimony, to argue that there was a strong correlation between villages targeted by U.S. bombing and recruitment of peasants by the Khmer Rouge. Kiernan and Owen argue that "Civilian casualties in Cambodia drove an enraged populace into the arms of an insurgency that had enjoyed relatively little support until the bombing began." [4] In his 1996 study of Pol Pot's rise to power, Kiernan argued that "Pol Pot's revolution would not have won power without U.S. economic and military destabilisation of Cambodia" and that the U.S. carpet bombing "was probably the most significant factor in Pol Pot's rise." [5] Benedict F. Kiernan (born 1953 in Melbourne, Australia) is the Whitney Griswold Professor of History, Professor of International and Area Studies and Director of the Genocide Studies Program at Yale University. ...


When the U.S. Congress suspended aid to Cambodia in 1973, the Khmer Rouge made sweeping gains in the country.[citation needed] By 1975, with the Lon Nol government running out of ammunition, it was clear that it was only a matter of time before the government would collapse. On April 17, 1975 the Khmer Rouge captured Phnom Penh. The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Location of Phnom Penh, Cambodia Coordinates: , Country Province Settled 1372 Became Capital 1865 Government  - Type Municipality  - Mayor & Governor H.E. Keb Chutema (Khmer: )  - Vice Governors H.E. Than Sina, H.E. Map Sarin, H.E. Seng Tong Area  - Total 376 km² (145. ...


The Khmer Rouge in power

Main article: Democratic Kampuchea

The leadership of the Khmer Rouge remained largely unchanged from the 1960s to the mid-1990s. The leaders were mostly from middle-class families and had been educated at French universities. Flag Anthem Dap Prampi Mesa Chokchey Capital Phnom Penh Language(s) Khmer language Government Socialist republic Historical era Cold War  - Civil War 1967-1975  - Established April 17, 1975  - Fall of Phnom Pehn January 7, 1979  - Monarchy restored 1993-09-24 Currency Riel Democratic Kampuchea (French:Kampuchea démocratique, Khmer: ) was... This article is about the socio-economic class from a global vantage point. ... A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ...


The Standing Committee of the Khmer Rouge's Central Committee ("Party Center") during its period of power consisted of:

  • Pol Pot (Saloth Sar) "Brother number 1" the effective leader of the movement, General Secretary from 1963 until his death in 1998
  • Nuon Chea (Long Bunruot) "Brother number 2" Prime Minister (alive, arrested in 2007 [6])
  • Ieng Sary "Brother number 3" Deputy Prime Minister (Pol Pot's brother-in-law) (alive, arrested in 2007)
  • Ta Mok (Chhit Chhoeun) "Brother number 4" Final Khmer Rouge leader, Southwest Regional Secretary (died in custody awaiting trial for genocide, July 21, 2006)
  • Khieu Samphan "Brother number 5" President of the Khmer Rouge (alive, arrested in 2007)
  • Son Sen Defense Minister (d. 1997)
  • Yun Yat (d. 1997)
  • Ke Pauk "Brother number 13" Former secretary of the Northern zone (d. 2002)
  • Ieng Thirith (alive, arrested in 2007)

In power, the Khmer Rouge carried out a radical program that included isolating the country from foreign influence, closing schools, hospitals and factories, abolishing banking, finance and currency, outlawing all religions, confiscating all private property and relocating people from urban areas to collective farms where forced labor was widespread. The purpose of this policy was to turn Cambodians into "Old People" through agricultural labor. These actions resulted in massive deaths through executions, work exhaustion, illness, and starvation. Saloth Sar (May 19, 1925 – April 15, 1998), aliases Pol, Pouk, Hay, Grand-Uncle, First Brother, 87, Phem, 99, and best known as Pol Pot[1], was the leader of the communist movement called Khmer Rouge and the Prime Minister of Cambodia (officially renamed the Democratic Kampuchea during his rule... The term General Secretary (alternatively First Secretary) denotes a leader of various unions, parties or associations. ... Nuon Chea, also known as Brother Number Two, was Deputy General Secretary of the Communist Party and chief lieutenant to Pol Pot during the Khmer Rouge era. ... Ieng Sary (born 1922, 1925 or 1929) was the foreign minister of Cambodia from 1976 to 1979 and a powerful figure in the Khmer Rouge. ... Ta Mok Ta Mok, which means Grandfather Mok in Khmer, was the nom de guerre of Chhit Choeun (c. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Khieu Samphan (born July 27, 1931) was the president of the state presidium of Democratic Kampuchea (Cambodia) from 1976 until 1979. ... Son Sen (June 12, 1930 – June 10, 1997) was a member of Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kampuchea/Party of Democratic Kampuchea from 1974 to 1992. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Ke Pauk was born Ke Vin in Chhouk Ksach Village, Chhouk Ksach Sub-district, Baray District, Kampong Thom Province in 1934. ... Member of the Khmer Rouge Central Committee. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... The field of finance refers to the concepts of time, money and risk and how they are interelated. ... Major world religions have been distinguished from minor religions using a variety of methods, though any such division naturally reflects a particular bias, since many adherent of a religion are likely to consider their own faith major. Two methods are mentioned in this article, number of adherents and the definitions... This page deals with property as ownership rights. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... Collective farming is an organizational unit in agriculture in which peasants are not paid wages, but rather receive a share of the farms net output. ...


In Phnom Penh and other cities, the Khmer Rouge told residents that they would be moved only about "two or three kilometers" outside the city and would return in "two or three days." Some witnesses say they were told that the evacuation was because of the "threat of American bombing" and that they did not have to lock their houses since the Khmer Rouge would "take care of everything" until they returned. These were not the first evacuations of civilian populations by the Khmer Rouge. Similar evacuations of populations without possessions had been occurring on a smaller scale since the early 1970s. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


The Khmer Rouge attempted to turn Cambodia into a classless society by depopulating cities and forcing the urban population ("New People") into agricultural communes. The entire population was forced to become farmers in labor camps. During their four years in power, the Khmer Rouge overworked and starved the population, at the same time executing selected groups who had the potential to undermine the new state (including intellectuals or even those that had stereotypical signs of learning, such as glasses) and killing many others for even minor breaches of rules. Collective farming regards a system of agricultural organization in which farm laborers are not compensated via wages. ... A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in penal labor. ... An intellectual is a person who uses his or her intellect to study, reflect, and speculate on a variety of different ideas. ...


Cambodians were expected to produce three tons of rice per hectare; before the Khmer Rouge era, the average was only one ton per hectare. The Khmer Rouge forced people to work for 12 hours non-stop, without adequate rest or food. They did not believe in western medicine but instead favoured traditional peasant medicine; many died as a result.[citation needed] Family relationships not sanctioned by the state were also banned, and family members could be put to death for communicating with each other. In any case, family members were often relocated to different parts of the country with all postal and telephone services abolished. The total lack of agricultural knowledge by the former city dwellers made famine inevitable. Rural dwellers were often unsympathetic or too frightened to assist them. Such acts as picking wild fruit or berries was seen as "private enterprise" for which the death penalty applied. For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... For other uses, see Family (disambiguation). ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... Capitalism generally refers to a combination of economic practices that became institutionalized in Europe between the 16th and 19th centuries, especially involving the right of individuals and groups of individuals acting as legal persons (or corporations) to buy and sell capital goods such as land, labor, and money (see finance...


The Khmer language has a complex system of usages to define speakers' rank and social status. During the rule of the Khmer Rouge, these usages were abolished. People were encouraged to call each other 'friend' or 'comrade' (Khmer: មិត្ត; mitt), and to avoid traditional signs of deference such as bowing or folding the hands in salutation, known as samphea. Language was transformed in other ways. The Khmer Rouge invented new terms. People were told to 'forge' (lot dam) a new revolutionary character, that they were the 'instruments' (Khmer: ឧបករណ៍; opokar) of the ruling body known as 'Angkar' (Khmer: អង្គការ; pronounced ahngkah; meaning 'The Organization'), and that nostalgia for pre-revolutionary times (choeu stek arom, or 'memory sickness') could result in execution. Also, rural terms like Mae (Khmer: ម៉ែ; mother) replaced urban terms like Mak (Khmer: ម៉ាក់; mother). Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Comrade is a term meaning friend, colleague, or ally. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


Many Cambodians crossed the border into Thailand to seek asylum. From there, they were transported to refugee camps such as Khao-I-Dang, the only camp allowing resettlement in countries such as the United States, France, Canada, and Australia. Right of asylum (or political asylum) is an ancient judicial notion, under which a person persecuted for political opinions or religious beliefs in his or her country may be protected by another sovereign authority, a foreign country, or Church sanctuaries (as in medieval times). ... A refugee camp is a camp built up by governments or NGOs (such as the ICRC) to receive refugees. ... A poopy place for stinky poopy heads ...


Crimes against humanity

Skulls of Khmer Rouge victims
Skulls of Khmer Rouge victims

The Khmer Rouge government arrested, tortured and eventually executed anyone suspected of belonging to several categories of supposed "enemies": Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Choeung Ek stupa, showing skulls within. ... Choeung Ek stupa, showing skulls within. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ...

  • anyone with connections to the former government or with foreign governments
  • professionals and intellectuals - in practice this included almost everyone with an education, or even people wearing glasses (which, according to the regime, meant that they were literate)
  • ethnic Vietnamese, ethnic Chinese, Cambodian Christians, Muslims and the Buddhist monks
  • Homosexuals
  • "economic sabotage" for which many of the former urban dwellers (who had not starved to death in the first place) were deemed to be guilty of by virtue of their lack of agricultural ability.

Through the 1970s, and especially after mid-1975, the party was also shaken by factional struggles. There were even armed attempts to topple Pol Pot. The resultant purges reached a crest in 1977 and 1978 when thousands, including some important KCP leaders, were executed. This article is about people called professionals. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Categories: Buddhism-related stubs | Buddhist terms ... Homosexuality is a sexual orientation characterized by esthetic attraction, romantic love, or sexual desire exclusively for another of the same sex. ... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ... For other uses, see Sabotage (disambiguation). ...


Today, examples of the torture methods used by the Khmer Rouge can be seen at the Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum. The museum occupies the former grounds of a high school turned prison camp that was operated by Khang Khek Ieu, more commonly known as "Comrade Duch". Some 17,000 people passed through this centre before they were taken to sites (also known as The Killing Fields), outside Phnom Penh such as Choeung Ek where most were executed (mainly by pickaxes to save bullets) and buried in mass graves. Of the thousands who entered the Tuol Sleng Centre (also known as S-21), only ten are known to have survived. The exterior of the Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum, Phnom Penh The Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum is a museum in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. ... For other uses, see High school (disambiguation). ... Prisoner of War camps Contents // Categories: Substubs | Prisons and detention centres ... Khang Khek Ieu (Comrade Duch) at the age of about 17 Khang Khek Ieu, also romanized as Kaing Guek Eav (កាំង ហ្គេកអ៊ាវ), a. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Choeung Ek, the site of a former orchard and Chinese graveyard about 17km south of Phnom Penh, Cambodia, is the best-known of the sites known as The Killing Fields, where the Khmer Rouge regime executed about 17,000 people between 1975 and 1979. ... Pickhandle redirects here. ... Image:Mass Grave Bergen Belsen May 1945. ...

Photos of genocide victims on display at the Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum
Photos of genocide victims on display at the Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum

Khmer Rouge victims File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Khmer Rouge victims File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... The exterior of the Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum, Phnom Penh The Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum is a museum in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. ...

Number of deaths

The exact number of people who died as a result of the Khmer Rouge's policies is debated, as is the cause of death among those who died. Access to the country during Khmer Rouge rule and during Vietnamese rule was very limited. In the early 1980s, the Vietnamese-installed regime that succeeded the Khmer Rouge conducted a national household survey, which concluded that over 3.3 million had died, but most modern historians do not consider that number to be reliable.


Modern research has located thousands of mass graves from the Khmer Rouge era all over Cambodia, containing an estimated 1.39 million bodies. Various studies have estimated the death toll at between 740,000 and 3,000,000, most commonly between 1.4 million and 2.2 million, with perhaps half of those deaths being due to executions, and the rest from starvation and disease.[7]


The United States Department of State-funded Yale Cambodian Genocide Project give estimates of the total death toll as 1.2 million and 1.7 million respectively. Amnesty International estimates the total death toll as 1.4 million. R. J. Rummel, an analyst of historical political killings, gives a figure of 2 million. Former Khmer Rouge leader Pol Pot gave a figure of 800,000, and his deputy, Khieu Samphan, said 1 million had been killed. Department of State redirects here. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Saloth Sar (May 19, 1925 – April 15, 1998), aliases Pol, Pouk, Hay, Grand-Uncle, First Brother, 87, Phem, 99, and best known as Pol Pot[1], was the leader of the communist movement called Khmer Rouge and the Prime Minister of Cambodia (officially renamed the Democratic Kampuchea during his rule... Khieu Samphan (born July 27, 1931) was the president of the state presidium of Democratic Kampuchea (Cambodia) from 1976 until 1979. ...


Fall of the Khmer Rouge

Main article: Third Indochina War

By December 1978, because of several years of border conflict and the flood of refugees fleeing Cambodia, relations between Cambodia and Vietnam collapsed. Pol Pot, fearing a Vietnamese attack, ordered a pre-emptive invasion of Vietnam. His Cambodian forces crossed the border and looted nearby villages. Despite Chinese aid,[citation needed] these Cambodian forces were repulsed by the Vietnamese. The Vietnamese forces then invaded Cambodia, capturing Phnom Penh on January 7, 1979. Despite a traditional Cambodian fear of Vietnamese domination, defecting Khmer Rouge activists assisted the Vietnamese, and, with Vietnam's approval, became the core of the new puppet government. The Sino-Vietnamese War was a war fought in 1979 between the neighboring countries of the Peoples Republic of China and Vietnam. ... What is Refugees? Refugees is a simple internet community that was created as a homeland and haven for the members of the message board MegaMassMedia. ... Nickname: Location of Phnom Penh, Cambodia Coordinates: , Country Province Settled 1372 Became Capital 1865 Government  - Type Municipality  - Mayor & Governor H.E. Keb Chutema (Khmer: )  - Vice Governors H.E. Than Sina, H.E. Map Sarin, H.E. Seng Tong Area  - Total 376 km² (145. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...


At the same time, the Khmer Rouge retreated west, and it continued to control an area near the Thai border for the next decade. It was unofficially protected by elements of the Thai Army[citation needed], and was funded by diamond and timber smuggling. Despite its deposal, the Khmer Rouge retained its UN seat, which was occupied by Thiounn Prasith, an old compatriot of Pol Pot and Ieng Sary from their student days in Paris, and one of the 21 attendees at the 1960 KPRP Second Congress. The seat was retained under the name 'Democratic Kampuchea' until 1982, and then 'Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea' until 1993. The Royal Thai Army is the army of Thailand. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ...


Vietnam's victory, supported by the Soviet Union, had significant ramifications for the region; the People's Republic of China launched a punitive invasion of northern Vietnam and retreated after a claimed victory, and during the 1980s, the U.S. provided military and humanitarian support to Cambodian insurgent groups such as the republican KPNLF and royalist ANS. The Khmer Rouge, still led by Pol Pot, was the strongest of the three rebel groups, and received extensive military aid from China and intelligence from the Thai military. Eastern and central Cambodia were firmly under the control of Vietnam and its Cambodian allies by 1980, while the western part of the country continued to be a battlefield throughout the 1980s, and millions of landmines were sown across the countryside. Humanitarianism is the view that all people should be treated with the respect and dignity they deserve as human beings, and that advancing the well-being of humanity is a noble goal. ... Republicanism is the ideology of governing a nation as a republic, with an emphasis on liberty, rule of law, popular sovereignty and the civic virtue practiced by citizens. ... The Khmer Peoples National Liberation Front (KPNLF) was a political front organized in 1979 in opposition to the Vietnamese-installed Peoples Republic of Kampuchea (PRK) regime in Cambodia. ... Look up rebellion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Intelligence (disambiguation). ... “Minefield” redirects here. ...


Although Pol Pot relinquished the Khmer Rouge leadership to Khieu Samphan in 1985, he continued to be the driving force of Khmer Rouge insurgency, giving speeches to his followers. Some journalists commented that, despite the international community's near-universal condemnation of the Khmer Rouge's brutal rule, a considerable number of Cambodians in Khmer Rouge-controlled areas seemed genuinely to support Pol Pot.[1] Khieu Samphan (born July 27, 1931) was the president of the state presidium of Democratic Kampuchea (Cambodia) from 1976 until 1979. ...


After a decade of inconclusive conflict, all Cambodian political factions signed a treaty in 1991 calling for elections and disarmament. In 1992, however, the Khmer Rouge resumed fighting, and, in the following year, rejected the election results. There was a mass defection in 1996, when around half the remaining soldiers (about 4,000) left. Factional fighting in 1997 led to Pol Pot's trial and imprisonment by the Khmer Rouge. Pol Pot died in April 1998. Khieu Samphan surrendered in December. On December 29, 1998, the remaining leaders of the Khmer Rouge apologised for the 1970s genocide. By 1999, most members had surrendered or been captured. In December 1999, Ta Mok and the remaining leaders surrendered, and the Khmer Rouge effectively ceased to exist. Most of the surviving Khmer Rouge leaders live in the Pailin area or are hidden in Phnom Penh. In politics, a defector is a person who gives up allegiance to one state or political entity in exchange for allegiance to another. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Ta Mok Ta Mok, which means Grandfather Mok in Khmer, was the nom de guerre of Chhit Choeun (c. ... Pailin is a city (krong) in the west of of Cambodia near the border of Thailand. ...


Since 1990 Cambodia has gradually recovered, demographically and economically, from the Khmer Rouge regime, although the psychological scars affect many Cambodian families and émigré communities. It is noteworthy that Cambodia has a very young population and by 2005 three-quarters of Cambodians were too young to remember the Khmer Rouge years. Members of this younger generation may know of the Khmer Rouge only through word of mouth from parents and elders. In part, this is because the current government does not require that educators teach children about Khmer Rouge atrocities in the schools. [8] A demographic or demographic profile is a term used in marketing and broadcasting, to describe a demographic grouping or a market segment. ... Émigré is a French term that shows how Martin B. loves stephanie. ...


References

  1. ^ How the mighty are falling.The Economist
  2. ^ Sok Sisovan Meaning of Yuon Accessed July 24, 2007
  3. ^ Etcheson, Craig, The Rise and Demise of Democratic Kampuchea, Westview Press, 1984, p. 97
  4. ^ http://www.yale.edu/cgp/Walrus_CambodiaBombing_OCT06.pdf
  5. ^ Kiernan, Ben, The Pol Pot Regime,1996, Yale University Press, p. 16
  6. ^ Bangkok Post, "Former Khmer Rouge leader arrested", September 2007
  7. ^ Sharp, Bruce (2005-04-01). Counting Hell: The Death Toll of the Khmer Rouge Regime in Cambodia. Retrieved on 2006-07-05.
  8. ^ In Cambodia, a Clash Over History of the Khmer Rouge - washingtonpost.com

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External links

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Further reading

Among the very few western scholars who know the Khmer language and have published works about Cambodia are Ben Kiernan, David P. Chandler and Michael Vickery. Nayan Chanda, the Indochina correspondent of the Far Eastern Economic Review, is also very familiar with this period (through personal reporting, including many interviews with principals). Nayan Chanda is Director of Publications at the Yale Center for the Study of Globalization, and editor of the YaleGlobal Online, a webzine devoted to exploring globalization (available free at http://yaleglobal. ... A cover of the then-weekly Far Eastern Economic Review in September 2003 The Far Eastern Economic Review (Chinese: 遠東經濟評論; also referred to as FEER) is an English language Asian news magazine. ...

  • Donald Puckridge: 2004. The Burning of the Rice. (Sid Harta Publishers 2004). ISBN 1-877059-73-0. pp326. http://sidharta.com/books/index.jsp?uid=67
  • Elizabeth Becker: When the War Was over: Cambodia and the Khmer Rouge Revolution
  • Nayan Chanda, Brother Enemy: The War After the War (Collier, New York, 1986) (very comprehensively footnoted)
  • David P. Chandler: A History of Cambodia (Westview Press 2000); ISBN 0-8133-3511-6.
  • David P. Chandler: Brother Number One: A Political Biography (Westview Press 1999); ISBN 0813335108
  • David P. Chandler: Facing the Cambodian past: Selected essays, 1971-1994 (Silkworm Books 1996); ISBN 974-7047-74-8.
  • David P. Chandler, Ben Kiernan etc.: Revolution and Its Aftermath in Kampuchea: Eight Essays (Yale University Press 1983); ISBN 0-938692-05-4.
  • Evan Gottesman: Cambodia after the Khmer Rouge: Inside the politics of Nation Building
  • Francois Bizot: The Gate
  • Henry Kamm: Cambodia: Report from a Stricken Land
  • Ben Kiernan: The Pol Pot Regime: Race, Power, and Genocide in Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge, 1975-79; ISBN 0-300-09649-6.
  • Ben Kiernan: How Pol Pot Came to Power: Colonialism, Nationalism, and Communism in Cambodia, 1930-1975 (Yale University Press, Second Edition 2004); ISBN 0-300-10262-3.
  • Sharon May and Frank Stewart: In the Shadow of Angkor: Contemporary Writing from Cambodia
  • Haing Ngor and Roger Warner: Survival in the Killing Fields
  • Dith Pran (compiled by): Children of Cambodia's Killing Fields: Memoirs by Survivors
  • William Shawcross: Sideshow: Kissinger, Nixon, and the Destruction of Cambodia
  • Jon Swain: River of Time; ISBN 0-425-16805-0.
  • Denise Affonço: To The End Of Hell: One Woman's Struggle to Survive Cambodia's Khmer Rouge; ISBN 978-0955572951
  • Loung Ung: First They Killed My Father: A Daughter of Cambodia Remembers; ISBN 0-06-093138-8
  • Chanrithy Him: When Broken Glass Floats
  • Michael Vickery: Cambodia 1975-1982
  • Carol Wagner: Soul Survivors: Stories of Women and Children in Cambodia

Elizabeth Becker is a journalist and author who specializes in trade, development, and Asian affairs. ... Nayan Chanda is Director of Publications at the Yale Center for the Study of Globalization, and editor of the YaleGlobal Online, a webzine devoted to exploring globalization (available free at http://yaleglobal. ... François Bizot (born 1944) was the only Westerner to survive imprisonment by the Khmer Rouge. ... Henry Kamm was a correspondent for The New York Times. ... Benedict F. Kiernan (born 1953 in Melbourne, Australia) is the Whitney Griswold Professor of History, Professor of International and Area Studies and Director of the Genocide Studies Program at Yale University. ... Dr. Haing S. Ngor (Traditional Chinese: 吳漢) (March 22, 1940 – February 25, 1996) was a Cambodian American physician and actor who is best known for winning a 1985 Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his performance in the movie The Killing Fields, in which he portrayed journalist and refugee Dith... Dith Pran (born September 27, 1942 – March 30, 2008) was a photojournalist best known as a refugee and Cambodian Genocide survivor and was the subject of the Academy Award-winning film The Killing Fields. ... Jon (John) Anketell Brewer Swain is an award-winning British journalist and writer who was portrayed by Julian Sands in the 1984 Oscar-winning film The Killing Fields. ... Some of the dates, time periods, and numbers cited in this article are approximations; reference materials often present conflicting information. ... First They Killed My Father: A Daughter of Cambodia Remembers is a 2000 nonfiction book written by a Cambodian woman, Loung Ung. ...

See also

Combatants Khmer Republic, United States, Republic of Vietnam Khmer Rouge, Democratic Republic of Vietnam, National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (NLF) Strength ~250,000 FANK troops ~100,000 (60,000) Khmer Rouge Casualties ~600,000 dead, 1,000,000+ wounded[1] The Cambodian Civil War was a conflict that pitted... The Cambodia Tribunal (official name: Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia for the Prosecution of Crimes Committed During the Period of Democratic Kampuchea) is a joint court established by the Royal Government of Cambodia and the United Nations to try senior members of the Khmer Rouge. ... Choeung Ek, the site of a former orchard and Chinese graveyard about 17km south of Phnom Penh, Cambodia, is the best-known of the sites known as The Killing Fields, where the Khmer Rouge regime executed about 17,000 people between 1975 and 1979. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Peace Palace in The Hague Command responsibility, sometimes referred to as the Yamashita standard, or the Medina standard is the doctrine of hierarchical accountability in cases of war crimes. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Flag Anthem Dap Prampi Mesa Chokchey Capital Phnom Penh Language(s) Khmer language Government Socialist republic Historical era Cold War  - Civil War 1967-1975  - Established April 17, 1975  - Fall of Phnom Pehn January 7, 1979  - Monarchy restored 1993-09-24 Currency Riel Democratic Kampuchea (French:Kampuchea démocratique, Khmer: ) was... Dith Pran (born September 27, 1942 – March 30, 2008) was a photojournalist best known as a refugee and Cambodian Genocide survivor and was the subject of the Academy Award-winning film The Killing Fields. ... This article is in need of attention. ... The Black Book of Communism The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression is a book that describes the history of political repressions by Communist states, including extrajudicial executions, deportations, and man-made famines that the book argues resulted from communist policies. ... Tuol Sleng Museum Inside Tuol Sleng Tuol Sleng Museum, also known as the Museum of Genocidal Crimes is located in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. ... Genocide is the mass killing of a group of people, as defined by Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or...

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Genocide

Genocide Watch is an international organization based in the United States which attempts to predict, prevent, limit, eliminate, and punish genocides throughout the world through reporting, public awareness campaigns, and judicial or quasi-judicial follow-up. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Khmer people - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1345 words)
The majority of the Khmer are followers of the Khmer style of Buddhism, a highly syncretic version which blends elements of Hinduism, animism and ancestor-spirit worship.
Significant populations of Khmers reside in adjacent areas of Thailand (Northern Khmer) and the Mekong Delta region of neighboring Vietnam (Khmer Krom).
The Khmer Buddhist calendar is divided into 12 months with the traditional new year beginning on the first day of khae chaet which coincides with the first new moon of April in the western calendar.
Khmer Rouge - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3585 words)
The Khmer Rouge regime is remembered mainly for the deaths of an estimated 1.7 million people (from an estimated 1972 population of 7.1 million) under its regime, through execution, starvation and forced labor.
In power, the Khmer Rouge carried out a radical program that included isolating the country from foreign influence, closing schools, hospitals and factories, abolishing banking, finance and currency, outlawing all religions, confiscating all private property and relocating people from urban areas to collective farms where forced labor was widespread.
The Khmer Rouge retreated to the west and continued to control an area near the Thai border for the next decade, unofficially protected by elements of the Thai Army and funded by smuggled diamonds and timber.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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