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Encyclopedia > Khalil Gibran
Khalil Gibran


Born Gibran Khalil Gibran bin Mikhael bin Saâd
January 6, 1883(1883-01-06)
Bsharri, Lebanon
Died April 10, 1931 (aged 48)
New York City, United States
Occupation poet, visual artist, painter, sculptor
Nationality Lebanese
Genres poetry, parable, short story
Literary movement Mahjar, New York Pen League
Notable work(s) The Prophet

Khalil Gibran (full name Gibran Khalil Gibran bin Mikhael bin Saâd, Arabic: جبران خليل جبران بن ميخائيل بن سعد, (January 6, 1883April 10, 1931) was a Lebanese American artist, poet and writer. He was born in Lebanon (at the time the Mount Lebanon Province of the Ottoman Empire) and spent most of his life in the United States. He is the third bestselling poet in history after Shakespeare and Lao Tse. [1] Image File history File links Kgibran. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Bsharri (also spelled Becharre, Bcharre, Bsharre; Arabic: ), is a Lebanese city at 1,650 m of altitude, near the Kadisha Valley. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about work. ... Sappho and Alcaeus of Mytilene, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1881). ... Many times, the term art is used to refer to the visual arts. ... Painting by Rembrandt self-portrait Detail from Las Meninas by Diego Velazquez, in which the painter portrayed himself at work For the computer graphics program, see Corel Painter. ... Sculptor redirects here. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... A literary genre is one of the divisions of literature into genres according to particular criteria such as literary technique, tone, or content. ... This article is about the art form. ... // For a comparison of parable with other kinds of stories, see Myth, legend, fairy tale, and fable. ... This article is in need of attention. ... ... The Prophet is the name of several things, including several religious leaders and charismatic figures in history: Joseph Smith, Jr. ... Arabic redirects here. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The definition of an artist is wide-ranging and covers a broad spectrum of activities to do with creating art, practicing the arts and/or demonstrating an art. ... Sappho and Alcaeus of Mytilene, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1881). ... A writer is anyone who creates a written work, although the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... ...

Contents

Youth

In Lebanon

Gibran was born in the Christian Maronite town of Bsharri in today's northern Lebanon - at the time, part of the Ottoman Empire. He grew up in the region of Bsharri. His maternal grandfather was a Maronite Catholic priest[2]. His mother Kamila was thirty when Gibran was born; his father, also named Khalil, was her third husband.[3] Religions Christianity Scriptures Bible Languages Vernacular: Lebanese Arabic, Cypriot Maronite Arabic Liturgical: Syriac Maronites (Arabic: ‎, transliteration: , Syriac: ܡܪܘܢܝܐ, Latin: Ecclesia Maronitarum) are members of one of the Eastern Catholic Churches, with a heritage reaching back to Maron in the early 5th century. ... Bsharri (also spelled Becharre, Bcharre, Bsharre; Arabic: ), is a Lebanese city at 1,650 m of altitude, near the Kadisha Valley. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Bsharri (also spelled Becharre, Bcharre, Bsharre; Arabic: ), is a Lebanese city at 1,650 m of altitude, near the Kadisha Valley. ...


As a result of his family's poverty, Gibran did not receive any formal schooling during his youth in Lebanon. However, priests visited him regularly and taught him about the Bible, as well as the Syriac and Arabic languages. For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... Arabic redirects here. ...


After Gibran's father, a tax collector, went to prison for embezzlement,[1] Ottoman authorities confiscated his family's property. Authorities released Gibran's father in 1894, but the family had by then lost their home. Gibran's mother decided to follow her brother, Gibran's uncle, and emigrated to the United States. Gibran's father remained in Lebanon. Gibran's mother, along with Khalil, his younger sisters Mariana and Sultana, and his half-brother Peter (a.k.a. Butros) left for New York on June 25, 1895. 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the state. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


In the United States

Khalil Gibran, Photograph by Fred Holland Day, c. 1898
Khalil Gibran, Photograph by Fred Holland Day, c. 1898

The Gibrans settled in Boston's South End, at the time the second largest Lebanese-American community in the United States. His mother began working as a pack peddler, selling lace and lines that she carried from door to door. Gibran started school on September 30, 1895. He had had no formal schooling in Lebanon, and school officials placed him in a special class for immigrants to learn English. Gibran's English teacher suggested that he Anglicise the spelling of his name in order to make it more acceptable to American society. Kahlil Gibran was the result. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1274x1536, 777 KB) Oggetto TITLE: [Kahlil Gibran in Middle Eastern(?) costume with leopard skin and staff, seated] CALL NUMBER: PH - Day (F.H.), no. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1274x1536, 777 KB) Oggetto TITLE: [Kahlil Gibran in Middle Eastern(?) costume with leopard skin and staff, seated] CALL NUMBER: PH - Day (F.H.), no. ... Fred Holland Day (July 8, 1864 - November 12, 1933) was a noted photographer and publisher. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... The South End is a neighborhood in Boston, Massachusetts. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Gibran also enrolled in an art school at a nearby settlement house. Through his teachers there, he was introduced to the avant-garde Boston artist, photographer, and publisher Fred Holland Day,[1] who encouraged and supported Gibran in his creative endeavors. A publisher used some of Gibran's drawings for book covers in 1898. Settlement houses not by a set of services but by an approach: that initiative to correct come from indigenous neighborhood leaders or organizations. ... Fred Holland Day (July 8, 1864 - November 12, 1933) was a noted photographer and publisher. ...


At 15, Gibran went back to Lebanon to study at College de la Sagessee a Maronite-run preparatory school and higher-education institute in Beirut. He started a student literary magazine, with a classmate, and was elected "college poet". He stayed there for several years before returning to Boston in 1902. Two weeks before he got back, his sister Sultana, 14, died of tuberculosis. The next year, his brother Bhutros died of the same disease, and his mother died of cancer. His sister Marianna then supported Gibran and herself, working at a dressmaker's shop.[1] This article is about the Lebanese city. ...


Art and poetry

Gibran held his first art exhibition, of drawings, in 1904 in Boston, at Day's studio.[1] During this exhibition, Gibran met Mary Elizabeth Haskell, a respected headmistress ten years his senior. The two formed an important friendship that lasted the rest of Gibran's life. Though publicly discrete, their correspondence reveals an exalted intimacy. Haskell influenced not only Gibran's personal life, but also his career. In 1908, Gibran went to study art with Auguste Rodin in Paris for two years. This is where he met his art study partner and lifelong friend Youssef Howayek. He later studied art in Boston. 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... Auguste Rodin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Youssef Saadallah Howayek (Arabic: ‎; also Yusuf Huwayyik, Hoyek, Hoayek, Hawayek) (1883-1962) a painter and sculptor from Helta, Lebanon. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ...


While most of Gibran's early writings were in Syriac and Arabic, most of his work published after 1918 was in English. His first book for the publishing company Alfred Knopf, in 1918, was The Madman, a slim volume of aphorism and parables written in biblical cadence somewhere between poetry and prose. 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


Gibran also took part in the New York Pen League, also known as the "immigrant poets" (al-mahjar), alongside other important Lebanese American authors such as Ameen Rihani ("the father of Lebanese American literature"), Elia Abu Madi and Mikhail Naimy, a close friend and distinguished master of Arabic literature, whose nephew, Samir, is said to be a godson of Gibran. Amin al-Rihani (أمين الريحاني) (born Freike, Lebanon 1876, died 1940) was a Lebanese writer, a major figure in the mahjar literary movement developed by Arab emigrants in North America, and an early theorist of Arab nationalism. ... Mikhail Naima (b. ...


Much of Gibran's writings deal with Christianity, especially on the topic of spiritual love. His poetry is notable for its use of formal language, as well as insights on topics of life using spiritual terms.


Gibran's best-known work is The Prophet, a book composed of 26 poetic essays. During the 1960s, The Prophet became especially popular with the American counterculture and New Age movements. The Prophet remains famous to this day, having been translated into more than 20 languages. The Prophet is a book of 26 poetic essays written in English in 1923 by the Lebanese-born American artist, philosopher and writer Khalil Gibran. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969. ... In sociology, counterculture is a term used to describe the values and norms of behavior of a cultural group, or subculture, that run counter to those of the social mainstream of the day, the cultural equivalent of political opposition. ... New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ...


One of his most notable lines of poetry in the English speaking world is from 'Sand and Foam' (1926), which reads : 'Half of what I say is meaningless, but I say it so that the other half may reach you'. This was taken by John Lennon and placed, though in a slightly altered form, into the song Julia from The Beatles' 1968 album The Beatles (a.k.a. The White Album). John Winston Ono Lennon, MBE (October 9, 1940 – December 8, 1980), (born John Winston Lennon, known as John Ono Lennon) was an iconic English 20th century rock and roll songwriter and singer, best known as the founding member of The Beatles. ... ) Julia is a song by The Beatles. ... The White Album, see The Beatles (album). ... The self-titled double album The Beatles, released by the Beatles in 1968 at the height of their popularity, is often hailed as one of the major accomplishments in popular music. ...


Juliet Thompson, one of Khalil Gibran's acquaintances, said that Gibran told her that he thought of `Abdu'l-Bahá, the leader of the Bahá'í Faith in his lifetime, all the way through writing The Prophet. `Abdu'l-Bahá's personage also influenced Jesus, The Son of Man, another book by Gibran. It is certain that Gibran did two portraits of him during this period.[4] `Abdul-Bahá `Abdul-Bahá `Abbás Effendí (May 23, 1844 - November 28, 1921) commonly known as `Abdul-Bahá (abdol-ba-haa Arabic: ‎), was the son of Baháulláh, the Prophet-Founder of the Baháí Faith. ... This article is about the generally recognized global religious community. ... The Prophet is a book of 26 poetic essays written in English in 1923 by the Lebanese-born American artist, philosopher and writer Khalil Gibran. ...


Death and legacy

Khalil Gibran memorial in Washington, D.C.
Khalil Gibran memorial in Washington, D.C.
The Gibran Museum and Gibran's final resting place, located in Bsharri, Lebanon
The Gibran Museum and Gibran's final resting place, located in Bsharri, Lebanon

Gibran died in New York City on April 10, 1931: the cause was determined to be cirrhosis of the liver and tuberculosis. Before his death, Gibran expressed the wish that he be buried in Lebanon. This wish was fulfilled in 1932, when Mary Haskell and his sister Mariana purchased the Mar Sarkis Monastery in Lebanon. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 92 KB) en: This photograph (1 of 2) depicts the Khalil Gibran Memorial, located along the 3100 block of Massachusetts Ave. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 92 KB) en: This photograph (1 of 2) depicts the Khalil Gibran Memorial, located along the 3100 block of Massachusetts Ave. ... ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2304x1728, 1795 KB) A picture of the Gibran Museum, located in Bsharri, Lebanon. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2304x1728, 1795 KB) A picture of the Gibran Museum, located in Bsharri, Lebanon. ... Bsharri (also spelled Becharre, Bcharre, Bsharre; Arabic: ), is a Lebanese city at 1,650 m of altitude, near the Kadisha Valley. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cirrhosis is a consequence of chronic liver disease characterized by replacement of liver tissue by fibrotic scar tissue as well as regenerative nodules, leading to progressive loss of liver function. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Deir Mar Sarkis, a well known monastery in Zgharta Lebanon as well as all the Maronite Churches around the world still use Syriac, which is a dialect of Aramaic, during Church liturgies. ...


Gibran willed the contents of his studio to Mary Haskell. There she discovered her letters to him spanning 23 years. She initially agreed to burn them because of their intimacy, but recognizing their historical value she saved them. She gave them, along with his letters to her which she had also saved, to the University of North Carolina Library before she died in 1964. Excerpts of the over six hundred letters were published in "Beloved Prophet" in 1972.


Mary Haskell Minis (she wed Jacob Florance Minis after moving to Savannah, Georgia in 1923) donated her personal collection of nearly one hundred original works of art by Gibran to the Telfair Museum of Art in Savannah in 1950. Haskell had been thinking of placing her collection at the Telfair as early as 1914. In a letter to Gibran, she explained, "...I am thinking of other museums...the unique little Telfair Gallery in Savannah, Ga., that Gari Melchers chooses pictures for. There when I was a visiting child, form burst upon my astonished little soul." Haskell's extraordinary gift to the Telfair is the largest public collection of Kahlil Gibran’s visual art in the country, consisting of five oils and numerous works on paper rendered in the artist’s lyrical style, which reflects the influence of symbolism. The Telfair Museum of Art, located in Savannah’s famous Historic District, is the South’s first public art museum. ... Gari Melchers or Julius Melchers (August 11, 1860 - 1932) was an American artist. ...


Works

In Arabic:

  • Nubthah fi Fan Al-Musiqa (1905)
  • Ara'is al-Muruj (Nymphs of the Valley, also translated as Spirit Brides, 1906)
  • al-Arwah al-Mutamarrida (Spirits Rebellious, 1908)
  • al-Ajniha al-Mutakassira (Broken Wings, 1912)
  • Dam'a wa Ibtisama (A Tear and A Smile, 1914)
  • al-Mawakib (The Processions, 1919)
  • al-‘Awāsif (The Tempests, 1920)
  • al-Bada'i' waal-Tara'if (The New and the Marvellous,1923)

In English, prior to his death:

  • The Madman (1918) (downloadable free version)
  • Twenty Drawings (1919)
  • The Forerunner (1920)
  • The Prophet, (1923)
  • Sand and Foam (1926)
  • Kingdom Of The Imagination (1927)
  • Jesus, The Son of Man (1928)
  • The Earth Gods (1931)

Posthumous, in English: The Prophet is a book of 26 poetic essays written in English in 1923 by the Lebanese-born American artist, philosopher and writer Khalil Gibran. ...

  • The Wanderer (1932)
  • The Garden of the Prophet(1933)
  • Lazarus and his Beloved (1933)
  • Prose and Poems(1934)
  • A Self-Portrait (1959)
  • Thought and Meditations (1960)
  • Spiritual sayings (1962)
  • Voice of the master (1963)
  • Mirrors of the Soul (1965)
  • Death Of The Prophet (1979)
  • The Vision (1994)
  • Eye of the Prophet (1995)

Other:

  • Beloved Prophet, The love letters of Kahlil Gibran and Mary Haskell, and her private journal (1972, edited by Virginia Hilu)

Memorials and honors

This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ... Binomial name Cedrus libani A. Rich. ... The Khalil Gibran International Academy is a public secondary school in Brooklyn, New York. ...

Mentions in popular culture

Movies
Music
  • Jazz saxophonist Jackie McLean's "Kahlil the Prophet" is on his album Destination...Out! (1963) (Blue Note BLP 4165)
  • Jason Mraz's song "God moves through you" on the album Selections For Friends features words from the poem "The Prophet"
  • The lyrics to David Bowie's "The Width of a Circle", off his album The Man Who Sold the World (1970), relates a surrealist scene in which the narrator and his doppelgänger seek the help of a blackbird, who just "laughed insane and quipped 'Kahlil Gibran'".
Other
  • In the popular video game Deus Ex, one of the three possible ending quotes is Gibran's quote: "Yesterday we obeyed kings and bent our necks before emperors. But today we kneel only to truth..." The western spelling of his name, Kahlil Gibran, was used to credit him.
  • Khalil Gibran is referenced briefly in the episode Wingmen of the show The Boondocks. When Huey (the central character) is asked by his grandfather to say something "deep", he recites part of the poem "On Pain" from The Prophet.
  • In the hit TV show "One Tree Hill", Lucus Scott (Chad Micheal Murray) quotes Gibran.

For the song of the same name, recorded by Tracy Byrd and later by Jason Aldean, see Johnny Cash (song). ... For the song, see I Walk the Line. ... Valerie June Carter Cash (June 23, 1929 – May 15, 2003) was a singer, songwriter, actress and comedian and was a member of the Carter Family, and the second wife of singer Johnny Cash. ... John Lenwood (Jackie) McLean (born May 17, 1932) is an American jazz alto saxophonist and educator, born in New York City. ... In jazz and blues notes added to the major scale for expressive quality, loosely defined by musicians to be an alteration to a scale or chord that makes it sound like the blues. ... Jason Thomas Mraz (born June 23, 1977) is an American singer-songwriter, born and raised in Mechanicsville, Virginia, a suburb of Richmond. ... David Bowie (pronounced ) (born David Robert Jones on 8 January 1947) is an English singer, songwriter, actor, multi-instrumentalist, bandleader, producer, arranger, and audio engineer. ... The Man Who Sold the World is an album by David Bowie. ... Surrealism is an artistic movement and an aesthetic philosophy that aims for the liberation of the mind by emphasizing the critical and imaginative powers of the subconscious. ... For other uses, see Doppelgänger (disambiguation). ... This article is about the video game. ... List of The Boondocks episodes Wingmen is the 13th episode of The Boondocks, debuting March 5, 2006 on Cartoon Networks Adult Swim. ... This article is about an animated television series. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Acocella, Joan. "Prophet Motive", The New Yorker, January 7, 2008
  2. ^ Jagadisan, S. "Called by Life", The Hindu, January 5, 2003, accessed July 11, 2007
  3. ^ "Khalil Gibran (1883-1931)", biography at Cornell University library on-line site, retrieved February 4, 2008
  4. ^ "Khalil Gibran and the Bahá'í Faith", excerpts from World Order, A Baha'i Magazine, Vol. 12, Number 4, Summer, 1978, pages 29-31
  5. ^ Gibran Memorial in Washington, DC
  6. ^ Elmaz Abinader, Children of Al-Mahjar: Arab American Literature Spans a Century", U.S. Society & Values, February 2000

For other uses, see New Yorker. ... Cornell redirects here. ...

External links

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Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Khalil Gibran - definition of Khalil Gibran in Encyclopedia (1026 words)
Khalil Gibran was born on January 6, 1883, to the Maronite family of Gibran in Bsharri, a mountainous area in Northern Lebanon [Lebanon was a Turkish province part of Greater Syria (Syria, Lebanon, and Palestine) and subjugated to Ottoman dominion].
Gibran had a half-brother six years older than him called Peter and two younger sisters, Mariana and Sultana, whom he was deeply attached to throughout his life, along with his mother.
Gibran entered school on September 30, 1895, merely two months after his arrival in the U.S. Having no formal education, he was placed in an ungraded class reserved for immigrant children, who had to learn English from scratch.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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