Kernicterus is damage to the brain centers of infants caused by jaundice. Newborn babies are often polycythemic, meaning they have too many red blood cells. When they break down the cells, one of the by-products is bilirubin, which circulates in the blood, and causes jaundice. The following codes are used with International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The Diseases Database is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Jaundice, also known as icterus (adjective:Icteric), is yellowing of the skin, sclera (the white of the eyes) and mucous membranes caused by increased levels of bilirubin in the human body. ... Polycythemia is a condition in which there is a net increase in the total circulating erythrocyte (red blood cell) mass of the body. ... Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and are the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen from the lungs or gills to body tissues via the blood. ... Bilirubin is a yellow breakdown product of haem (heme in American English) catabolism. ...
In adults and older children, jaundice is harmless in and of itself. But the tissues protecting the brain (the blood-brain barrier) are immature in newborns. The bilirubin penetrates the brain, and literally stains the nerve bodies, causing irreversible damage. Depending on the level of exposure, the effects range from unnoticeable to severe brain damage. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a membrane that controls the passage of substances from the blood into the central nervous system. ... Brain damage or brain injury is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells. ...
Some medications, such as trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole may induce this disorder to the baby when taken by the mother. Trimethoprim is a bacteriostatic antibiotic mainly used in the prophylaxis and treatment of urinary tract infections (cystitis). ... Sulfamethoxazole is a sulfonamide antibiotic. ...
The MRI damage of kernicterus differs from that of hypoxia−ischemia, which damages thalamus, cortex and periventricular white matter, and the caudate and putamen, areas of the basal ganglia that are not affected in kernicterus.
Kernicterus may be a comorbidity in children with dramatic illnesses requiring emergency surgery who fail to receive treatment for hyperbilirubinemia during the perioperative period.
Kernicterus subtypes and the pattern of involvement may relate to factors such as developmental age, and the amount and duration of exposure to bilirubin.
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