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Encyclopedia > Ketuvim
Books of Ketuvim
Psalms
Proverbs
Job
Song of Solomon
Ruth
Lamentations
Ecclesiastes
Esther
Daniel
Ezra
Nehemiah
Chronicles
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Ketuvim is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). The Hebrew word כתובים (ketuvim) means "writings." In English translations of the Hebrew Bible, this section is usually entitled "The Writings" or "Hagiographa." Psalms (Tehilim תהילים, in Hebrew) is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, and of the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... The Book of Proverbs is a book of the Tanakh/Old Testament. ... The Book of Job (איוב, Standard Hebrew Iyyov, Tiberian Hebrew ʾIyyôḇ; Arabic أيّوب ʾAyyÅ«b) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible, or Tanakh, and is also one of the books of the Christian Old Testament. ... Song of Solomon is also the title of a novel by Toni Morrison. ... The Book of Ruth is a book in the Hebrew Bible known to Jews as the Tanakh and to Christians as the Old Testament. ... The Book of Lamentations (Hebrew מגילת איכה) is a book of the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... Ecclesiastes, Kohelet in Hebrew, is a book of the Hebrew Bible. ... The Book of Esther is a book of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) and of the Old Testament. ... This article is about the Biblical book. ... The Book of Ezra is a book of the Bible in the Old Testament and Hebrew Tanakh. ... The Book of Nehemiah is a book of the Hebrew Bible, known to Jews as the Tanakh and to Christians as the Old Testament. ... The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ... 11th century Targum Tanakh [תנ״ך] (also Tanach or Tenach) is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum This article discusses usage of the term Hebrew Bible. For the article on the Hebrew Bible itself, see Tanakh. ... Hebrew is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by more than 6 million people, mainly in Israel, the West Bank, the United States and by Jewish communities around the world. ...


In the Jewish textual tradition, Chronicles is counted as one book. Ezra and Nehemiah are also counted together as a single book called "Ezra." Thus, there are total of eleven books in the section called Ketuvim (see the enumeration in the list of books below). The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ... Ezra (עֶזְרָא, Standard Hebrew ʿEzra, Tiberian Hebrew ʿEzrâ: short for עַזְרִיאֵל My help/court is God, Standard Hebrew ʿAzriʾel, Tiberian Hebrew ʿAzrîʾēl) was the scribe who led the second body of exiled Israelites that returned from Babylon to Jerusalem in 459 BC, and the author of the Book of Ezra... If youre looking for VIAs Nehemiah CPU, look at VIA C3. ...

Contents


Special groups of books in Ketuvim

The three poetic books (Sifrei Emet)

Psalms, Proverbs, and Job employ a special system of cantillation notes appropriate to their poetic nature. In old masoretic manuscripts they are presented in a special form emphasizing the parallel stitches in the verses, also a function of their poetry. Collectively, these three books are known as, Sifrei Emet, (an acronym of the titles in Hebrew, איוב, משלי, תהלים yields Emet, אמ"ת ). Their special cantillation notes are called Ta`amei Emet. Cantillation (Hebrew: ta`amei ha-mikra or just te`amim; Yiddish trope is also commonly used in English) comprises special signs or marks in the Masoretic text of the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh) which complement the letters and vowel points. ... The Masoretic Text (MT) is the Hebrew text of the Tanakh approved for general use in Judaism. ...


The five scrolls (Hamesh Megillot)

The five relatively short books of Song of Songs, Book of Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes and Book of Esther are collectively known as the Hamesh Megillot (The Five Scrolls). These scrolls are traditionally read over the course of the year in many Jewish communities. The list below presents them in the order they are read in the synagogue on holidays, beginning with the Song of Songs on Passover. Song of Solomon is also the title of a novel by Toni Morrison. ... The Book of Ruth is a book in the Hebrew Bible known to Jews as the Tanakh and to Christians as the Old Testament. ... The Book of Lamentations is a book of the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... Ecclesiastes, Kohelet in Hebrew, is a book of the Hebrew Bible. ... The Book of Esther is a book of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) and of the Old Testament. ... In the third major section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), which is called Ketuvim (The Writings), there are five relatively short biblical books that are grouped together and known collectively in the Jewish tradition as The Five Scrolls (Hebrew: Hamesh Megillot or Chamesh Megillos). ... Passover, also known as Pesach or Pesah (פסח pesaḥ), is a Jewish holiday, beginning on the evening of the 14th day of Nisan, that commemorates The Exodus and freedom of the Israelites from Ancient Egypt. ...


The following list divides the books of Ketuvim into three subgroups based on the distinctiveness of Sifrei Emet and Hamesh Megillot.


Order of the books in Ketuvim

(as found in common printed editions)


Group I: The Three Poetic Books (Sifrei Emet)

Group II: The Five Scrolls (Hamesh Megillot) Psalms (Tehilim תהילים, in Hebrew) is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, and of the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... The Book of Proverbs is a book of the Tanakh/Old Testament. ... The Book of Job (איוב, Standard Hebrew Iyyov, Tiberian Hebrew ʾIyyôḇ; Arabic أيّوب ʾAyyūb) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible, or Tanakh, and is also one of the books of the Christian Old Testament. ... In the third major section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), which is called Ketuvim (The Writings), there are five relatively short biblical books that are grouped together and known collectively in the Jewish tradition as The Five Scrolls (Hebrew: Hamesh Megillot or Chamesh Megillos). ...

Group III: Other Historical Books Song of Solomon is also the title of a novel by Toni Morrison. ... Passover, also known as Pesach or Pesah (פסח pesaḥ), is a Jewish holiday, beginning on the evening of the 14th day of Nisan, that commemorates The Exodus and freedom of the Israelites from Ancient Egypt. ... The Book of Ruth is a book in the Hebrew Bible known to Jews as the Tanakh and to Christians as the Old Testament. ... Shavuot (Hebrew שבועות), ([seven] weeks) (pronounced: shah-voo-OH-t) is one of the three Biblical pilgrimage festivals. ... The Book of Lamentations is a book of the Bible Old Testament and Jewish Tanakh. ... Tisha BAv (תשעה באב tish‘āh bə-āḇ) means the ninth day of the Jewish month of Av, which is a month in the lunar calendar used for purposes of Jewish holidays, etc. ... Ecclesiastes, Kohelet in Hebrew, is a book of the Hebrew Bible. ... Sukkot (סוכות or סֻכּוֹת sukkōt, booths) or Succoth or Sukkos is a Biblical pilgrimage festival which occurs in autumn on the 15th day of the month of Tishri (mid- to late-October). ... The Book of Esther is a book of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible) and of the Old Testament. ... Purim (פּוּרִים Lots, Standard Hebrew Purim, Tiberian Hebrew Pûrîm: plural of פּוּר pûr Lot, from Akkadian pÅ«ru) is a Jewish holiday that commemorates the deliverance of the Persian Jews from the plot of the evil Haman to exterminate them, as recorded in the biblical Book of Esther. ...

This article is about the Biblical book. ... The Book of Ezra is a book of the Bible in the Old Testament and Hebrew Tanakh. ... The Book of Nehemiah is a book of the Hebrew Bible, known to Jews as the Tanakh and to Christians as the Old Testament. ... The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ...

Other ways to order the books

The order of the books in Ketuvim varies in manuscripts and printed editions. Some, for instance, place Chronicles first instead of last. The above list presents the books in the order found in most common printed versions of the Hebrew Bible today. Historically, this particular order of the books derives from manuscripts written by the Jews of Ashkenaz (medieval Germany). The Book of Chronicles is a book in the Hebrew Bible (also see Old Testament). ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum This article discusses usage of the term Hebrew Bible. For the article on the Hebrew Bible itself, see Tanakh. ...


The Jewish textual tradition never finalized the order of the books in Ketuvim. The Babylonian Talmud (Bava Batra 14b-15a) gives their order as follows: Ruth, Psalms, Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Lamentations, Daniel, Scroll of Esther, Ezra, Chronicles. The Talmud (תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions on Jewish law, Jewish ethics, customs, legends and stories, which Jewish tradition considers authoritative. ...


In Tiberian masoretic codices including the Aleppo Codex and the Leningrad Codex, and often in old Spanish manuscripts as well, the order or Ketuvim is as follows: Chronicles, Psalms, Job, Proverbs, Ruth, Song of Songs, Ecclesiastes, Lamentations, Esther, Daniel, Ezra. The Masoretic Text (MT) is the Hebrew text of the Tanakh approved for general use in Judaism. ... The Aleppo Codex (the Keter (Crown) Aram Tzova) is the oldest complete manuscript Hebrew Bible, though scrolls of individual books of the Tanakh are much older (see Dead Sea scrolls). ... The Leningrad codex is the oldest surviving complete copy of the Masoretic text of the Hebrew Bible, dated 1008. ...


Targum on books in Ketuvim

Briefly: Western targumim exist on Sifrei Emet and on the Five Megillot. Details to follow. A targum (plural: targumim) is an Aramaic translation of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) written or compiled in the Land of Israel or in Babylonia from the Second Temple period until the early Middle Ages (late first millennium). ... In the third major section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), which is called Ketuvim (The Writings), there are five relatively short biblical books that are grouped together and known collectively in the Jewish tradition as The Five Scrolls (Hebrew: Hamesh Megillot or Chamesh Megillos). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
MyJewishLearning.com - Texts: Writings (780 words)
Ketuvim might better be translated as "the anthology," the canonical collection from the post-prophetic age.
Most of the individual books in Ketuvim were written or at least put in final form in Judea during the period of Persian and Hellenistic rule, from the fifth through the second centuries BCE.
Certain of the Ketuvim were associated with figures from Nevi'im, probably from early on--Proverbs and Song of Songs with King Solomon, Lamentations with Jeremiah, and Psalms as a whole with King David.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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