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Encyclopedia > Keyboard instrument
Piano, a well-known instance of keyboard instruments
Piano, a well-known instance of keyboard instruments

A keyboard instrument is any musical instrument played using a musical keyboard. The most common of these is the piano, which is used in nearly all forms of western music. Other widely used keyboard instruments include various types of organs as well as other mechanical, electromechanical and electronic instruments. In common language, it is mostly used to refer to keyboard-style synthesizers. Photo of a piano keyboard. ... Photo of a piano keyboard. ... The layout of a typical musical keyboard A musical keyboard is the set of adjacent depressible levers on a musical instrument which cause the instrument to produce sounds. ... A short grand piano, with the top up. ... Western music is the genres of music originating in the Western world (Europe and its former colonies) including Western classical music, American Jazz, Country and Western, pop music and rock and roll. ... Organ in Katharinenkirche, Frankfurt am Main, Germany The organ is a keyboard instrument played using one or more manuals and a pedalboard. ... An electronic musical instrument is a musical instrument that produces its sounds using electronics. ... A synthesizer (or synthesiser) is an electronic musical instrument designed to produce electronically generated sound, using techniques such as additive, subtractive, FM, physical modelling synthesis, phase distortion, or Scanned synthesis. ...


Clavier is a general term for any keyboard instrument. It was used especially in the 18th century and earlier in Germany to refer indiscriminately to the harpsichord, clavichord, and pipe organ. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Harpsichord in the Flemish style A harpsichord is any of a family of European keyboard instruments, including the large instrument currently called a harpsichord, but also the smaller virginals, the muselar virginals and the spinet. ... Large five-octave unfretted clavichord by Paul Maurici, after J.A. Haas The clavichord is a European stringed keyboard instrument known from the late Medieval, through the Renaissance, Baroque and Classical eras. ... Organ in Katharinenkirche, Frankfurt am Main, Germany // The pipe organ (Greek ὄργανον, órganon) is a musical instrument that produces sound by admitting pressurized air through a series of pipes. ...

Contents

History

Among the earliest keyboard instruments are the organ, the clavichord, and the harpsichord. The organ is doubtless the oldest of these, appearing in the 3rd century BC, although this early instrument--called hydraulis--did not use a keyboard in the modern sense. From its invention until the 14th century, the organ remained the only keyboard instrument. Often, the organ didn't feature a keyboard at all, rather buttons or large levers which were operated by a whole hand. Almost every keyboard until the 15th century had 7 naturals to each octave. Organ in Katharinenkirche, Frankfurt am Main, Germany The organ is a keyboard instrument played using one or more manuals and a pedalboard. ... Large five-octave unfretted clavichord by Paul Maurici, after J.A. Haas The clavichord is a European stringed keyboard instrument known from the late Medieval, through the Renaissance, Baroque and Classical eras. ... Harpsichord in the Flemish style A harpsichord is any of a family of European keyboard instruments, including the large instrument currently called a harpsichord, but also the smaller virginals, the muselar virginals and the spinet. ... Hydraulis is an early type of pipe organ that operated by converting the dynamic energy of water (hydor) into air pressure to drive the pipes. ...


The clavichord and the harpsichord appeared during the 14th century, the clavichord probably being the earliest. During their development, a B-flat key was added to the keyboard in order to remedy the tritone between F and B, and the other semitones were added later. The harpsichord and the clavichord were both very common until the widespread adoption of the piano in the 18th century, after which their popularity decreased. The piano was revolutionary because a pianist could vary the volume (or dynamics) of the sound by varying the vigor with which each key was struck. The piano's full name is "gravicèmbalo con piano e forte" meaning "harpsichord with soft and loud" but can be shortened to "piano-forte", which means "soft-loud" in Italian. The augmented fourth between C and F# forms a tritone. ... A short grand piano, with the top up. ... Pianist Claudio Arrau, Carnegie Hall, 1954. ...


Keyboard instruments were further developed in the 20th century. Early electromechanical instruments, such as the Ondes Martenot appeared in the early in the century. Ondes martenot demonstrated by inventor Maurice Martenot The Ondes Martenot (or Ondes-Martenot or Ondes martenot or Ondium Martenot or Martenot or ondes musicale) is an early electronic musical instrument with a keyboard and slide invented in 1928 by Maurice Martenot, and originally very similar in sound to the Theremin. ...


The earliest fully electronic keyboard instruments were electronic organs that used oscillators and frequency dividers, together with a network of filters, to produce waveforms. The classic Hammond electronic organ, invented in the 1930s and popular for decades thereafter. ... Oscillation is the periodic variation, typically in time, of some measure as seen, for example, in a swinging pendulum. ... Waveform quite literally means the shape and form of a signal, such as a wave moving across the surface of water, or the vibration of a plucked string. ...


Much effort went into finding an instrument which sounded like the piano but lacked its size and weight. The electric piano and electronic piano were early efforts that, while being useful instruments in their own right, were not successful in convincingly reproducing the timbre of the piano. Electric and electronic organs were developed during the same period. An electric piano (e-piano) is an electric musical instrument that is very mexican sounding. ... An electronic piano is an entirely electronic musical instrument designed to simulate the timbre of a piano (and sometimes a harpsichord) using analog circuitry. ... In music, timbre, also timber (from Fr. ...


Significant development of the synthesizer occurred in the 1960s and has continued ever since. The most notable early synthesizer is the Moog synthesizer, which used analog circuitry. In time, digital synthesis became common. A synthesizer (or synthesiser) is an electronic musical instrument designed to produce electronically generated sound, using techniques such as additive, subtractive, FM, physical modelling synthesis, phase distortion, or Scanned synthesis. ... The term Moog (pronounced /moʊg/ to rhyme with vogue, not /muːg/) synthesizer can refer to any number of analog synthesizers designed by Dr. Robert Moog or manufactured by Moog Music, and is commonly used as a generic term for analog and digital music synthesisers. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Analog electronics. ...


Tape replay keyboards were invented in the 1940s and saw popularity in the late 1960s and 1970s. The best-known example is the Mellotron. These instruments became obsolete with the invention of samplers, which replay samples at any pitch. A tape replay keyboard is a musical instrument that uses pre-recorded analog tapes to produce sound when a key is pressed. ... Mellotron MK II The Mellotron is an electromechanical polyphonic keyboard musical instrument originally developed and built in Birmingham, England in the early 1960s. ... An AKAI MPC2000 sampler // [edit] Overview The emergence of the digital sampler made sampling far more practical, and as samplers added progressively more digital processing to their recorded sounds, they began to merge into the mainstream of modern digital synthesizers. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...


Now Modern-day keyboards have such facilities as colour LCD screens, highly realistic voices and styles and MIDI recording.


List of keyboard instruments

Chordophones

A chordophone is any musical instrument which produces sound primarily by way of a vibrating string or strings stretched between two points. ... Large five-octave unfretted clavichord by Paul Maurici, after J.A. Haas The clavichord is a European stringed keyboard instrument known from the late Medieval, through the Renaissance, Baroque and Classical eras. ... An electric piano (e-piano) is an electric musical instrument that is very mexican sounding. ... The Clavinet D6, the most popular model, introduced in 1971. ... A series of electric pianos built by the Hohner company of Trossingen, West Germany from the 1950s to the 1970s. ... A Rhodes piano is a musical instrument, a brand of electric piano. ... One of a series of electromechanical stringless pianos manufactured and marketed by the Rudolph Wurlitzer Company, Corinth, Mississippi, USA. The Wurlitzer company actually called the instrument (inaccurately in retrospect) the Electronic Piano, but musicians usually describe it correctly as an electric piano. ... Harpsichord in the Flemish style A harpsichord is any of a family of European keyboard instruments, including the large instrument currently called a harpsichord, but also the smaller virginals, the muselar virginals and the spinet. ... A spinet is a smaller type of harpsichord or other keyboard instrument, such as a piano or organ. ... A short grand piano, with the top up. ... The tangent piano is a very rare keyboard instrument that resembles a harpsichord and early pianos in design. ... The Bowed Clavier (Bogenclavier in German) is a keyboard instrument strung with gut strings, the tone of which is produced by a steadily revolving well rosined cylinder (powered by a foot pedal), a mechanism not dissimilar to that found in the hurdy-gurdy[1] It was invented by Joh. ... Drawing of a hurdy gurdy A hurdy gurdy (alternately, hurdy-gurdy) is a stringed musical instrument. ...

Aerophones

An aerophone is any musical instrument which produces sound primarily by causing a body of air to vibrate, without the use of strings or membranes, and without the vibration of the instrument itself adding considerably to the sound. ... This article is about the instrument as a whole. ... English concertina made by Wheatstone around 1920 A concertina, like the various accordions, is a member of the free-reed family of instruments. ... A Harmonium or Reed Organ is a free-standing musical keyboard instrument similar to a pipe organ. ... A melodian is a type of 19th century reed organ with a foot-operated vacuum bellows, and a piano keyboard. ... A Hohner melodica The melodica is a free-reed instrument similar to the accordion and harmonica. ... Organ in Katharinenkirche, Frankfurt am Main, Germany The organ is a keyboard instrument played using one or more manuals and a pedalboard. ... Organ in Katharinenkirche, Frankfurt am Main, Germany // The pipe organ (Greek ὄργανον, órganon) is a musical instrument that produces sound by admitting pressurized air through a series of pipes. ... A reed organ is an organ that generates its sounds using free metal reeds, similar to an accordion. ...

Idiophones

An idiophone is any musical instrument which creates sound primarily by way of the instrument vibrating itself, without the use of strings or membranes. ... The Netherlands Carillon in Arlington, Virginia, USA. A carillon is a musical instrument composed of at least 23 cup-shaped bells played from a baton keyboard using fists and feet (such an instrument with fewer than this number of bells is known as a chime). ... French type, four-octave Celesta The Celesta (IPA ) is a struck idiophone operated by a keyboard. ... The glasschord (or glasscord) is a crystallophone resembles the celesta but uses keyboard-driven hammers to strike glass bars instead of metal bars. ...

Electrophones

An electrophone is any musical instrument which produces sound primarily by electrical means. ... The Chamberlin is an electro-mechanical keyboard instrument related to the Mellotron. ... The Continuum is a keyboard instrument developed by Haken Audio from Champaign, Illinois. ... A digital piano is a modern electronic musical instrument designed to serve primarily as an alternative to a traditional piano, both in the way it feels to play and in the sound produced. ... The Dubreq Stylophone was a miniature electronic musical instrument invented in 1967 by Brian Jarvis. ... An electronic piano is an entirely electronic musical instrument designed to simulate the timbre of a piano (and sometimes a harpsichord) using analog circuitry. ... A Rhodes piano is a musical instrument, a brand of electric piano. ... The classic Hammond electronic organ, invented in the 1930s and popular for decades thereafter. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Farfisa is a brand name for a series of electronic organs and later multitimbral keyboards, made in Ancona in the Marche region of Italy. ... Mellotron MK II The Mellotron is an electromechanical polyphonic keyboard musical instrument originally developed and built in Birmingham, England in the early 1960s. ... A music workstation is piece of electronic musical equipment providing the facilities of: a sound module, a music sequencer and (usually) a musical keyboard. ... Ondes martenot demonstrated by inventor Maurice Martenot The Ondes Martenot (or Ondes-Martenot or Ondes martenot or Ondium Martenot or Martenot or ondes musicale) is an early electronic musical instrument with a keyboard and slide invented in 1928 by Maurice Martenot, and originally very similar in sound to the Theremin. ... A synthesizer (or synthesiser) is an electronic musical instrument designed to produce electronically generated sound, using techniques such as additive, subtractive, FM, physical modelling synthesis, phase distortion, or Scanned synthesis. ... The term Moog (pronounced /moʊg/ to rhyme with vogue, not /muːg/) synthesizer can refer to any number of analog synthesizers designed by Dr. Robert Moog or manufactured by Moog Music, and is commonly used as a generic term for analog and digital music synthesisers. ... An AKAI MPC2000 sampler // [edit] Overview The emergence of the digital sampler made sampling far more practical, and as samplers added progressively more digital processing to their recorded sounds, they began to merge into the mainstream of modern digital synthesizers. ...

External Links

  • The general keyboard in the age of MIDI.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Show Me Info About Keyboard_instrument (514 words)
It was used especially in the 18th century and earlier in Germany by composers of baroque music to refer indiscriminately to the harpsichord, clavichord, and pipe organ.
Among the earliest keyboard instruments are the pipe organ, the clavichord, and the harpsichord.
The earliest fully electronic keyboard instruments were electronic organs that used oscillators and frequency dividers, together with a network of filters, to produce waveforms.
Keyboard instrument - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (475 words)
Among the earliest keyboard instruments are the organ, the clavichord, and the harpsichord.
Early electromechanical instruments, such as the Ondes Martenot appeared in the early in the century.
The earliest fully electronic keyboard instruments were electronic organs that used oscillators and frequency dividers, together with a network of filters, to produce waveforms.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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