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Kharijites (Arabic Khawārij خوارج, literally "Those who Go Out"[1]) is a general term embracing various Muslims who, while initially supporting the caliphate of the fourth and final Rashidun Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib, later rejected him. They first emerged in the late 7th century AD, concentrated in today's southern Iraq, and are distinct from the Sunnis and Shiites. A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘AlÄ« ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shi‘as (the adjective in Arabic is شيعى shi‘i; English has traditionally used Shiite) which mean follower in Arabic make up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%-35% of all Muslim. ...


Whereas the Shiites believed that the imamate (leadership) was the sole right of the house of Ali, the Kharijites insisted that any pious and able Muslim could be a leader of the Muslim community. And whereas the Sunnis believed that the imam's impiousness did not, by itself, justify sedition, the Kharijites insisted on the right to revolt against any ruler who deviated from the example of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the first two Caliphs. From this essentially political position, the Kharijites developed a variety of theological and legal doctrines that further set them apart from both Sunni and Shi'ite Muslims. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalifah, is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ...


Kharijites were also known historically as the Shurat, meaning "those who have sold their souls to God", which, unlike the term "Kharijite", was one that many Kharijites used to describe themselves. The only surviving group, the Ibāḍī of Oman, Zanzibar and North Africa, reject the "Kharijite" appellation and refer to themselves as ahl al-'adl wal istiqama ("people of justice and uprightness"). Al-Ibāḍiyyah (Arabic الاباضية) is a form of Islam distinct from the Shiite and Sunni denominations. ... Map of Zanzibars main island Zanzibar is part of Tanzania Coordinates: , Country Tanzania Islands Unguja and Pemba Capital Zanzibar City Settled AD 1000 Government  - Type semi-autonomous part of Tanzania  - President Amani Abeid Karume Area  - Both Islands  637 sq mi (1,651 km²) Population (2004)  - Both Islands 1,070...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ...

Contents

Origin

The origin of Kharijism lies in the first Islamic civil war: a struggle for political supremacy over the Muslim community in the years following the death of Muhammad. The third Caliph, Uthman ibn Affan, was killed by mutineers in 656 AD, and a struggle for succession ensued between Ali, the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad, and Muāwiyah, Governor of Damascus and cousin of Uthman. According to John Esposito, they were the first radical dissent in Islam who combined "a rigorous puritanism and religious fundamentalism with an exclusivist egalitarianism".[2] Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... The First Islamic civil war, 656–661 CE, followed the assassination of the caliph Uthman ibn Affan, continued during the brief caliphate of Ali ibn Abu Talib, and was ended, on the whole, by Muawiyas assumption of the caliphate. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman. ... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... Muawiyah I (Arabic: ; Transliteration: ; 602-680) was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and later the Umayyad caliph in Damascus. ... For the pianist named John Esposito, see John Esposito (pianist). ...


In 658, Alī's forces met Muāwiyah's at the Battle of Siffin. Initially, the battle went against Muāwiyah. At the edge of defeat Muāwiyah directed his army to hoist Qur'āns on their lances [3] . This initiated discord among some of those who were in Alī's army. Muāwiyah wanted to put the dispute between the two sides to arbitration in accordance with the Quran. A group of Alī's army mutinied, demanding that Alī agree to Muāwiyah's proposal. As a result, Alī reluctantly presented his own representative for arbitration. The mutineers, however, put forward Abu Musa al-Ash'ari against Alī's wishes. Muāwiyah put forward Amr Ibn Al-As. Abu Musa al-Ash'ari was convinced by Amr to pronounce Alī's removal as caliph even though Ali's caliphate was not meant to be the issue of concern in the arbitration. The mutineers saw the turn of events as a fundamental betrayal of principle, especially since they had initiated it; a large group of them (traditionally believed to be 12,000, mainly from Banu Hanifah and Banu Tamim tribes)[citation needed]repudiated Alī. Citing the verse, "No rule but God's", an indication that a caliph is not a representative of God, this group turned on both Alī and Muāwiya, opposing Muāwiya's rebellion against whom they considered to be the rightful caliph, and opposing ˤAlī's subjecting his legitimate authority to arbitration. They became known as Kharijites: Arabic plural khawārij, singular Khārijī, derived from the verb kharaja "come out, leave the fold. Events The union of Slavic tribes falls apart after Samos death Births Deaths King Samo of the Slavs Categories: 658 ... Combatants Ummayyad Dynasty; Muawiyah I Rashidun Dynasty; Ali ibn Abi Talib Commanders Amr ibn al-Aas Ali ibn Abi Talib Malik ibn Ashter Strength 120,000 (approx) 90,000 (approx) Casualties 45,000 (approx) 25,000 (approx) The Battle of Siffin (May-July 657 CE) occurred during the First Fitna... The Quran (Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Amr ibn al-Ās (Arabic: عمرو بن العاص) (d. ... This is not the sub-clan of Quraish, for that, see Banu Taim BanÄ« TamÄ«m or Banu Tamim (Arabic: بنو تميم) is one of the largest of all Arab tribes. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ...


ˤAlī quickly divided his troops and ordered them to catch the dissenters before they could reach major cities and disperse among the population.[citation needed] Ali's cousin, Abdullah ibn Abbas, managed to persuade a number of Kharijites to return to Alī.[citation needed] ˤAlī defeated the remaining rebels in the Battle of Nahrawan in 658 but some Kharijites survived and, in 661, ultimately assassinated Alī. They are said to have organized simultaneous attempts against Muāwiya and Amr as well, as the three men were in their view the main sources of strife within the Muslim community, but were only successful in assassinating Ali.[citation needed] Abdullah ibn Abbas (Arabic: عبد الله ابن عباس ) was a cousin of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. ... A battle between Ali and the khawarij See also Ibadi External links Shia http://playandlearn. ... Events The union of Slavic tribes falls apart after Samos death Births Deaths King Samo of the Slavs Categories: 658 ... Events Caliph Ali Ben Abu Talib is assassinated. ...


Definition

Ash-Shahrastaanee defines a Khariji as:

Anyone who walks out against (seeking to overthrow) the true appointed Imam (leader) upon whose leadership the Jamaa'ah is in agreement is called a Khariji. This is the case, despite whether the walking out (against the Imam) occurred in the days of the Rightly-Guided Khulafaa or other than them from the Tabi'een This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... The Tābi‘īn (Arabic: ‎ Followers) are the generation of Muslims who were born after the death of Muhammad but who were contemporary of the Sahaba Companions. As such they played an important part in the development of Islamic thought and philosophy, and in the political development of the early...

[4].


And some of the Salaf used to call all those who practiced Islam based upon their desires as Kharijite. This article is on the group of early Muslims. ...


Beliefs and practices

Kharijite theology was a form of radical extremism, preaching uncompromising observance of the teachings of the Qur'an in defiance of corrupt authorities.[citation needed] They preached absolute equality of the faithful, in opposition to the aristocracy of the Quraysh which had grown more pronounced under the Umayyad Caliphate.[citation needed] They spread their views by violent conflict, which they considered to be a righteous jihad (struggle) and the sixth pillar of Islam.[citation needed] Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Extremism is a term used to describe the actions or ideologies of individuals or groups outside the perceived political center of a society; or otherwise claimed to violate common standards of ethics and reciprocity. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Quraish (sura) is also the name of a Surah in the Quran. ... The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the Quraish. ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... The term Sixth pillar of Islam refers to an addition to the Five Pillars of Islam; the five pillars of Islam explain the basic tenets of the Sunni Islam faith, Shia Islam uses other concepts. ...


They believed that anybody who commits a grave sin is no longer a Muslim and is subject to excommunication, warfare and death unless the person repented. They believed that the leader of the Muslim community can be any good Muslim, even a slave, provided that he had the community support, in contrast to the dominant opinion among Muslims at the time that the ruler should be a member of Muhammad's tribe, the Quraysh. Having a strong emphasis on the need to depose unjust rulers and believing that the current leaders of the Muslim community were guilty of grave sins, they withdrew themselves from the rest of the Muslim community, started camping together and waged war against their perceived enemies. They believed that they are the people of God fighting against the people of evil.[2] Quraish (sura) is also the name of a Surah in the Quran. ...


Divisions

The Kharijites were the first sect to appear in the history of Islam, splitting up into more than 20 different sub-sects. However, the major sub-sects of the Kharijites are seven:

  • al-Mahkamah al-Oolaa;
  • al-Azaariqah (Azraqī);
  • an-Najdaat;
  • ath-Thu'aalabah;
  • al-'Ajaaridah;
  • al-Abaadhiyyah (Ibādī);
  • as-Safriyyah

Some of the other sub-sects include: Al-Ibāḍiyyah (Arabic الاباضية) is a form of Islam distinct from the Shiite and Sunni denominations. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...

  • al-Ibaathiyyah;
  • ash-Shamraakhiyyah;
  • as-Salaydiyyah;
  • as-Sirriyyah;
  • al-'Azriyyah;
  • al-'Ajradiyyah;
  • ash-Shakkiyyah;
  • al-Fadhaliyyah;
  • al-Bayhasiyyah;
  • al-'Atwiyyah;
  • al-Fadeekiyyah;
  • al-Ja'diyyah;
  • ash-Shaybiyyah;
  • al-Hurooriyyah;
  • al-Khamariyyah;
  • ash-Sharaah.

The branch founded by Habib ibn-Yazīd al-Harūrī held that it was permissible to entrust the imamate to a woman if she was able to carry out the required duties. ...

Azraqī

Main article: Azraqi (religion)

The most extreme were the Azraqīs or Azariqah, founded in Persia in 685 by Nāfiʿ ibn ul-Azraq. These pronounced Takfir on all other Muslims, considering them to be Kuffar ('unbelievers') who could be killed with impunity.[5][6] Their distinctive practices included: Events Umayyad caliph Marwan I (684-685) succeeded by Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (685-705) Justinian II succeeds Constantine IV as emperor of the Byzantine Empire Sussex attacks Kent, supporting Eadrics claim to the throne held by Hlothhere Pope Benedict II succeeded by Pope John V Cuthbert consecrated... In Shia terminology, takfir also refers to the practice of crossing the arms when standing upright during salat (or takattuf, called qabd by Sunnis). ... see Kaphir for more information, kaffir lime for the condiment, kafir for the Muslim equivalent of infidel, kephir for the fermented drink. ...

  • A test of sincerity (إمتحان imtiḥān "examination") required of each new recruit, in which the neophyte was required to cut the throat of a captive enemy.[citation needed]
  • Religious murder (إستعراض istiʿrāḍ "demonstration"), not only of men, but also of their wives and children (the killing of non-combatants is disallowed in Islam)[citation needed]

They regarded the territory occupied by other Muslims as part of Dar al-Kufr,[citation needed]the territory of unbelief where it was permitted to attack both people and goods - but also a territory from which one must exile oneself, as Muhammad had exiled himself from Mecca to escape the unbelievers there.[citation needed] dar al-Kufr (Arabic: house of unbelievers) is a term used by the Prophet Muhammed to refer to the Quraish-dominated society of Mecca between his flight to Medina (the Hijra) and his triumphant return. ...


Sufrī

Main article: Sufri

Less brutal was the Sufri sect, founded by Ziyād ibnu l-Asfar in an environment hostile to Kharijism.[citation needed] These condemned political murder, adhered the practice of taqiyya,[citation needed] and rejected the massacre of the unbelievers' children.[citation needed] They considered Sura 12 to be not truly part of the Qur'an.[citation needed] This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Within Islamic tradition, the concept of Taqiyya (التقية - fear, guard against)[1] refers to a controversial dispensation allowing believers to conceal their faith when under threat, persecution or compulsion. ... Sura Yusuf (Arabic: سورة يوسف ) (Joseph) is the 12th sura of the Quran. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


Najdat

Main article: Najdat

The Najdat were the followers of Najdah ibn 'Amir, of Bani Hanifa, who established a Kharijite state in al-Yamamah (east-central Arabia). Like the Sufris, Najdah had split from the Azraqi movement over the issues of the killing of the enemy's women and children and over the status of those who refuse to join in battle, as the Azraqis believed that whoever stayed behind had become an unbeliever. RSAF Tornado IDS Al Yamamah (The Dove) is the name of a series of massive arms sales by the United Kingdom to Saudi Arabia, which have been paid for by the delivery of up to 600,000 barrels of oil per day to the UK government. ...


Ibādī

Main article: Ibadi

A third sect, the Ibādīs, developed further than the others. Founded by ˤAbdullāh ibn-Ibād, they maintained attitudes of political intransigence and moral rigor.[citation needed] They were, however, more flexible in their dealings with other Muslims - for example, they would not attack without first extending an invitation to join.[citation needed] Al-Ibāḍiyyah (Arabic الاباضية) is a form of Islam distinct from the Shiite and Sunni denominations. ... Al-Ibāḍiyyah (Arabic الاباضية) is a form of Islam distinct from the Shiite and Sunni denominations. ...


Harūrīyya

Main article: Harūriyya

The branch founded by Habib ibn-Yazīd al-Harūrī held that it was permissible to entrust the imamate to a woman if she was able to carry out the required duties.[citation needed] The founder's wife, Ghazāla al-Harūriyya, commanded troops; in this she followed the example of Juwayriyya, daughter of Abu Sufyan, at the battle of Yarmuk. In one battle, she put the famous Umayyad general Hajjāj ibn-Yūsuf to flight.[citation needed] The branch founded by Habib ibn-YazÄ«d al-HarÅ«rÄ« held that it was permissible to entrust the imamate to a woman if she was able to carry out the required duties. ... Ghazāla al-HarÅ«riyya was the wife of Habib ibn-YazÄ«d al-HarÅ«rÄ«, founder of the HarÅ«riyya sect of Kharijite Islam, which held that it is permissible to entrust the imamate to a woman if she is able to carry out the required duties. ... Abu Sufyan ibn Harb was the leader of the Banu Abd Shams clan of the Quraish tribe, and was the chieftain of the entire Quraish tribe, making him one of, if not the most powerful men in Mecca during the lifetime of Muhammad. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Muslim Arabs Commanders Theodore the Sacellarius Baänes Khalid ibn Walid Strength About 200,000 About 24,000 Casualties Very Heavy,About 50,000 Unknown,Relativly low The Battle of Yarmuk (also spelled Yarmuq or Hieromyax) took place between the Muslim Arabs and the Byzantine Empire in...


History

Reenactors showing military Kharijites
Reenactors showing military Kharijites

The high point of the Kharijites' influence was in the years 690-730 around Basra in south Iraq, which was always a center of Sunni theology. Kharijite ideology was a popular creed for rebels against the officially Sunni Caliphate, inspiring breakaway states and rebellions (like Maysara's) throughout the Maghrib and sometimes elsewhere. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... The Ridda wars (also known as the Riddah wars and the Wars of Apostasy) were a set of military campaigns against apostasy and rebellion against the Caliph Abu Bakr during 632 and 633 AD, following the death of Muhammad(S). ... The First Fitna, 656–661 CE, followed the assassination of the caliph Uthman ibn Affan, continued during the brief caliphate of Ali ibn Abu Talib, and was ended, on the whole, by Muawiyas assumption of the caliphate. ... Ibn al-Zubairs revolt was directed against Yazid I following the Battle of Karbala. ... Kharijites were members of an Islamic sect in late 7th and early 8th century AD, concentrated in todays southern Iraq. ... The Second Fitna, or Second Islamic civil war, was a period of general political and military disorder that afflicted the Islamic world during the early Umayyad dynasty, following the death of the caliph Muawiya I. There seems to be a lack of solid consensus on the exact range of years... The Great Berber Revolt of 122—25/740—43 took place during the reign of the Umayyad Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik and marked the first successful secession from the caliphate. ... Zayd ibn Ali (Arabic: , also spelled Zaid) (695-740 C.E.) He was given the title Zayd the Martyr (Zayd ash-Shahid) by his sympathizers. ... Combatants Abbasids Umayyad Caliphate Commanders Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah Marwan II The Battle of the Zab took place on the banks of the Great Zab river in what is now Iraq on January 25, 750. ... Image File history File links ReenactorKharjites. ... Image File history File links ReenactorKharjites. ... This article is about the city of Basra. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... Maghrib is an Arabic term for of the setting (sun); from the root ghuroob (to set; to be hidden). It is also used in a manner similar to the metaphorical use of to be eclipsed, which is used in the English language. ...


The Azraqī revolted against the Caliphate in 685 after separating from the Ibādī near Basra and departing for Fars. They were suppressed by Abd al-Malik's armies, under the command of Amir al-Hajjaj; their leader was killed, and by 699 they had vanished. Another revolt occurred in 695; Sunni traditions underline the massacre of Muslims at a mosque in Kufa as an example of Kharijite fury and brutality. Agitations such as these fatally weakened the Ummayad caliphate and paved the way for its overthrow by the Abbasids. Al-Ibāḍiyyah (Arabic الاباضية) is a form of Islam distinct from the Shiite and Sunni denominations. ... // Introduction Fars is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (646-705) (Arabic: عبد المالك بن مروان ) was an Umayyad caliph. ... Events People of Byzantium revolt against Justinian II. Leontius II made emperor, Justinian II is banished. ... Kufa (الكوفة al-Kufa in Arabic) is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ...


During this period, the Najdat, led by Najdah ibn 'Amir, established a state in al-Yamamah, in central Arabia, and annexed the eastern Arabian region of Bahrayn, including al-Qatif. Najdah also moved westwards and captured the city of Taif, south of Mecca, and was only dissuaded from taking Mecca and Medina by Abdullah ibn Umar, the son of the second Muslim caliph, Umar ibn al-Khattab, who was particularly revered by the Kharijites. Najdah was assassinated by some of his followers in 692, and the Najdat movement quickly disintegrated thereafter. RSAF Tornado IDS Al Yamamah (The Dove) is the name of a series of massive arms sales by the United Kingdom to Saudi Arabia, which have been paid for by the delivery of up to 600,000 barrels of oil per day to the UK government. ... Qatif is a coastal oasis located on the western bank of the Persian Gulf and covering large area consisting of many villages and cities like Saihat, Safwa, Tarut Island and many other towns. ... Taif in 1970 Taif (Arabic: ‎ translit: ) is a city in the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia at an elevation of 1700 metres on the slopes of the Al-Sarawat mountains. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... For other uses of the name, see Umar (disambiguation). ... Events The Quinisext Council (also said in Trullo), held in Constantinople, laid the foundation for the Orthodox Canon Law The Arabs conquer Armenia. ...


From the beginning of the Arab conquest of the Maghreb, the Kharijites sent representatives to join the local Berber population. The Berbers, used to a communal system of government and opposed to Arab domination, found in Kharijism an ideological framework for rebellion. In the last years of the Umayyad dynasty, the western part of the Islamic empire escaped from the central authority; Spain came under the rule of the Umayyad emirs of Cordoba, while several independent states were founded in the Maghrib. The Arab Maghreb Union This article is about the region. ... Languages Berber languages Religions Islam (mostly Sunni), Christianity (mostly Kabyle catholic) Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ...


A Sufrī community from southern Tunisia captured Kairouan in 755, at the price of fearful massacres. The Ibādī of Jebel Nafusa, outraged by the excesses of their rival sect, took the city and wiped out its Sufrī population. They proclaimed an imamate c. 757, founding a state which would cover parts of Tripolitania and Ifriqiya before it was conquered by Abbasid armies in 761. Among the leaders of this state was Abd ar-Rahman ibn Rustam, a Persian convert who would later found the Rustamid dynasty at Tahert. This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Kairouan (Arabic القيروان) (also known as Kairwan, Kayrawan, Al Qayrawan) is a muslim holy city which ranks after Mecca and Medina as a place of pilgrimage. ... Events Abd-ar-rahman I lands in Spain, where the next year he will establish a new Umayyad dynasty. ... Look up massacre in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Al-Ibāḍiyyah (Arabic الاباضية) is a form of Islam distinct from the Shiite and Sunni denominations. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Events March 9 - A major earthquake strikes Palestine and Syria Offa becomes king of Mercia. ... Tripolitania is a historic region of western Libya, centered around the coastal city of Tripoli. ... In medieval history, Ifriqiya or Ifriqiyah (Arabic: إفريقية) was the area comprising the coastal regions of what are today western Libya, Tunisia, and eastern Algeria. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... This article is about the year 761. ... The Rustamid (or Rustumid, Rostemid) dynasty of Ibadi Kharijite imams ruled the central Maghreb for a century and a half from their capital Tahert, until destroyed by the Fatimids. ... Tahert (aka Tiaret or Tihert, the Berber for station) is the name of a large Algerian town, one that gives its name to the wider farming region of Wilaya de Tiaret province in central Algeria. ...


Around the same time, a Sufri kingdom was founded in Tlemcen (western Algeria). Berber Sufrī from the tribe of Meknasa established the Midrarid state at Sijilmassa on the eastern slope of the Atlas Mountains in Morocco. Abū Qurra, a Sufrī of the Ifren tribe of Tlemcen, reconquered Ifriqiya from the Arabs in 771. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Sijilmasa (or Sijilmassa) was a mediaeval trade centre in the western Maghreb. ... Map showing the location of the Atlas Mountains (colored red) across North Africa The Atlas Mountains (Arabic: ‎) are a mountain range in northwest Africa extending about 2,400 km (1,500 miles) through Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, and including The Rock of Gibraltar. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Events December 4 - Austrasian King Carloman dies, leaving his brother Charlemagne king of the now complete Frank kingdom (Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne Emperor of the Franks at Rome on Christmas Day, 800). ...


The region stabilized in 778, when ibn Rustam made a peace treaty with the Abbasid governor of Kairouan, and remained so until the arrival of the Fatimids in 909. Events Charlemagne fights the Moors in Spain. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-Fātimiyyūn (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... This article is for the year 909. ...


Modern times

The Ibadis have survived into the present day, though they now reject the designation "Kharijite". They form a significant part of the population of Oman (where they first settled in 686), and there are smaller concentrations of them in the Mzab of Algeria, Jerba in Tunisia, Jebel Nafusa in Libya, and Zanzibar. Al-Ibāḍiyyah (Arabic الاباضية) is a form of Islam distinct from the Shiite and Sunni denominations. ... The Mzab, or Mzab is a region of the northern Sahara, in the Ghardaïa wilaya, or province, of Algeria, around 500km south of Algiers. ... Djerba, or Jerba, is an island off the coast of Tunisia. ... Map of Zanzibars main island Zanzibar is part of Tanzania Coordinates: , Country Tanzania Islands Unguja and Pemba Capital Zanzibar City Settled AD 1000 Government  - Type semi-autonomous part of Tanzania  - President Amani Abeid Karume Area  - Both Islands  637 sq mi (1,651 km²) Population (2004)  - Both Islands 1,070...


In modern times, Muslim scholars and governments have called terrorist groups which emphasize the practice of Takfir and justify the killing of innocent people as the new Kharijites; notable examples of groups described as such include the Groupe Islamique Armée of Algeria and the Takfir wal-Hijra group of Egypt. In Shia terminology, takfir also refers to the practice of crossing the arms when standing upright during salat (or takattuf, called qabd by Sunnis). ... The Armed Islamic Group (GIA, from French Groupe Islamique Armé; Arabic al-Jamaah al-Islamiyah al-Musallah) is a militant Islamist group with the declared aim of overthrowing the Algerian government and replacing it with an Islamic state. ... Takfir wal-Hijra (Arabic - Apostasy and Exile) was founded as an Egyptian terrorist group in the 1960s. ...


References

  1. ^ "Schisms and Heterodoxy among the Muslims", hosted on irfi.org
  2. ^ a b Esposito, Islam the straight path, p. 43-45
  3. ^ Ali, Ameer. 'A Short History of the Saracens', 13th Edition (in English), London 1961: Macmillan and Company, Chap.5 pg 51. “"He(Muawiyah)made his mercenaries tie copies of the Koran to their lances and flags, and shout for quarter."” 
  4. ^ Khawaarij
  5. ^ al-Muhallab ibn Abi Sufra - Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  6. ^ islamfact.com - Studies in ibadhism

Further reading

  • J J Saunders, A History of Medieval Islam, Routledge (UK), 1 October 1972 ISBN 0-415-05914-3

is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Kharijites - MSN Encarta (313 words)
Kharijites (Arabic Khawārij خوارج, literally "Those who Go Out") is a general term embracing various Muslims who, while initially supporting the caliphate of the fourth and...
Kharijites (Arabic kharawrij,”the leavers”), earliest Muslim sect, originally among the supporters of Ali, the fourth caliph of Islam (see Caliphate).
Ali outraged the Kharijites, however, when he allowed his claim to the caliphate to be arbitrated by his followers and by the partisans of Muawiyah I. The Kharijites claimed that God (Allah) had decreed Ali's caliphate and therefore arbitration by mortals was sacrilegious.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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