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Encyclopedia > Khan

Khan (sometimes spelled as Xan, Han, Ke-Han) is a title for a sovereign or military ruler in the Altaic languages . It was originally just the title in Turkic for a tribal leader before the Mongols and Turks brought it to the rest of Asia. It now has many equivalent meanings such as commander, leader, or ruler. Presently Khans exist mostly in South Asia, Central Asia and Iran. The female alternative are Khatun, Khatan and Khanum. Various Mongolic, Turkic and Hunnic peoples from Central Asia had given the title new prominence after the Mongol invasion and later brought the title "Khan" into Afghanistan and Northern India, which later was adopted by locals in the country as a name. Khagan is rendered as Khan of Khans and was the title of Genghis Khan and the other Khagans (his direct male descendants) Khan can refer to one of the following Khan, a title of a ruler in Mongolian and Turkish. ... Altaic is a proposed language family that includes 66 languages [1] spoken by about 348 million people, mostly in and around Central Asia and northeast Asia. ... This is the disambiguation page for the terms Turk, Turkey, Turkic, and Turkish. ... The name Mongols (Mongolian: Mongol) specifies one or several ethnic groups. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The Mongolic languages are a group of thirteen languages spoken in Central Asia. ... This is the disambiguation page for the terms Turk, Turkey, Turkic, and Turkish. ... Many historians consider the Huns (meaning person in Mongolian language) the first Turkic people mentioned in European history. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Khagan or Great Khan (Old Turkic , alternatively spelled Chagan, Khaghan, Kagan, Qagan, Qaghan), is a title of imperial rank in the Mongolian and Turkic languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a Khaganate (empire, greater than an ordinary Khan, but often referred to as such in... For other uses, see Genghis Khan (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Khanate rulers and dynasties

Ruling Khans

A khan controls a khanate (sometimes spelled chanat). Whenever appropriate as ruler of a monarchy, Khan is also translated, albeit incorrectly, as king or prince. For the Star Trek character see Khan Noonien Singh. ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... The term prince, from the Latin root princeps, is used for a member of the highest ranks of the aristocracy or the nobility. ...


Originally khans only headed relatively minor tribal entities, generally in or near the vast Eurasian steppe, the scene of an almost endless procession of nomadic people riding out into the history of the neighbouring sedentary regions, mainly Europe and the Far East.


Some managed to establish principalities of some importance for a while, as their military might repeatedly proved a serious threat to such empires as China, Rome and Byzantium.


One of the earliest notable examples of such principalities in Europe was Danube Bulgaria (presumably also Old Great Bulgaria), ruled by a khan or a kan at least from the 7th to the 9th century. It should be noted that the title "khan" is not attested directly in inscriptions and texts referring to Bulgar rulers - the only similar tvvvvvvvitle found so far, Kanasubigi, has been found solely in the inscriptions of three consecutive Bulgarian rulers, namely Krum, Omurtag and Malamir (a grandfather, son and grandson). Starting from the compound, non-ruler titles that were attested among Bulgarian noble class such as kavkhan (vicekhan), tarkhan, and boritarkhan, scholars derive the title khan or kan for the early Bulgarian leader — if there was a vicekhan (kavkhan) there was probably a "full" khan, too. Compare also the rendition of the name of early Bulgarian ruler Pagan as Καμπαγάνος (Kampaganos), likely resulting from a misinterpretation of "Kan Pagan", in Patriarch Nicephorus's so-called Breviarium[1] In general, however, the inscriptions as well as other sources designate the supreme ruler of Danube Bulgaria with titles that exist in the language in which they are written - archontеs, meaning 'commander or magistrate' in Greek, and knyaze, meaning 'duke' or 'prince' in Slavic. Among the best known Bulgar khans were: Khan Kubrat, founder of Great Bulgaria; Khan Asparukh, founder of Danubian Bulgaria (today's Bulgaria); Khan Tervel, sometimes credited for having defeated the Arab invaders, thus "saving Europe"; Khan Krum, "the Terrible". "Khan" was the official title of the ruler until 864 CE, when Kniaz Boris (known also as Tsar Boris I) adopted the Eastern Orthodox faith. For other uses, see Bulgaria (disambiguation). ... Old Great Bulgaria or Great Bulgaria (Η παλαιά μεγάλη Βουλγαρία in Byzantine chronicles; alternative name: Onoguria/Onoghuria) was a Bulgar state, founded by Kubrat, which briefly existed in the 7th century north of the Caucasus mountains in the steppe between the rivers Dnieper and Lower Volga[1]. // Main article: Kubrat Kubrat (also Kurt or... Bulgar warriors slaughter Byzantines, from the Menology of Basil II, 10th century. ... Krum (died April 13, 814) was a Khan of Bulgaria, of the Dulo clan, from 802 to 814. ... Omortag-Khan or Omurtag of Bulgaria succeeded his father Krum to the throne in 814. ... A city in Iranian province of Lorestan near the Bakhtiyari mountains, northeast of Susa. ... Pagan was the ruler of Bulgaria 767–768. ... St. ... A breviary (from Latin brevis, short or concise) is a liturgical book containing the public or canonical prayers, hymns, the Psalms, readings, and notations for everyday use, especially for priests, in the Divine Office (i. ... Kniaz’ or knyaz is a word found in some Slavic languages, denoting a nobility rank. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... Kubrat (also Kurt, Kovrat, Kobrat, Kuvrat, Kubert, Korbat, Qobrat, Khudbard, Kuvarog, Krovat Kurbat and even Bashtu) was an early Bulgar ruler. ... In 632, Khan Kubrat united the Bulgars and formed a confederation of tribes, known as Great Bulgaria, or Bulgaria Magna, with a capital at the ancient city of Fanagoria. ... Khan Asparukh or Khan Asparoukh (d. ... Khan Tervel or Tarvel, or Terval, or Terbelis in some Byzantine sources, was the khan of the Bulgars from 700 or 701-718. ... Languages Arabic and other minority languages Religions Islam, Christianity, Druzism and Judaism Arab woman from Ramallah wearing traditional dress in 1915. ... Krum (died April 13, 814) was a Khan of Bulgaria, of the Dulo clan, from 802 to 814. ... Events Khan Boris I of Bulgaria is baptized an Orthodox Christian. ... Boris I Michail or Boris I Michael (Bulgarian Борис I Михаил, known also as Bogoris)(died May 2, 907) was the khan from 852 to 889 and first Christian ruler of Bulgaria. ... Boris I Michail or Boris I Michael (Bulgarian Борис I Михаил, known also as Bogoris)(died May 2, 907) was the khan from 852 to 889 and first Christian ruler of Bulgaria. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ...

Eurasia on the eve of the Mongol invasions, c. CE 1200.
Eurasia on the eve of the Mongol invasions, c. CE 1200.

The title Khan became unprecedently prominent when the tribal Mongol Temüjin proved himself a military genius by creating the Mongol empire, the greatest land empire the world ever saw, which he ruled as Genghis Khan. His title was khagan 'Khan of Khans', see below, but is often 'shortened' to Khan (rather like the Persian Shahanshah -also meaning 'King of Kings'- is usually called Shah, equally incorrect, in most Western languages) or described as 'Great Khan' (like the Ottoman Padishah being called 'Great Sultan'). Image File history File links Premongol. ... Image File history File links Premongol. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Genghis Khan (disambiguation). ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: , Mongolyn Ezent Güren; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous empire in history, covering over 33 million km²[1] (12 million square miles) at its zenith, with an estimated population of over 100 million people. ... For other uses, see Genghis Khan (disambiguation). ... Khagan or Great Khan (Old Turkic , alternatively spelled Chagan, Khaghan, Kagan, Qagan, Qaghan), is a title of imperial rank in the Mongolian and Turkic languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a Khaganate (empire, greater than an ordinary Khan, but often referred to as such in... King of Kings is a lofty title that has been used by several monarchies (usually empires in the informal sense of great powers) throughout history, and in many cases the literal title meaning King of Kings, i. ... Shah or Shahzad is a Persian term for a monarch (ruler) that has been adopted in many other languages. ...


After Genghis' death, the empire would soon start a process of gradual disintegration, with his successors initially preserving the title "khan". Soon the Mongol element waned nearly everywhere, except in desolate regions like its native Outer Mongolia (even in China's 'Inner Mongolia') by sedentary people, and mainly Turkic, nomadic tribes that entered the scene rather like the Mongols had done before, conquering on horseback, to be in turn either sedentarized or overrun. Still, Genghis' prestige was such that a claim to descent from him was as prized as would be descent from Caesar in the West.


The title Khan was also used to designate the rulers of the Jurchens, who, later when known as the Manchus, founded the Qing dynasty of China. The Mongolian title of the Qing emperors, Bogd Khan, would later be used by the eighth Jebtsundamba Khutuktu after Mongolia's declaration of independence in 1911. The Jurchens (Traditional Chinese: 女眞; Simplified Chinese: 女真; pinyin: nÇšzhÄ“n) were a Tungus people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the 17th century, when they became the Manchus. ... The Manchu (manju in Manchu; 滿族 (pinyin: mǎnzú) in Chinese, often shortened to 滿 (pinyin: mǎn) are an ethnic group who originated in northeastern Manchuria. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: 清朝; pinyin: qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of... The Khalkha Jebtsundamba Khutughtu (also known as Javzandamba Hutagt in Khalkha Mongolian; also as Rje Btsun Dam Pa or Jetsun Dampa in Tibetan — all meaning lit. ... The Khalkha Jebtsundamba Khutughtu (also known as Javzandamba Hutagt in Khalkha Mongolian; also as Rje Btsun Dam Pa or Jetsun Dampa in Tibetan — all meaning lit. ...


Once more, there would be numerous khanates in the steppe in and around Central Asia, often more of a people than a territorial state, e.g.:

  • of the Kazakhs (founded 1465; since 1601 divided into three geographical Jüz or Hordes, each under a bey; in 1718 split into three different khanates; eliminated by the Russian Empire by 1847)
  • in present Uzbekistan, the main khanate, named after its capital Buchara, was founded in 1500 and restyled emirate in 1753 (after three Persian governors since 1747); the Ferghana (valley's) khanate broke way from it by 1694 and became known as the Khanate of Kokand after its capital Kokand from its establishment in 1732; the khanate of Khwarezm, dating from c.1500, became the Khanate of Khiva in 1804 but fell soon under Russian protectorate; Karakalpakstan had its own rulers (khans?) since c. 1600.

While most Afghan principalities were styled emirate, there was a khanate of ethnic Uzbeks in Badakhshan since 1697. Languages Kazakh (and/or languages in country of residence) Religions Sunni Islam The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар []; Russian: Казахи; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of Uzbekistan, China, Russia, and... A jüz (Kazakh: ) is one of the three main traditional divisions of the Kazakh nation. ... Bey is originally a Turkish[1][2] word for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders of small tribal groups. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... For other uses, see Bukhara (disambiguation). ... Etymologically an emirate or amirate (Arabic: إمارة Imarah, plural: إمارات Imarat) is the quality, dignity, office or territorial competence of any Emir (prince, governor etc. ... Fergana is a city in the Fergana Valley, capital of the Fargona Viloyati of Uzbekistan. ... The Khanate of Kokand is a formar state in Asia that existed from 1709-1876 within the territory of modern Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. ... Kokand (or Khokand or Kokhand or Quqon or Коканд) is a city in Fergana Province in eastern Uzbekistan, at the southwestern edge of the Fergana Valley. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      Khwarezm was a series of states centered on the Amu Darya river delta of the former Aral Sea, in modern Uzbekistan, extending across the Ust-Urt plateau and possibly as far west as... Khiva (alternative names include Khorasam, Khoresm, Khwarezm, Khwarizm, Khwarazm, Chiwa and Chorezm) is the former capital of Khwarezmia, which lies in the present-day Khorezm Province of Uzbekistan. ... Karakalpakstan (Uzbek: Qoraqalpogiston Respublikasi or Қорақалпоғистон Республикаси; Karakalpak: Қарақалпақстан Республикасы or Qaraqalpaqstan Respublikası) is an autonomous republic of Uzbekistan. ... Badakhshan is a region comprising parts of northeastern Afghanistan and of Tajikistan. ...


Khan was the title of the rulers of various break-away states later reintegrated in Iran, e.g. 1747 - 1808 Khanate of Ardabil (in northwestern Iran east of Sarab and west of the southwest corner of the Caspian Sea), 1747 - 1813 Khanate of Khoy (northwestern Iran, north of Lake Urmia, between Tabriz and Lake Van), 1747 - 1829 Khanate of Maku (in extreme northwestern Iran, northwest of Khoy, and 60 miles south of Yerevan, Armenia), 1747 - 1790s Khanate of Sarab (northwestern Iran east of Tabrizlol), 1747 - c.1800 Khanate of Tabriz (capital of Iranian Azerbeidjan). Ardabil (Persian: اردبیل; Azeri: اردبيل; also known as Ardebil; Old Persian: Artavil) is a historical city in north-western Iran. ... Khoy (خوی in Persian and Xoy in Kurdish), also spelt Khoi or Khvoy, is a city in West Azarbaijan, Iran. ... Region of the old Armenia c. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


There were various small khanates in and near Transcaucasia. In present Armenia, there was a khanate of Erivan (sole incumbent 1807 - 1827 Hosein Quli Khan Qajar). Diverse khanates existed in Azerbaijan, including Baku (present capital), Ganja, Jawad, Quba (Kuba), Salyan, Shakki (Sheki, ruler style Bashchi since 1743) and Shirvan=Shamakha (1748 - 1786 temporarily split into Khoja Shamakha and Yeni Shamakha), Talysh (1747-1814); Nakhichevan and (Nagorno) Karabakh. Transcaucasia is the name given to a region south of the Caucasus Mountains that covers Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. ... Erivan (Yerevan), Erwan (آرون) Khanate was a Muslim principality under the dominion of Persia that existed on the territory of modern Armenia and parts of Azerbaijan between 1747 and 1828. ... Baku Khanate was independent principality on the territory of modern day Azerbaijan between 1747 and 1806. ... Ganja khanate was an independent principality that existed in the territory of Azerbaijan in 1747-1805. ... Jawad is a Muslim name. ... Quba Khanate was independent principality on the territory of modern day Azerbaijan between 1747 and 1806. ... Salyan is a rayon of Azerbaijan. ... Shaki khanate was a principalty on the territory of Azerbaijan between 1743 and 1819 with a capital in a town of Shaki. ... Saki (or Sheki) is a city in North-west Azerbaijan. ... In 1742 Shemakha was taken and destroyed by Nadir Shah of Persia, who relocated inhabitants into a new town under the same name about 16 miles to the west (Agsu) , at the foot of the main chain of the Caucasus. ... Talysh khanate was an independent principality that existed on the territory of modern Azerbaijan Republic between 1747 and 1813. ... Nakhichevan khanate (Naxçıvan xanlığı in Azerbaijani) was a feudal state that existed in the territory of the present-day Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic. ... The Karabakh khanate (Qarabağ xanlığı in Azeri) was a Persian ruled[1] feudal state that existed in 1748-1822 in the present-day Nagorno-Karabakh and adjacent lowland areas. ...


As hinted above, the title Khan was also common in some of the polities of the various - generally Islamic - peoples in the territories of the Mongol Golden Horde and its successor states, which, like the Mongols in general, were commonly called Ta(r)tars[2] by Europeans and Russians, and were all eventually subdued by Muscovia which became the Russian Empire. The most important of these states were: The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Turkish: ; Tatar: ; Russian: ) is a Russian designation for the Mongol[1][2][3][4] — later Turkicized[3] — khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire upon its breakup in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus. ... Historically, the term Tatar (or Tartar) has been ambiguously used by Europeans to refer to many different peoples of Inner Asia and Northern Asia. ...

  • Khanate of Kazan (the Mongol term khan became active since Genghizide dynasty was settled in Kazan Duchy in 1430s; imperial Russian added to its titles the former Kazan khanate with the royal style tsar.
  • Sibir Khanate (giving its name to Siberia as the first significant conquest during Russia's great eastern expansion across the Ural range) *Sibirean Khanate (giving its name to Siberia as the first significant conquest during Russia's great eastern expansion across the Ural range)
  • Astrakhan Khanate
  • Crimean Khanate.

Examples of other, humbler Tatar khanate dynasties made vassals of Muscovy/ Russia are: Map of Kazan Khanate, early 1500s The Kazan Khanate (Tatar: Qazan xanlığı; Russian: Казанское ханство) (1438-1552) was a Tatar state on the territory of former Volga Bulgaria with its capital in Kazan. ... Events and Trends A map of Europe in the 1430s. ... Categories: Historical stubs | Former countries | Tatars | Tatarstan history | History of Mongolia ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Siberia Airlines (Russian:Авиакомпания Сибирь, in English it is also referred to as Sibir) is a Russian airline with major hubs in Domodedovo International Airport (Moscow), Tolmachevo Airport (Novosibirsk), and Irkutsk International Airport (Irkutsk). ... ... The Khanate of Astrakhan (Xacitarxan Khanate) was a Tatar feudal state that appeared after the collapse of the Golden Horde. ... Flag Crimean Khanate in 1600 Capital Bakhchisaray Government Monarchy History  - Established 1441  - Annexed to Russia 1783 The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Crimean Tatar: ; Russian: - Krymskoye khanstvo; Ukrainian: - Krymske khanstvo; Turkish: ) was a Crimean Tatar state from 1441 to 1783. ...

  • the Qasim Khanate (hence modern Kasimov), named after its founder, a vassal of Moscovia/Russia
  • the nomadic state founded in 1801 as the Inner Horde (also called Buqei Horde, under Russian suzerainty) between Volga and Yaik (Ural) rivers by 5,000 families of Kazakhs from Younger Kazakh Zhuz tribe under a Sultan was restyled by the same in 1812 as Khanate of the Inner Horde; in 1845 the post of Khan was abolished);
  • the Kalmyk khanate (established c.1632 by the Torghut branch of the Mongolian Oirats, settled along the lower Volga River (in modern Russia and Kazakhstan)
  • Nogai Khanate
  • the khanate of Tuva near Outer Mongolia.

Further east, in imperial China's western Turkestan flank: Qasim Khanate was a Tatar territorial formation, vassal of Muscovy, which exsited from 1452 till 1681 on the territory of modern Ryazan Oblast in Russia with capital Kasimov. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... The Ural River (Russian: Урал, Urál [formerly: Яик, Yaik River], Kazakh: Жайық, Zhayyq) flows through Russia and Kazakhstan. ... A jüz (Kazakh: ) is one of the three main traditional divisions of the Kazakh nation. ... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Nogai people Flag of the Nogai people The Nogai, also spelled Nogay, Noghai, and often called the Caucasian Mongols (Caucasian refers to their geographic position in the Caucasus mountains, not to their ethnicity), are a Turkic people, and an important ethnic group in the Daghestan region who speak the Turkic... Tyva Republic IPA: (Russian: IPA: ; Tuvan: ), or Tuva (), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

  • Dörben Oyriad ('Four Confederates') or Dzungar (Kalmyk or Kalmuck people branch) Khanate formed in 1626, covering Xinjiang region of China, Kyrgyzstan, eastern Kazakhstan and western Mongolia; 2 Dec 1717 - 1720 also styled Protector of Tibet; 1755 tributary to China, 1756 annexed and dissolved in 1757
  • Khanate of Kashgaria founded in 1514 as part of Djagataide Khanate; 17th century divided into several minor khanates without importance, real power going to the so-called Khwaja, Arabic islamic religious leaders; title changed to Amir Khan in 1873, annexed by China in 1877.

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Dzungars. ... Jüün Ghar was a tribe of the Oyirad Mongols. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... Kashgar is an oasis city located west of the Taklamakan desert, at the feet of the Tian Shan mountain range in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China (39°24’26” N. lat. ... Khawaja or Khwaja (Arabic: خواجہ ) is a Muslim title used in Middle East and South Asia. ... Emir (also sometimes rendered as Amir or Ameer, Arabic commander) is a title of nobility historically used in Islamic nations of the Middle East and North Africa. ...

Compound and derived princely titles

The higher, rather imperial title Khagan ("Khan of Khans") applies to probably the most famous rulers known as Khan: the Mongol imperial dynasty of Genghis Khan (his name was Temüjin, Genghis Khan a never fully understood unique title), and his successors, especially grandson Kublai Khan: the former founded the Mongol Empire and the latter founded the Yuan Dynasty in China. The ruling descendants of the main branch of Genghis Khan's dynasty are referred to as the Great Khans. Khagan or Great Khan (Old Turkic , alternatively spelled Chagan, Khaghan, Kagan, Qagan, Qaghan), is a title of imperial rank in the Mongolian and Turkic languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a Khaganate (empire, greater than an ordinary Khan, but often referred to as such in... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... For other uses, see Genghis Khan (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: , Mongolyn Ezent Güren; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous empire in history, covering over 33 million km²[1] (12 million square miles) at its zenith, with an estimated population of over 100 million people. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ...

Mongol Empire's largest extent outlined in red; Timur's empire is shaded
Mongol Empire's largest extent outlined in red; Timur's empire is shaded

The title Khan of Khans was among numerous titles used by the Sultans of the Ottoman empire as well as the rulers of the Golden Horde and its descendant states. The title Khan was also used in the Seljuk Turk dynasties of the near-east to designate a head of multiple tribes, clans or nations, who was below an Atabeg in rank. Jurchen and Manchu rulers also used the title Khan (Han in Manchu); for example, Nurhaci was called Genggiyen Han. Rulers of the Göktürks, Avars and Khazars used the higher title Kaghan, as rulers of distinct nations. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1683x1129, 411 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1683x1129, 411 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Statue of Timur in Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan TÄ«mÅ«r bin Taraghay Barlas (Chagatai Turkic: تیمور - TÄ“mōr, iron) (1336 – February 1405), known in the West as Tamerlane, was a 14th century warlord of Turco-Mongol descent,[1][2][3][4] conqueror of much of western and central Asia, and founder... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... “Ottoman” redirects here. ... The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Turkish: ; Tatar: ; Russian: ) is a Russian designation for the Mongol[1][2][3][4] — later Turkicized[3] — khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire upon its breakup in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus. ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... Atabeg is a title of nobility of Turkic origin, indicating a governor of a nation or province who was subordinate to a king or Emperor but senior to a Khan. ... The Jurchens (Chinese: 女真, pinyin: nǚzhēn) were a Tungusic people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: , Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... The Manchu language is a Tungusic language spoken by Manchus in Manchuria; it is the language of the Manchu, though now most Manchus speak Mandarin Chinese and there are fewer than 70 native speakers of Manchu out of a total of nearly 10 million ethnic Manchus. ... Also known as Taizu Emperor, Nurhaci or Nuerhachi (Chinese: 努爾哈赤; Manchu: ) (1558-September 30, 1626; r. ... The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia and China. ... Late Avar period Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ...

  • Gur Khan, meaning supreme or universal Khan, was the ruler of the Turkic Kara-Kitai, and has occasionally been used by the Mongols as well
  • Ilkhan, both a generic term for a 'provincial Khan' and traditional royal style for one of the four khanates in Genghis's succession, based in Persia. See the main article for more details.
  • Khan-i-Khanan 'Lord of Lords'
  • Khan Sahib Shri Babi was the complex title of the ruler of the Indian princely state of Bantva-Manavadar (state founded 1760; September 1947 acceded to Pakistan, but 15 February 1948 rescinded accession to Pakistan, to accede to India).
  • In southern Korean states, the word Han or Gan, meaning "leader", quite possibly derived from Khan, was used for various ruling princes, until Silla, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, united them under a now hereditary king, titled Maripgan, which would then originally have been Marib-Khan, meaning the 'head of kings' (e.g. King Naemul Marib-Khan).
  • Khatun, or Khatan (Persian: خاتون) is roughly equal to a King's queen in Mongolic and Turkic languages, as by this title a ruling Khan's Queen-consort (wife) is designated with similar respect after their proclamation as Khan and Khatun. Also used in Hazari (instead of Khanum). Famous Khatuns include:
  • Khanum (Persian: خانم) is another female derivation of Khan, notably in Turkic languages, for a Khan's Queen-consort, or in some traditions extended as a courtesy title (a bit like Lady for women not married to a Lord, which is the situation modern Turkish) to the wives of holders of various other (lower) titles; in Afghanistan, for example, it ended up as the common term for 'Miss', any unmarried woman. In the modern Kazakh language, Khatun is a derogatory term for women, while Khanum has a respectful meaning.
    • The compound Galin Khanum - literally, "lady bride" - was the title accorded to the principal noble wife of a Qajar
  • Khanzada (Persian: خانزادہ)(the Persian suffix -zadeh means son or more generally male descendant; not to be confused with Khannazad: female harem attendant; for analogous titles see Prince of the Blood and links there) is a title conferred to princes of the dynasties of certain princely states, such as
    • Jandala (Muslim Jadoon dynasty, Pakistan's North-West Frontier Province), always before the personal name, but itself preceded by Mir, both being maintained by the ruling Khan (who uses that title after his name)
    • Sardargarh-Bantva (Muslim Babi dynasty, fifth class state in Kathiawar, Gujarat) in front of the personal name, Shri in between; the ruler replaces Khanzada by khan.

The Kara-Khitan Khanate (Simplified Chinese: 西辽; Traditional Chinese: 西遼; pinyin: XÄ« Liáo) (1124 or 1125-1218), also known as Western Liao was established by Yelü Dashi (耶律大石) who led around 100,000 Khitan remnants after escaping Jurchen conquest of their native country, the Khitan dynasty (also known as the Liao empire). ... The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... Khan sahib was a formal title, a compound of khan and sahib Lord, which was conferred in Mughal and British India, see Khan. ... Sri or Shri (Śrī), —pronounced halfway between sree and shree—is a Sanskrit title of veneration, a Hindu honorific stemming from the Vedic conception of prosperity (see Lakshmi below). ... There are several meanings of the term Babi Babi is the name of a baboon god in Egyptian mythology. ... A princely state is any state under the reign of a prince and is thus a principality taken in the broad sense. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Silla (also spelled Shilla, traditional dates 57 BCE - 935 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... The Three Kingdoms Period of Korea (hangul: 삼국시대) featured the three rival kingdoms of Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla, which dominated the Korean peninsula and parts of Manchuria for much of the 1st millennium CE. Historians claim that the Three Kingdoms period ran from the 1st century BCE (specifically 57 BC) until... Silla (also spelled Shilla, traditional dates 52 BCE - 935 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Mongolic languages are a group of thirteen languages spoken in Central Asia. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... A fictional, aggressive, alien species from the television series Star Trek: Voyager who made themselves available as bounty hunters to capture alien vessels. ... Töregene Khatun ruled as regent of the Mongol Empire from the death of her husband Ögedei Khan in 1241 until the election of her eldest son Güyük Khan in 1246. ... Habba Khatun was a poet from 16th century Kashmir. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... Kazakh (also Qazaq and variants[2], natively , , ‎) is a Western Turkic language closely related to Nogai and Karakalpak. ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... For the 1959 British film see Northwest Frontier The North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) (Urdu: shemaal maghribi sarhadi soobe شمال مغربی سرحدی صوبہ) is the smallest in size of the four provinces of Pakistan and is home to the Pashtuns (Pakhtoons). ... Mir (Russian: ; lit. ... Kathiawar in between Gulf of Kutch and Gulf of Khambat. ... This article is for the Indian state. ... Sri or Shri (Śrī), —pronounced halfway between sree and shree—is a Sanskrit title of veneration, a Hindu honorific stemming from the Vedic conception of prosperity (see Lakshmi below). ...

Other khans

Military ranks

The title "khan" was also used as a military officer rank in certain armies, especially following the decimal organisation (already known from Achaemenid Persia) of Genghis Khan's armies.[dubious ] For other uses, see Genghis Khan (disambiguation). ...


Nobiliar and honorary titles

In imperial Persia, Khan (female form Khanum) was the title of a nobleman, higher than Beg (or bey) and usually used after the given name. At the Qajar court, precedence for those not belonging to the dynasty was mainly structured in eight classes, each being granted an honorary rank title, the fourth of which was Khan, or in this context synonymously Amir, granted to commanders of armed forces, provincial tribal leaders; in descending order, they thus ranked below Nawab (for princes), Shakhs-i-Awwal and Janab (both for high officials), but above 'Ali Jah Muqarrab, 'Ali Jah, 'Ali Sha'an (these three for lower military ranks and civil servants) and finally 'Ali Qadir (masters of guilds, etc.) For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Nawab (Urdu: نواب ) was originally the subadar (provincial governor) or viceroy of a subah (province) or region of the Mughal empire. ...


The titles Khan (the lowest commonly awarded) and Khan Bahadur (Bahadur from Turkish baatar 'brave, hero'; but in India meaning simply 'one class higher') were also bestowed in feudal India by the Great mughal (whose protocol was largely Persian-inspired) upon Muslims and Parsis, and later by the British Raj, as an honor akin to the ranks of nobility, often for loyalty to the crown. Khan Sahib was another title of honour, one degree higher than Khan, conferred on Muslims and Parsis; again like Khan Bahadur, it was also awarded with a decoration during British rule. The word Baatar (Mongolian: , hero) is part of many names signifying: a Mongolian revolutionary hero, see Damdin Sükhbaatar his wife, later widow, and first female head of state in Mongolia, see Sükhbaataryn Yanjmaa an olympic cyclist from Mongolia, see Baatar Lanjin an olympic cross-country skiing athlete from... Extent of Mughal empire in the late 1600s: the Mughals ruled all but the southern tip of the subcontinent. ... Anthem God Save The King The British Indian Empire, 1909 Capital Calcutta (until 1912), New Delhi (after 1912) Language(s) Hindustani, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1858-1901 Victoria¹  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George VI Viceroy²  - 1858...


In the major Indian Muslim state of Hyderabad, Khan was the lowest of the aristocratic titles bestowed by the ruling Nizam upon Muslim retainers, ranking under Khan Bahadur, Nawab (homonymous with a high Muslim ruler's title), Jang, Daula, Mulk, Umara, Jah. The equivalent for the courts Hindu retainers was Rai. The Asafia flag of Hyderabad This article is about Hyderabad State. ... The Nizam of Hyderabads coat of arms Nizam-ul-Mulk, commonly shortened to Nizam, was the title taken by the Asif Jahi rulers of Hyderabad state in India. ... Nawab (Urdu: نواب ) was originally the subadar (provincial governor) or viceroy of a subah (province) or region of the Mughal empire. ... The daily Jang () is the largest Urdu language newspaper of the world, simultaneously publishing from Pakistans main cities: Rawalpindi/Islamabad, Karachi, Lahore, Quetta and Multan; while it is being published from London (UK) as well and is circulated throughout Europe. ... Daula means state. ... Malik (الملك) is a word that means king in Arabic, also adopted in various other oriental languages, also in derived meanings. ... Jah (IPA: ) is a name for God, most commonly used in the Rastafari movement. ... Rai is a word with the following related meanings and derived and compound forms in the Indian continent: // Rai was a title of honour for certain rulers in Northern India. ...


In Swat, a presently Pakistani Frontier State, it was the title of the secular elite, who, together with the Mullahs (Muslim clerics), proceeded to elect a new Amir-i-Shariyat in 1914. Swat (Pashto/Urdu: سوات) is a valley and a district in the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan. ... Mullah (Persian: ملا) is a title given to some Islamic clergy, coming from the Arabic word mawla, means both `vicar` and `guardian. ...


It seems unclear whether the series of titles known from the Bengal sultanate, including Khan, Khan ul Muazzam, Khan-ul-Azam, Khan-ul-Azam-ul-Muazzam etc. and Khaqan, Khaqan-ul-Muazzam, Khaqan-ul-Azam, Khaqan-ul-Azam-ul-Muazzam etc., are merely honorific or perhaps relate to a military hierarchy.


Other uses (surname)

Like many titles, the meaning of the term has also extended downwards, until in Persia and Afghanistan it has become an affix to the name of any Muslim gentleman, like Effendi in Osmanli, Esquire in English. Effendi (actually spelled Efendi in Turkish) (a Turkish title meaning a lord or master) is a title of respect, equivalent to the English sir, in Turkey and some other Eastern countries. ... This article is about the title. ...


See jirga for local mediators called Khan. A jirga (occasionally jirgah) is a tribal assembly which takes decisions by consensus. ...


Furthermore, Khanzada is the nickname(?) of the Muslim Shaik saidi Taluqdars (using various titles, last style Nawab raja) of Mahmudabad taluq in Oudh, not a title (the incumbent's sons are presently styled Rajkumar) Taluqdar; a Sanskrit and Hindi word, also Arabic (taal-luk), meaning to hang or depend. ... Mahmudabad is one of the neighborhoods of Jamshed Town in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. ... Awadh (also known to the British as Oudh) is a region in the center of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... Dr. Rajkumar (Kannada:ಡಾ. ರಾಜ್‌ಕುಮಾರ್‌, Real Name: Singanalluru Puttaswamayya Muthuraju Kannada:ಸಿಂಗನಲ್ಲೂರು ಪುಟ್ಟಸ್ವಾಮಯ್ಯ ಮುತ್ತುರಾಜು, April 24, 1929—April 12, 2006) was the most popular actor in Kannada film industry. ...


Khan and its female forms occur in many personal names, generally without any nobiliary of political relevance (although it remains a common part of noble names as well). Notably on the Indian subcontinent it has become a part of many Muslim names, especially when Pashtun descent is claimed; thus Khan is used as a surname by the Kakar, Durrani, Ghalzai, Mehsud Yousafzais, Utmanzais, Jahangiris and other Pashtoon tribes. The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ... Kakar or Kaker is a Pashtun tribe located in Afghanistan and Pakistan. ... Durrani (Persian: درانی) or Abdali (Persian: ابدالی) tribe is one of the Pashtun elite, and is also found in large numbers in western Pakistan. ... The Ghilzais (also known as Khiljis or Ghaljis) are one of two largest groups of Pashtuns, along with the Durrani tribe, found in Afghanistan with a large group also found in neighboring Pakistan. ... The Yousafzai or Yusufzai (also Esapzey) (Urdu: یوسف زئی ) are an Afghan tribe. ... Jahangiris are one of the leading Pathan clans of the Swati tribes of the Sarhad of Pakistan, mainly residing in the Hazara division of the districts of Batagram and Mansehra. ...


During the Russian Civil War following the Bolshevik takeover of 1917, White general Roman Ungern von Sternberg, who, admittedly was trying to reconstitute the empire of Genghis Khan, was often styled as "Ungern Khan" between 1919 and his death in 1921. The Russian Civil War (1917-1922) began immediately after the collapse of the Russian provisional government and the Bolshevik takeover of Petrograd, rapidly intensifying after the dissolution of the Russian Constituent Assembly and signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. ... For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... White Army redirects here. ... Roman Fyodorovich Ungern von Sternberg, ca 1919 Baron Roman (or Robert) Nicolaus von Ungern-Sternberg, in Russian: Roman Fyodorovich Ungern von Shternberg (Роман Фёдорович Унгерн фон Штернберг; although born von Ungern-Sternberg, in later life he used an incorrect form Ungern von Sternberg) (January 22, 1886, new style — September 15, 1921) a. ... For other uses, see Genghis Khan (disambiguation). ...


Khan-related terms

  • Khanzadeh (Tatar: Xanzadä) - a prince, khan's son
  • Khanbikeh (Tatar: Xanbikä) - a queen, khan's wife
  • Yuruk Khans in Ardemush or Erdemuş Villiage in Kailar. (see : Ottoman Tapu Archivies)

The Tatar language (Tatar tele, Tatarça, Татар теле, Татарча) is a Turkic language spoken by the Tatars. ... The term prince, from the Latin root princeps, is used for a member of the highest ranks of the aristocracy or the nobility. ... The Tatar language (Tatar tele, Tatarça, Татар теле, Татарча) is a Turkic language spoken by the Tatars. ... Main areas inhabited by Yörük tribes in Anatolia The Yörük (also Yürük) are a Turkic-speaking people primarily inhabiting the mountains of the southeast European Balkan peninsula and Anatolia. ... Ptolemaida (modern Greek Πτολεμαΐδα or ancient Greek Πτολεμαΐς) is a city in Northern Greece. ...

See also

Meo (Hindi: मेव, Urdu: میو) is a prominent Muslim Rajput tribe from Northern India and Pakistan. ... In the hierarchy of the Gokturk and Khazar empires, an Elteber was the client-king of an autonomous but tributary tribe or polity. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Flag Crimean Khanate in 1600 Capital Bakhchisaray Government Monarchy History  - Established 1441  - Annexed to Russia 1783 The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Crimean Tatar: ; Russian: - Krymskoye khanstvo; Ukrainian: - Krymske khanstvo; Turkish: ) was a Crimean Tatar state from 1441 to 1783. ... Khong Tayiji (also spelled Qong Tayiji; in Manchu: Hong Taiji) is a title of the Mongols. ... This is the list of Mongol Khans and Khagans. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Източници за българската история - Fontes historiae bulgaricae. VI. Fontes graeci historiae Bulgaricae. БАН, София. p.305 (in Byzantine Greek and Bulgarian). Also available online
  2. ^ The spelling with 'r' is due to a confusion with tartaros, the classical Greek hell. Genghis Khan's conquering, ransacking Mongol hordes terrorized Islam and Christianity without precedent, as if the apocalypse had started.

Byzantine Greek is an archaic variant of Greek language derived from Koine which was used by the administration of the Byzantine Empire from 395 until the fall of Constantinople in 1453. ... In Greek mythology, Tartarus, or Tartaros, is both a deity and a place in the underworld - even lower than Hades. ...

Sources and references

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  • on-line encyclopaedia on all Bengal, in English
  • Etymology OnLine
  • RoyalArk- see under each present country
  • Princely states in British India - look each up by name, in that section, BUT a taluq in Oudh in that section
  • WorldStatesmen- see under each present country

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