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Encyclopedia > Ketopentose

A pentose is a monosaccharide with five carbon atoms. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Atomic mass 12. ... Properties An atom (Greek άτομον from ά: non and τομον: divisible) is a submicroscopic structure found in all ordinary matter. ...


They either have an aldehyde functional group in position 1 (aldopentoses), or a ketone functional group in position 2 (ketopentoses). An aldehyde is either a functional group consisting of a terminal carbonyl group, or a compound containing a terminal carbonyl group. ... In ecology functional groups are collections of organisms based on morphological, physiological, behavioral, biochemical, or environmental responses or on trophic criteria. ... A ketone is either the functional group characterized by a carbonyl group linked to two other carbon atoms or a compound that contains this functional group. ...


The aldopentoses have three chiral centres ("asymmetric carbon atoms") and so 8 different stereoisomers are possible. Stereoisomerism is the arrangement of atoms in molecules whose connectivity remains the same but their arrangement in space is different in each isomer. ...


The 4 D-aldopentoses are:

 CH=O CH=O CH=O CH=O | | | | HC-OH HO-CH HC-OH HO-CH | | | | HC-OH HC-OH HO-CH HO-CH | | | | HC-OH HC-OH HC-OH HC-OH | | | | CH2OH CH2OH CH2OH CH2OH D-Ribose D-Arabinose D-Xylose D-Lyxose 

The ketopentoses have 2 chiral centres and therefore 4 possible stereoisomers — ribulose (L- and D-form) and xylulose (L- and D-form). Ribose Ribose is a five carbon sugar (pentose) that is critical to living creatures. ... Fischer projection of L-arabinose Arabinose is a sugar, one of the pentose series of carbohydrates. ... Xylose is an aldopentose - a simple sugar containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group. ... Lyxose is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group. ... Fischer projection of D-ribulose Ribulose is a ketopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including a ketone functional group. ... Xylulose is a sugar (a monosaccharide), one of the pentose series of carbohydrates. ...


The aldehyde and ketone functional groups in these carbohydrates react with neighbouring hydroxyl functional groups to form intramolecular hemiacetals or hemiketals, respectively. The resulting ring structure is related to furan, and is termed a furanose. The ring spontaneously opens and closes, allowing rotation to occur about the bond between the carbonyl group and the neighbouring carbon atom — yielding two distinct configurations (α and β). This process is termed mutarotation. Hydroxide is a functional group consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: -O−H It has a charge of 1-. The term hydroxyl group is used when the functional group -OH is counted as a substituent of an organic compound. ... Intramolecular describes a process or characteristic limited within the structure of a single, or each molecule; a property or phenomenon limited to the extent of a single, or each molecule. ... A hemiacetal is a functional group or compound containing the function group in the form of: where R and R are any carbon backbones. ... A hemiacetal is a functional group or compound containing the function group in the form of: where R and R are any carbon backbones. ... Furan, also known as furane and furfuran, is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound, produced when wood, especially pine-wood, is distilled. ... A furanose is a simple sugar that contains a furan ring. ... Mutarotation is the change in specific rotation that occurs when an α (alpha) or β (beta) hemiacetal form of carbohydrate is converted into an equilibrium mixture of the two forms. ...


Ribose is a constituent of RNA, and the related deoxyribose of DNA. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of covalently bound nucleotides. ... Deoxyribose Deloxyuoxyribose, also knnnnnown as D-Deoxyribose and 2-deoxyribose, is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group. ... Space-filling model of a section of DNA molecule Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions specifying the biological development of all cellular forms of life (and most viruses). ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Homework 12 (636 words)
The wording for question 15 has been changed.
Draw the structure of a ketopentose that is optically inactive.
Refer to the JavaGrins tutorial for instructions on how to draw Fischer projections of sugars.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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