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Encyclopedia > Ket people

Kets (Кеты in Russian) are a Siberian people who speak the Ket language. In Imperial Russia they were called Ostyaks, without differentiating them from several other Siberian peoples. Later they became known as Yenisey ostyaks, because they lived in the middle and lower basin of the Yenisei River in the Krasnoyarsk Krai district of Russia.[1] The modern Kets lived in the eastern middle areas of the river before being assimilated politically into the Russia or Siberia during the 17th through 19th centuries.[2] This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (blue outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (green lines) of a contiguous area. ... The Yenisei (Енисе́й) is the greatest river system flowing to the Arctic Ocean, and the fifth longest river in the world. ... Krasnoyarsk Krai (Russian: ) (2002 pop. ...

Contents

History

The Ket are thought to be the only survivors of an ancient nomadic people believed to have originally lived throughout central southern Siberia. In the 1960's the Yugh people were distinguished as a separate though similar group. Today's Kets are the descendants of the tribes of fishermen and hunters of the Yenisey taiga, who adopted some of the cultural ways of those original Ket-speaking tribes of South Siberia. The earlier tribes engaged in hunting, fishing, and even reindeer breeding in the northern areas.[2] Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ... Yugh people (pronounced yook; often written Yug) were part of an indigenous group believed to be survivors of an ancient people who originally lived throughout central Siberia. ... http://www. ... For other uses, see Taiga (disambiguation). ... This article is about the hunting of prey by human society. ... Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering. ... Caribou redirects here. ... Shepherd with his sheep in Făgăraş Mountains, Romania. ...


The Ket were incorporated into the Russian state in the 17th century. Their efforts to resist were futile as the Russians deported them to different places to break up their resistance. This also broke up their strictly organized patriarchal social system and their way of life disintegrated. The Ket people ran up huge debts with the Russians. Some died of famine, other of diseases imported from Europe. By the 19th century the Kets could no longer survive without food support from the Russian state.[3] (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... A patriarch (from Greek: patria means father; arché means rule, beginning, origin) is a male head of an extended family exercising autocratic authority, or, by extension, a member of the ruling class or government of a society controlled by senior men. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... This article is about the medical term. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century &#8212; 19th century &#8212; 20th century &#8212; more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the 20th century, the Soviets forced collectivization upon the Ket. They were officially recognized as Kets in 1930s when the Soviet Union started to implement the self-definition policy with respect to indigenous peoples. However, Ket traditions continued to be suppressed and self-initiative discouraged. Collectivization was completed by the 1950s and the Russian lifestyle and language forced upon the Ket people. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901&#8211;2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900&#8211;1999... Soviet redirects here. ... Collective farming is an organizational unit in agriculture in which peasants are not paid wages, but rather receive a share of the farms net output. ... The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the World Depression. ... Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... the first thing that was invented was the automatic DILDO. Education grew explosively because of a very strong demand for high school and college education. ...


The population of Kets has been relatively stable since 1923. According to the 2002 census, there were 1494 Kets in Russia. This compares with 1200 in the 1970 census. Today the Ket live in small villages along the riverside and are no longer nomadic. Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ... Year 1970 ([[Rf 1970 == January 1 - The Unix epoch begins at 00:00:00 UTC January 2 - The last studio performance of The Beatles oman numerals|MCMLXX]]) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Masouleh village, Gilan Province, Iran. ...


Language

The Ket language is a language isolate like Basque in Spain, completely unrelated to neighboring languages, and contains many typologically rare linguistic features. Some linguists think that they belong to the Dene-Caucasian macro-family.[4] Ket means "man" (plural deng "men, people"). The Kets of the Kas, Sym and Dubches rivers use jugun as a self-designation. In 1788 P.S. Pallas published the earliest observations about the Ket language in a travel diary.[5] This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or genetic) relationship with other living languages; that is, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common to any other language. ...


In 1926, there were 1,428 Kets, of which 1225 (85.8%) were native speakers of the Ket language. The 1989 census counted 1,113 ethnic Kets with only 537 (48.3%) native speakers left. Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...


Today the Ket language is still spoken by about 600 of the Ket. It is entirely different from any other language in Siberia.[2]


Ancestry

Studies in biological anthropology

Anthropologically, the Kets have Uralic features. The colour of their skin and eyes is lighter than the Mongolians, but darker than the Uralic peoples. Their stature is comparatively short and stout.[citation needed] Geographical distribution of Samoyedic, Finnic, Ugric and Yukaghir languages  Yukaghir  Samoyedic  Ugric  Finnic The term Uralic peoples is used to describe peoples speaking a Uralic language. ...


Some authors hypothesize that the Kets may descend from the ancient Dingling of the Tashtyk culture. According to Kyzlasov, they were described by Chinese imperial historians as blue-eyed and fair-haired people of Siberia, but Kyzlasov made no mention for which particular Chinese reference he was referring, and thus unsubstantiated.[6] For the contemporary Chinese author, see Ding Ling. ... Culture that flourished in the Yenisei valley and elsewhere in central Siberia from the first to the fourth century. ...


Recent Y chromosome DNA evidence shows that the Kets posess a very high frequency of Y-haplogroup Q that came into being in southern Siberia in late Paleolithic and is the main Y-haplogroup of Siberian Selkups and Native American tribes. The human Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes, it contains the genes that cause testis development, thus determining maleness. ... Selkups (Селькупы in Russian, former name until 1930s - остяко-самоеды, or ostyak-samoyeds) are a people in Siberia, Russia. ... Native Americans redirects here. ...


Cultural comparisons

Vyacheslav Vsevolodovich Ivanov and Vladimir Toporov compared the mythology of Kets with those of Uralic peoples, assuming in the studies, that there are modelling semiotic systems in the compared mythologies; and they have made also typological comparisons.[7][8] Among others, from possibly Uralic mythological analogies, those of Ob-Ugric peoples[9] and Samoyedic peoples[10] are mentioned. Some other discussed analogies (similar folklore motifs, and purely typological considerations, certain binary pairs in symbolics) may be related to dualistic organization of society — some of such dualistic features can be found at these compared peoples.[11] It must be admitted that, for Kets, neither dualistic organization of society[12] nor cosmological dualism[13] has been researched thoroughly: if such features existed at all, they have either weakened or remained largely undiscovered;[12] although there are some reports on division into two exogamous patrilinear moieties,[14] folklore on conflicts of mythological figures, and also on cooperation of two beings in creating the land:[13] the diving of the water fowl.[15] It must be noted that if we include dualistic cosmologies meant in broad sense, not restricted to certain concrete motifs, then we find that they are much more widespead, they exist not only among some Uralic peoples, but there are examples in each inhabited continent.[16] Vyacheslav Vsevolodovich Ivanov is a prominent Soviet/Russian philologist and Indo-Europeanist probably best known for his glottalic theory of Indo-European consonantism and for placing the Indo-European urheimat in the area of the Lake Urmia. ... Vladimir Nikolayevich Toporov (5 July 1928 - 5 December 2005) was a leading Russian philologist who presided over the Moscow-Tartu school of semiotics after Yuri Lotmans death. ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... Semiotics, semiotic studies, or semiology is the study of signs and symbols, both individually and grouped into sign systems. ... The Ob-Ugric languages are a subset of the Finno-Ugric languages, specifically referring to the Khanty (Ostyak) and Mansi (Vogul) languages. ... Geographical distribution of Samoyedic, Finnic, Ugric and Yukaghir languages  Yukaghir  Samoyedic  Ugric  Finnic The term Samoyedic peoples is used to describe peoples speaking a Samoyedic language. ... For other uses, see Motive. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Dualistic cosmology is a collective term, the present article shows certain myths and motifs which are termed as such in the ethnographic and anthropological literature. ...


Culture

Their traditional culture was researched by Matthias Castrén, Vasiliy Ivanovich Anuchin, Kai Donner, Hans Findeisen, Yevgeniya Alekseyevna Alekseyenko.[17] Shamanism was a living practice in the 1930s yet, but by the 1960s almost no authentic shaman could be found. There are various examples of shamanism in Siberia — they are not alike. Ket shamanism shared features with those of Turkic and Mongolic peoples.[18] Besides that, there were several types of shamans,[19][20] differing in function (sacral rites, curing), power and associated animal (deer, bear).[20] Also among Kets (like at several other Siberian peoples, e.g. Karagas[21][22][23]), there are exampes of using skeleton symbolics,[18] Hoppál interprets it as a symbol of shamanic rebirth.[24] Matthias Alexander Castrén (December 2, 1813-May 7, 1853) was a Finnish ethnologist and philologist. ... Kai Donner (1888–1935), Finnish linguist and politician. ... This article is about the practice of shamanism; for other uses, see Shaman (disambiguation). ... Siberia is regarded as the locus classicus of shamanism [1]. It is inhabited by many different people. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... Tofalars (Тофалары, тофа (tofa) in Russian; formerly known as карагасы, or karagas) are a Turkic-speaking people in the Irkutsk Oblast in Russia. ...


See also

This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Yugh people (pronounced yook; often written Yug) were part of an indigenous group believed to be survivors of an ancient people who originally lived throughout central Siberia. ... The Yenisei-Ostyak language family is spoken in central Siberia. ... List of indigenous peoples of Russia Ket people Nenets people Tuvan people Buryats Yakuts Enets people Indigenous peoples of the Russian North Categories: | | | ...

Notes

  1. ^ Ket: Bibliographical guide. Institute of Linguistics (Russian Academy of Sciences) & Kazuto Matsumura (Univ. of Tokyo). Retrieved on 2006-10-20.
  2. ^ a b c Vajda, Edward G.. The Ket and Other Yeniseian Peoples. Retrieved on 2007-06-29.
  3. ^ THE KETS. The Peoples of the Red Book. Retrieved on 2006-08-05.
  4. ^ The Ket People. Google Video. Retrieved on 2006-08-05.
  5. ^ Ket language. Retrieved on 2006-10-27.
  6. ^ Leonid Kyzlasov. Tashtyk Era (Таштыкская эпоха). Moscow, 1953. Page 13.
  7. ^ Ivanov & Toporov 1973
  8. ^ Ivanov 1984:390, in editorial afterword by Hoppál
  9. ^ Ivanov 1984: 225, 227, 229
  10. ^ Ivanov 1984: 229, 230
  11. ^ Ivanov 1984: 229–231
  12. ^ a b Zolotaryov 1980: 39
  13. ^ a b Zolotaryov 1980: 48
  14. ^ Zolotaryov 1980: 37
  15. ^ Ivanov 1984: 229
  16. ^ Zolotarjov 1980: 56
  17. ^ Hoppál 2005: 170–171
  18. ^ a b Hoppál 2005: 172
  19. ^ Alekseyenko 1978
  20. ^ a b Hoppál 2005: 171
  21. ^ Diószegi 1960: 128, 188, 243
  22. ^ Diószegi 1960: 130
  23. ^ Hoppál 1994: 75
  24. ^ Hoppál 1994: 65

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Alekseyenko, E. A. (1978). "Categories of Ket Shamans", Shamanism in Siberia. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó. 
  • Diószegi, Vilmos (1960). Sámánok nyomában Szibéria földjén. Egy néprajzi kutatóút története (in Hungarian). Budapest: Magvető Könyvkiadó.  The book has been translated to English: Diószegi, Vilmos (1968). Tracing shamans in Siberia. The story of an ethnographical research expedition, Translated from Hungarian by Anita Rajkay Babó, Oosterhout: Anthropological Publications. 
  • Hoppál, Mihály (1994). Sámánok, lelkek és jelképek (in Hungarian). Budapest: Helikon Kiadó. ISBN 963 208 298 2.  The title means “Shamans, souls and symbols”.
  • Hoppál, Mihály (2005). Sámánok Eurázsiában (in Hungarian). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó. ISBN 963-05-8295-3 2.  The title means “Shamans in Eurasia”, the book is written in Hungarian, but it is published also in German, Estonian and Finnish. Site of publisher with short description on the book (in Hungarian)
  • Ivanov, Vyacheslav; Vladimir Toporov (1973). "Towards the Description of Ket Semiotic Systems". Semiotica IX (4): 318–346. The Hague • Prague • New York: Mouton. 
  • Ivanov, Vjacseszlav (=Vyacheslav) (1984). "Nyelvek és mitológiák", Nyelv, mítosz, kultúra, Collected, appendix, editorial afterword by Hoppál, Mihály (in Hungarian), Budapest: Gondolat. ISBN 963 281 186 0.  The title means: “Language, myth, culture”, the editorial afterword means: “Languages and mythologies”.
  • Ivanov, Vyacheslav (=Vyacheslav) (1984). "Obi-ugor és ket folklórkapcsolatok", Nyelv, mítosz, kultúra, Collected, appendix, editorial afterword by Hoppál, Mihály (in Hungarian), Budapest: Gondolat, 215–233. ISBN 963 281 186 0.  The title means: “Language, myth, culture”, the chapter means: “Obi-Ugric and Ket folklore contacts”.
  • Middendorff, A. Th., von (1987). Reis Taimхrile. 
  • Zolotarjov, A.M. (1980). "Társadalomszervezet és dualisztikus teremtésmítoszok Szibériában", in Hoppál, Mihály: A Tejút fiai. Tanulmányok a finnugor népek hitvilágáról (in Hungarian). Budapest: Európa Könyvkiadó, 29–58. ISBN 963 07 2187 2.  Chapter means: “Social structure and dualistic creation myths in Siberia”; title means: “The sons of Milky Way. Studies on the belief systems of Finno-Ugric peoples”.

Vyacheslav Vsevolodovich Ivanov is a prominent Soviet/Russian philologist and Indo-Europeanist probably best known for his glottalic theory of Indo-European consonantism and for placing the Indo-European urheimat in the area of the Lake Urmia. ... Vladimir Nikolayevich Toporov (5 July 1928 - 5 December 2005) was a leading Russian philologist who presided over the Moscow-Tartu school of semiotics after Yuri Lotmans death. ...

External links

  • The Kets. The Red Book of the Peoples of the Russian Empire.
  • Edward J, Vajda. The Ket and Other Yeniseian Peoples.
  • Ethnologue on Ket
  • Ket Language
  • Endangered Languages of the Indigenious Peoples of Siberia - The Ket Language
  • Yeniseian Peoples and Languages
  • The Ket People - Google Video
  • Starostin S.A.

  Results from FactBites:
 
East Asian Studies 210 Notes: The Ket (1531 words)
The Yeniseian peoples are thought to be descendents of some of the earliest inhabitants of Central Southern Siberia, while all of their neighbors seem to be relative newcomers.
Ket shamanism is in most details very similar to that of their southern Samoyedic neighbors, the Selkups.
Ket buried their dead in the earth, along with personal possessions, which were broken up before being put in the tomb; sometimes dogs were also killed and placed with the deceased.
The Norfolk Rising 1549 (5944 words)
Ket, anxious to unite citizens and peasants in a common cause, willingly avoided altercation, and Cod, alarmed at the rising, and unable to dissuade the insurgents from their enterprise, was careful to refrain from all hostile demonstrations.
The property of the Kets was duly taken by the servants of the crown, and the bodies of the rebel leaders swung in the wind—to remind unthinking men of the reward of rebellion, of the fate of all who challenge, without success, the arms of government.
The county people sunk into hopeless poverty and permanent degradation under Edward VI and Elizabeth, and with the rejection by the government of papal authority, the supremacy of the crown and of the ministers of the crown was established.
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