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Encyclopedia > Khania
Statistics
Capital: Chania
Area: 2,376 km²
Elevation: Lowest: Aegean Sea
Highest: south-central part
Inhabitants: 149,163(2001)
Population density: 62.78/km²
ISO 3166-2: GR-94
FIPS code: GR43
Car designation: XN
Code for the municipalities: -xx
Number of municipalities: 23
Number of independent communes: 2
Map
Map showing Chania within Greece

Chania(IPA [xa'nja]) (also transliterated as Hania), older form and Italian Canea (Greek Χανιά) is the second city of Crete and the capital of the prefecture of the same name. It lies along the North coast of Crete, about 70 km west of Rethymno and 145 km west of Heraklion. Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... the Aegean Sea The Aegean sea as seen from the island of Santorini The Aegean Sea (Greek: Αιγαίον Πέλαγος, Aigaion Pelagos; Turkish: Ege Denizi) is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea, located between the Greek peninsula and Anatolia (Asia Minor, now part of Turkey). ... ISO 3166-2:GR are ISO 3166-2 codes for Greece. ... FIPS could mean Federal Information Processing Standard, publicly announced standards developed by the U.S. Federal government. ... The Greek car license plates are composed of three letters and four digits per plate (f. ... The National Statistical Service of Greece (NSSG) is a General Secretariat of the Greek Ministry of Economy and Finance with more than 1100 employees. ... map File links The following pages link to this file: Chania Categories: GFDL images ... The International Phonetic Alphabet. ... Transliteration in a narrow sense is a mapping from one system of writing into another. ... Greece and Crete Crete, sometimes spelled Krete (Greek Κρήτη / Kriti) is the largest of the Greek islands and the fifth largest in the Mediterranean Sea. ... Rethymno (IPA ) (Greek Ρέθυμνο), a city of approximately 30. ... Heraklion, also Heraklio, Iraklion or Irakléio (Greek Ηράκλειο) is the major city and capital of the island of Crete. ...

Contents


History

Chania is the site of the Minoan settlement of Kydonia, the Greek for "quince". The city reemerged after the end of the Minoan period as an important city-state in Classical Greece whose domain extended from Hania Bay to the feet of the White Mountains. Kydonia was constantly at war with other city-states such as Aptera, Falasarna and Polyrrinia and was important enough to be mentioned in Homer's Odyssey. In 69 BC the Roman Consul Metellus defeated the Cretans and conquered Kydonia to which he granted the privileges of an independent city-state. Kydonia reserved the right to mint its own coins until the 3rd century AD. Map of Minoan Crete The Minoans were a pre-Hellenic Bronze Age civilization in Crete in the Aegean Sea, prior to Helladic or Mycenaean culture (i. ... Binomial name Cydonia oblonga Mill. ... This article describes the ancient classical period: for the classical period in music (second half of the 18th century): see Classical music era. ... Bust of Homer in the British Museum For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... The Odyssey (Greek Ὀδυσσεία) is the second of the two great Greek epic poems ascribed to Homer, the first of which is the Iliad. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 74 BC 73 BC 72 BC 71 BC 70 BC 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC 66... See also Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century) The Roman Republic (Latin: Res Publica Romanorum) was the representative government of Rome and its territories from 510 BC until the establishment of the Roman Empire, sometimes placed at 44 BC (the year of Caesars appointment as perpetual... The Caecilii Metellii was one of the most important and wealthiest families in the Roman Republic. ... (2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century - other centuries) Events The Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east. ...


The early Christian period under Byzantine rule is not well-documented. The Arabs overtook the island by 824 and first called the settlement Chania. Again there is little from this period which was largely an enslavement of the people rather than a colonisation. The Byzantine Empire retook the city in 961. They began to fortify the city to prevent another Arab invasion. The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب Ê»arab) are an originally Arabian ethnicity widespread in the Middle East and North Africa. ... Events Iñigo Arista revolts against the Franks and establishes the kingdom of Navarre (approximate date). ... Events Byzantine Empire recaptures Crete from Muslim control Harald I of Norway squashed the rebelling forces of Eric Bloodaxes sons but was killed in the Battle of Fitje. ...


After the Fourth Crusade and the dismantling of the Byzantine empire, in 1204, Crete was given to Bonifacio, Marquis de Montferrat. He, in turn, chose to sell it to the Venetians for 100 silver marks. In 1252 the Venetians managed to subdue the Cretans but in 1263, the Genoans, with local support, seized the city under the leadership of the Count of Malta, Henrico Pescatore, and held it until 1285 when the Venetians returned. Chania was chosen as the seat of the Rector (Administrator General) of the region and flourished as a significant commercial centre of a fertile agricultural region. Contact with Venice led to close intertwining of Cretan and Venetian cultures. The city's name became La Canea and fortifications were built around the city, against invaders and pirates, giving Chania the form that it still has today. The Fourth Crusade (1202-1204), originally designed to conquer Jerusalem by taking Egypt first, instead, in 1204, conquered the Orthodox Christian city of Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire. ... Events February - Byzantine emperor Alexius IV is overthrown in a revolution, and Alexius V is proclaimed emperor. ... Boniface of Montferrat (c. ... Venetian could mean of Venice of the Republic of Venice the Venetian language The Venetian, a hotel and casino in Las Vegas, Nevada A venetian blind - a horizontally slatted window blind. ... Events Alfonso X of Castile, the Wise (el Sabio) Stockholm is founded by Birger Jarl (cf 1854) The widespread usage of torture by the Medieval Inquisition is introduced. ... Events Detmold, Germany was founded. ... Location within Italy Flag of Genoa Christopher Columbus monument in Piazza Aquaverde Genoa (Italian Genova, Genoese Zena, French Gênes) is a city and a seaport in northern Italy, the capital of the Province of Genoa and of the region of Liguria. ... Events Night watch created in Winchester, England - every householder patrols one night in turn The writ Circumspecte Agatis defines the jurisdictions of church and state in England Births Emperor Go-Nijo of Japan Pope Benedict XII Deaths March 28 - Pope Martin IV Categories: 1285 ...


However the walls did not prevent the Turkish army overrunning the ciy in 1645 after just two months siege. The Turks landed near the Monastery of "Gonia" in Kissamos, which they plundered and burnt. They seized Chania itself on 2 August 1645. Huge numbers died in the siege, particularly Turks. The Turkish commander was executed on returning home for losing up to 40,000 men. // Events January 10 - Archbishop Laud executed on Tower Hill. ... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... // Events January 10 - Archbishop Laud executed on Tower Hill. ...


Most churches were turned into mosques and the riches of the city were taken. The Turks resided mainly in the eastern quarters, Kastelli and Splantzia, where they converted the Dominican church of St Nicholas into the central Sovereign's Mosque ("Houghiar Tzamissi"). They also built new mosqies such as "Kioutsouk Hassan Tzamissi" on the harbour. Public baths - Hamam, and fountains were a feature of the Turkish city. The pasha of the island resided in Chania. A church building is a building used in Christian worship. ... A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Saint Nicholas, also known as Nikolaus in Germany and Sinterklaas (a contracted form of Sint Nicolaas) in the Netherlands and Flanders, is the common name for the historical Saint Nicholas of Myra, who lived in 4th century Byzantine Anatolia, (now in modern Turkey) and had a reputation for secret gift... This article is about hammam, the Turkish bath. ... This article discusses the rank/title used in the Ottoman Empire. ...


In 1821, as Greece rose against the Ottomans, many Christians were slaughtered and the Bishop of Kissamos, Melhisethek Thespotakis was hanged from a tree in Splantzia. In 1878, the Treaty of Halepa was signed and Christians were granted certain rights. 1821 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29, 1923... 1878 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Eleftherios Venizelos, who hailed from Mournies near Chania, was a leader of the 1896 uprising against Ottoman rule and went on to be Prime Minister of Greece and a great statesman. His tomb is on a hill overlooking Chania. In 1898, during the final moves towards independence and enosis with Greece, the Great Powers made Chania the capital of the semi-autonomous "Cretan State", with Prince George of Greece, the High Commissioner of Crete living here. The district of Halepa has many fine neoclassical embassies and consulates dating from this period. Crete issued its own stamps and money. The capital was moved to Heraklion in 1971. Eleftherios Venizelos Eleftherios Venizelos (Ελευθέριος Βενιζέλος) (August 23, 1864 - March 18, 1936) was probably the most significant politician of modern Greece. ... 1896 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1898 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Prominent issues in Greek foreign policy include a dispute over the name of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, the enduring Cyprus problem, Greek-Turkish differences over the Aegean, and relations with the USA. The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Greek refusal to recognize the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... His Royal Highness Prince George of Greece and Denmark (24 June 1869, Corfu-25 November 1957, St Cloud) was the third child of King George I of Greece and Grand Duchess Olga. ... 1971 is a common year starting on Friday (click for link to calendar). ...


The city today

Venetian Quarter of Chania
Venetian Quarter of Chania
The cathedral
Enlarge
The cathedral

Despite being heavily bombed in World War II, Chania's old city is considered Crete's most beautiful town, especially the crumbling Venetian harbour with its 15th century lighthouse and the Mosque of the Janissaries. Many of the old buildings have been restored as hotels, shops and bars, although the Splantzia quarter behind the inner harbour and Venetian Arsenals is still largely untouched and very atmospheric. The 1860 Greek Orthodox Cathedral is located in a square facing the entrance to the 1879 Roman Catholic cathedral across Halidhon street. The Synagogue - Etz Hayyim in the Topanas District, has been restored in recent years after falling into disrepair when the Jewish community of Chania was transported off the island by the Nazi occupiers in 1944. Tragically a British torpedo sank the ship Tanais carrying most of the Jewish prisoners, killing the island's pre-war community. Hania Venetian Quarter I took this photo myself. ... Hania Venetian Quarter I took this photo myself. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 264 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 264 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km (over 11 miles) into the air, August 9, 1945 after the Allied atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... The Peggys Point lighthouse in Nova Scotia, Canada An aid for navigation and pilotage at sea, a lighthouse is a tower building or framework sending out light from a system of lamps and lenses or, in older times, from a fire. ... A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... The Janissaries (or janizaries; in Turkish: Yeniçeri, meaning New Troops) comprised infantry units that formed the Ottoman sultans household troops and bodyguard. ... An Arse is an establishment for the construction, repair, receipt, storage, and excretion and issue of weapons and ammunitionand random iraqis. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Greek Orthodox Church can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches: the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, headed by the Patriarch of Constantinople, who is also the first among equals of the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ... 1879 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... A synagogue (from Greek συναγωγη, transliterated sunagoge, place of assembly literally meeting, assembly) is a Jewish house of prayer and study. ... The word Jew (Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The city boasts archaeological, naval history and folklore museums, art galleries and many stores and tavernas in the old town. The 1913 indoor market, a large building based on the market of Marseilles, is on the edge of the old town and is popular with tourists and locals alike. In the new town that spreads out some distance there are popular boutiques and cafés as well as the University, Town Hall and Hospital. Some 60,000 people live in Chania. 1913 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Marseilles redirects here. ...


Transport

The city has an international airport (code CHQ) on the Akrotiri Peninsula named after Daskalogiannis, a Sfakiot hero who was skinned by the Turks in the 18th century. There are several flights a day from Athens to Chania, with Aegean Airlines or Olympic Airlines. From April to early November, there are many direct charter flights to Chania from the UK, Germany, Scandinavia and other European countries.
Domestic flight schedules The municipaliy of Akrotiri in Chania prefecture Akrotiri (Greek: Ακρωτήρι, literally promontory) is a peninsula in Crete, east of Chania. ... Ioannis Daskalogiannis (Ioannis Vlachos, Δασκαλογιάννης) (?-June 17, 1771) was a Cretan rebel against Ottoman rule in the 18th century. ... Sfakiá is a beautiful, traditional, mountainous area to the South West of the island of Crete in Chania prefecture. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


Souda, some 7 km from Chania, is the city's port, with daily ferries to Pireaus and a NATO naval base.
Ferry schedules Souda (Greek: Σούδα) is a town and municipality of the Greek island of Crete, in the prefecture of Chania. ... Piraeus, or Peiraeus (Modern Greek: Πειραιά(ς) Pireá(s), Ancient Greek / Katharevousa: Πειραιεύς Pireéfs) is a city in the prefecture of Attica, Greece, located south of Athens. ... The flag of NATO NATO 2002 Summit The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for defence collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, D.C., on April 4, 1949. ...


Chania prefecture

The municipalities of Chania prefecture, highlighting the municipality of Chania
The municipalities of Chania prefecture, highlighting the municipality of Chania

Chania prefecture is one of the four prefectures of Crete and covers the Westernmost quarter of the island. Districts include the verdant Apokoronas, the mountainous Sfakia, and Selino in the far South West corner. Some notable towns in the Chania prefecture are: Hóra Sfakíon, Kastelli-Kissamos, Paleohora, Maleme, Vrisses, Vamos, Georgioupolis and Kalives. Image File history File links Map of Chania municipality Created by Mtiedemann in July 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Chania ... Image File history File links Map of Chania municipality Created by Mtiedemann in July 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Chania ... Apokoronas is a region of north-west Crete, Greece, in Chania prefecture, to the east of Chania itself. ... Sfakiá is a beautiful, traditional, mountainous area to the South West of the island of Crete in Chania prefecture. ... Sfakiá is a beautiful, traditional, mountainous area to the South West of the island of Crete in Chania prefecture. ... Maleme is a town and airport 16km to the west of Chania, in North Western Crete, Greece. ... Vamos is a small town and municipality on the island of Crete, Greece. ... Georgioupoli or Georgioupolis (Greek: Γεωργιούπολης) is a village and resort on the Greek island of Crete. ... Kalives (Kalyves, Καλύβες) is a large village in Crete, Greece. ...


The natural park of Samaria Gorge, a major tourist attraction and a refuge for the rare Cretan wild goat or kri kri, is in the South of the prefecture of Chania. The White Mountains or Lefka Ori, through which the Samaria, Aradena, Imbros and other gorges run, are the limestone peaks topped by snow until May that occupy much of Chania prefecture. They contain more than 40 peaks over 2,000 meters high. The highest peak in this area is Pahnes, at 2,452 meters above sea level. Categories: Greece geography stubs | Crete ... Trinomial name Capra aegagrus creticus (Schinz, 1838) The Kri-kri (Capra aegagrus creticus), sometimes called the Cretan goat, Agrimi, or Cretan Ibex, is a subspecies of Wild Goat. ...


Western Crete is popular with tourists for its spring flowers that linger on into early May in the mountains. Birdwatching is also popular, with the lammergeier and golden eagle especially sought for. As an island, Crete has many endemic species of plant and animal. Binomial name Gypaetus barbatus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Lammergeier or Bearded Vulture, Gypaetus barbatus is an Old World vulture, the only member of the genus Gypaetus (Storr, 1784). ... Binomial name Aquila chrysaetos Linnaeus, 1758 The Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is one of the best known birds of prey in the world. ... This article is about the ecological meaning of endemic. See also endemic (epidemiology). ...


Crete's only freshwater lake, Lake Kournas, is in the prefecture close to the border with Rethimnon prefecture, 47 km from Chania. It is relatively large, with a perimeter of 3.5 km. The lake used to be called 'Korisia' after ancient 'Korion', a city thought to be in the area with a temple to Athena. The lake used to be reportedly full of eels but now is better known for its terrapins and tourists. Tavernas and pedalo rental shops line part of the shore. Overall, however, the lake retains its beauty, the White Mountains reflected in the mirror-like waters. Kournas is the name of a village and nearby lake on the island of Crete, Greece. ... Athena from the east pediment of the Afea temple in Aegina After a sculpture of Athena at the Louvre. ...


Municipalities

Municipality YPES code Seat Postal code Area code ((0)30-)
Akrotiri - Pythari 731 00 28210-6
Anatoliko Selino - Kampanos 730 09 28230-5
Armeni - Kalives 730 08 28250-3
Chania - Chania 731 00 28210-2 thru 7
Eleftherios Venizelos - Mournies 733 00 28210-9
Fres - Fres 730 06 28210-7
Georgioupolis - Kavros-Kournas 730 07 28250-9
Innachorio (or Inachori or Oinachori) - Elos 730 13 28220-6
Kandanos - Kandanos 730 04 28220-3
Keramia - Gerolakos 731 00 28210
Kissamos - Kastelli-Kissamos 734 00 28220-2
Kolymbari - Kolymbari 730 06 28240-2
Kryonerida - Vrisses (Apokoronas) 730 07 28250-5
Mythimna - Drapani 730 04 28220-3
[[Mousouri - Alikianos 730 05 28220-3
Nea Kydonia - Nea Kydonia 731 00 28210-3
Pelakanos - Paleohora 730 01 28230-2
Platanias - Gerani 730 04 28210-6
Sfakia - Hora Sfakion 730 11 28250-9
Souda - Souda 732 00 282210-2
Theriso - Vamvakopoulo 731 28210-9
Vamos - Vamos 730 08 28250-2
Voukolies - Voukolies 730 02 28240-3

Akrotiri is a peninsula in Crete, east of Chania. ... Kalives (Kalyves, Καλύβες) is a large village in Crete, Greece. ... Georgioupoli or Georgioupolis (Greek: Γεωργιούπολης) is a village and resort on the Greek island of Crete. ... Kournas is the name of a village and nearby lake on the island of Crete, Greece. ... Apokoronas is a region of north-west Crete, Greece, in Chania prefecture, to the east of Chania itself. ... Sfakiá is a beautiful, traditional, mountainous area to the South West of the island of Crete in Chania prefecture. ... Sfakiá is a beautiful, traditional, mountainous area to the South West of the island of Crete in Chania prefecture. ... Souda (Greek: Σούδα) is a town and municipality of the Greek island of Crete, in the prefecture of Chania. ... Souda (Greek: Σούδα) is a town and municipality of the Greek island of Crete, in the prefecture of Chania. ... Vamos is a small town and municipality on the island of Crete, Greece. ... Vamos is a small town and municipality on the island of Crete, Greece. ...

Communities

Municipality YPES code Seat Postal code Area code ((0)30-)
Asi Gonias - Asi Gonias 740 55 28310-4
Gavdos - Gavdos 730 01 28230-4
  • See also: Communities of Chania

Gavdos is the most southerly Greek island, located to the south of its much bigger neighbour, Crete, of which it is administratively a part. ...

Communications

Television

  • Kydon TV

Famous inhabitants of the Chania prefecture

Eleftherios Venizelos Eleftherios Venizelos (Ελευθέριος Βενιζέλος) (August 23, 1864 - March 18, 1936) was probably the most significant politician of modern Greece. ...

Places

Archaeological sites

External links

  • Municipality of Chania
  • Chania Feature
  • West Crete
  • Etz Hayyim Synagogue

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