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Encyclopedia > Kermanshah Province
Kermanshah Province
استان كرمانشاه
Location
Statistics
Capital:
 • Coordinates:
Kermanshah
 • 34.3176° N 47.0869° E
Area : 24,998 km²
Population(2005):
 • Density :
1,938,060
 • 77.5/km²
Sub-provinces
(Shahrestan)
:
13
Time zone: UTC+3:30
Main language(s): Kurdish
Persian
Laki

Kermanshah (Persian: كرمانشاه; Kurdish: Kirmaşan) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. It is in the west of the country, bordering Iraq. Between 1979 and the 1990s, the province was known as Bakhtaran. province of Iran File links The following pages link to this file: Kermanshah Province Categories: GFDL images ... Subnational entity is a generic term for an administrative region within a country — on an arbitrary level below that of the sovereign state — typically with a local government encompassing multiple municipalities, counties, or provinces with a certain degree of autonomy in a varying number of matters. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... A geographical political division in Iran. ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Kurdish language is a language spoken in the region called Kurdistan, including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Laki is an Iranian language/dialect (of Gurâni) of the north-western branch spoken in the central Zagros region of Iran (Luristan province) by the Lak people. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... The Kurdish language is a language spoken in the region called Kurdistan, including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ... Iran consists of 30 provinces: Provinces are governed from a local center, mostly the largest local city. ...


Its capital Kermanshah ( 34°18′N, 47°4′E) is located in the middle of the western part of Iran. The population of the city is 822,921. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


The city is built on the slopes of Mt.Sefid Koohand extended toward south during last two decades. The builtup areas run alongside Sarab River and Valley. City's elevation average about 1350 meters above sea level. Mt. ...


The distance between Kermanshah and Teheran is 525 km. It is the trade center of rich agricultural region that produces grain, rice, vegetable, fruits, and oilseeds, and there are many industrial centers, oil and sugar refineries, and cement, textile and flour factories, etc. The airport is located in north east of the city and the distance from Tehran is 413 km by air. Tehran (also spelled Teheran) (تهران in Persian), population 8,000,000 (metropolitan: 10,000,000), is the capital of Iran and one of the major world cities. ...

Contents

Counties

Kemanshah consists of 14 shahrestans (counties):



Kermanshah; Islam Abad-e-Gharb; Paveh; Harsin; Kangavar; Sonqor; Javanrood; Salas-e-babajani; Ravansar; Dalahoo; Gilan-Gharb; Sahneh; Qasr-e-Shirin; Sar-Pol-e-Zahab, This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Paveh (in Kurdish Pawe) is a city in Iranian province of Kermanshah (Kirmaşan). ... Harsin is a county in Kermanshah Province. ... Kangavar is the name of a small district in the province of Kermanshah in Iran, as well as of the town that is the districts administrative capital. ... Sonqor & Koliai is a Mountainous county of Kermansah Province. ... Javanrood is a town in the city of Kermanshah in Iran. ... Ravansar (روانسر) is an ancient small town in the west of Iran. ...


History

The Province has a rich paleolithic heritage. Many caves with Paleolithic remains have been surveyed or excavated there. some of these cave sites are located in Bisetun and north of Kermanshah. The first known physical remains of Neanderthal man in Iran was discovered in Bisetun cave. Do-Ashkaft, Kobeh, Warwasi, and Mar Tarik are some of the Middle Paleolithic sites in the region. Kermanshah also has many Neolithic sites, of which the most famouse are Ganj Dareh , Sarab, and Asiab. At Ganj Dareh, the earliest evidence for goat domestication have been documented . The monuments found in Kermanshah show two glorious periods, the Achaemenid and Sassanid eras. This cranium, of Homo heidelbergensis, a Lower Paleolithic predecessor to Homo neanderthalensis, dates to between 400,000 BCE to 500,000 BCE The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ... The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Ganj Dareh is a Neolithic settlement in Iranian Kurdistan, it is located in the east of Kermanshah. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate...


The mythical ruler of the Pishdadian is described as founding the city while Tahmores Divband built it. An alternative narrative is that the construction was by Bahram IV of the Sassanid dynasty during the 4th century CE. Kermanshah reached a peak during the reign of Hormizd IV and Khosrau I of Sassanids, before being demoted to a secondary royal residence. Hormizd IV, son of Khosrau I, reigned as king of Persia from 578 to 590. ... A coin of Khosrau I. Khosrau I, (Chosroes I in classical sources, most commonly known in Persian as Anooshiravan also spelled Anushirvan, Persian: انوشيروان meaning the immortal soul), also known as Anooshiravan the Just (انوشیروان عادل, Anooshiravan-e-ādel) (ruled 531–579), was the favourite son and successor of Kavadh I (488–531...


The city suffered major damage during the Arab invasions but recovered in the Safavid period to make great progress. Concurrent with the Afghan attack and the fall of Isfahan, Kermanshah was almost comletely destroyed by the Ottoman invasion. The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI...


During the Iran-Iraq War the province suffered heavy fighting. Most towns and cities were badly damaged and some like Sar-e Pol-e Zahab and Qhasr-e-Shirin were almost completely destroyed. Combatants  Iran Iraq Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini, Abolhassan Banisadr, Ali Shamkhani, Mostafa Chamran† Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength - 305,000 soldiers, - 500,000 Passdaran and Basij militia, - 900 tanks, - 1,000 armored vehicles, - 3,000 artillery pieces, - 65 aircraft, - 750 helicopters[1] - 190,000 soldiers, - 5,000 tanks, - 4...

At the top panel Khosrow II is believed to be standing here in this relief at Taq-e Bostan. On his left is Ahura Mazda, on his right is Anahita, and below him is a mounted Persian knight.
At the top panel Khosrow II is believed to be standing here in this relief at Taq-e Bostan. On his left is Ahura Mazda, on his right is Anahita, and below him is a mounted Persian knight.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (522x768, 309 KB) Summary Subject: One of the oldest depictions of a Knight from the Sassanide relief. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (522x768, 309 KB) Summary Subject: One of the oldest depictions of a Knight from the Sassanide relief. ... Khosrau II, Parvez (the Victorious), king of Persia, son of Hormizd IV, grandson of Khosrau I, 590 - 628. ... Frontal view of the two arches. ... Ahura Mazda is the Avestan language name for an exalted divinity of ancient proto-Indo-Iranian religion that was subsequently declared by Zarathustra (Zoroaster) to be the one uncreated creator of all (God). ... Temple of Anahita: goddess of ancient Persia, Iran. ...

Climate

As it is situated between two cold and warm regions enjoys a moderate climate. Kermanshah has a moderate and mountainous climate. It rains most in winter and is moderately warm in summer. The annual rainfall is 500 mm. The average temperature in the hottest months is above 22 °C.


Culture and economy

Language

The province is settled mostly by Kurdish, Persian and laki speakers. There are minority Arabs and Turks living in this province. In addition to the inhabitants of the towns and villages, there are nomadic societies through out the province. High mountain ranges closer to the Iraqi border are home to Kurdish tribes people.The predominant language in suburbs is Kurdish ( Southern Kurdish Dialect called "Kurdî Başûr" ), but Persian is the first language in the cities. Other languages such as Laki and Turki are also spoken. The Kurdish language is a language spoken in the region called Kurdistan, including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... The name Laki has more than one meaning:- A town called Laki in Plovdiv district in Bulgaria. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predomiantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... The Kurdish language is a language spoken in the region called Kurdistan, including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ...


Higher education and research

Razi University is a research institution and university of engineering and science in Iran (Persia), offering both undergraduate and postgraduate studies. ...

Local Products

Hand made Klash of Kermanshah
Hand made Klash of Kermanshah

Kermanshah lends its name to a type of Persian carpet named after the region. It also has famous sweets made of rice, locally known as Nân berendji. The other famous Kermanshahi good is a special kind of oil, locally known as Rüne Dân and globally in Iran known as Roghan Kermanshahi. The Giveh of Kermanshah known as Klash is the highest quality Giveh. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 325 KB)Hand made crafts by Kurds of Kermanshah region, (Klash). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 325 KB)Hand made crafts by Kurds of Kermanshah region, (Klash). ... Carpet is a general term given to any loom-woven or felted textile and to grass floor coverings. ... Giveh, prnounced /gi:ve/ in farsi or /gi:wæ/ in Kurdish, also known in Kurdish as klash is a kind of soft, comfortable, durable and handwoven-top shoe common in several parts of Iran especially in rural and mountainous areas of Kermanshah Province. ... Giveh, prnounced /gi:ve/ in farsi or /gi:wæ/ in Kurdish, also known in Kurdish as klash is a kind of soft, comfortable, durable and handwoven-top shoe common in several parts of Iran especially in rural and mountainous areas of Kermanshah Province. ...


Historical Attractions

Various attractions exist that date from the pre-Islamic era, such as Pol-e-Kohneh, to contemporary parks and museums. Some of the more popular sites are: Pol-e-Kohneh Bridge is a bridge in the eastern suburb of Kermanshah city in Iran. ...

Darius the Great's inscription at Bisotun, which dates to 522 BCE, lies some 1300 meters high in the mountains, and counts as one of the most famous sites in Near Eastern archeology. The site is a UNESCO World Heritage Site,[1] and has been attracting visitors for centuries. The Behistun inscription is to Old Persian cuneiform what the Rosetta Stone is to Egyptian hieroglyphs: the trilingual inscription (in Old Persian, Elamite and Akkadian) was crucial in the decipherment of the script. The relief above the inscription depicts Darius facing nine rebels who objected to his crowning. At the kings feet lies Gaumata. The location of this important historical document is not coincidental: Gaumata, a usurper who is depicted as lying at Darius' feet, was a Medean and in Achaemenid times Behistun lay on the Medea-Parsa highway.
Hellenistic-era depiction of Bahram as Hercules.
Hellenistic-era depiction of Bahram as Hercules.
Behistun is also notable for three reliefs at the foot of the hill that date from the Parthian era. Among them is a Hellenistic-era depiction of the divinity Bahram as the Greek hero Hercules, who reclines with a goblet in his hand, a club at his feet and a lion-skin beneath him. Because it lies on the route of an ancient highway, this life-size rock sculpture may reflect Bahram's status as patron divinity of travelers.
  • Taq-e Bostan:
The rock reliefs at Taq-e Bostan lie four miles north-East of Kermanshah, where a spring gushes from a mountain cliff and empties into a large reflecting pool. One of the more impressive reliefs, inside the largest grotto (ivan), is the oversized depiction of Sassanid king Khosrau II (591-628 CE), who appears mounted on his favorite charger, Shabdiz. Both horse and rider are arrayed in full battle armor.
There are two hunting scenes on complementary sides of the ivan: one depicts an imperial boar hunt and the other depicting the king stalking deer. Elephants flush out the boar from a marshy lake for the king who stands poised with bow and arrow in hand while he is serenaded by female musicians following in other boats. These royal hunting scenes are narrative murals in stone are count among the most vivid of all Iranian rock reliefs.
The Taq-e Bostan reliefs are not limited to the Sassanid era. An upper relief depicts the 19th century Qajar king Fath-Ali shah holding court.
The Kangavar archaeological complex
The Kangavar archaeological complex
Kangavar is the site of the archaeological remains of a vast Hellenic-style edifice on a raised platform. The visible remains at the site date to early Sassanid times,[2] but the platform of the complex may be several centuries older. By the time excavation began in 1968, the complex had been preemptorily associated with a comment by Isidore of Charax who referred to a temple of Anahita at Concobar (the Greek name of Kangavar, which was then in Lower Medea). Despite archaelogical findings to the contrary,[2] the association with the divinity of fertility, healing, and wisdom has made the site a popular tourist attraction. The vast edifice was built of enormous blocks of dressed stone with an imposing entrance of opposed staircases that may have been inspired by the Apadana in Persepolis.

The Behistun Inscription, carved into a cliffside, gives the same text in three languages, telling the story of King Darius conquests, with the names of twenty-three provinces subject to him. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Darius_I_the_Greats_inscription. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Darius_I_the_Greats_inscription. ... Seal of Darius I, showing the king hunting on his chariot, and the symbol of Ahuramazda Darius the Great (Pers. ... Seal of Darius I, showing the king hunting on his chariot, and the symbol of Ahuramazda Darius the Great (Pers. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... See Aryan Language or Old Persian For more information visit: *[Ancient Iranian Languages & Literature The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) ... The Rosetta Stone in the British Museum. ... It has been suggested that Hieroglyph (French Wiki article) be merged into this article or section. ... See Aryan Language or Old Persian For more information visit: *[Ancient Iranian Languages & Literature The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) ... Elamite is an extinct language, which was spoken in the ancient Elamite Empire. ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Smerdis was a Persian king of infamous memory. ... Smerdis was a Persian king of infamous memory. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 370 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kermanshah Province User:Marmoulak/Gallery Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 370 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kermanshah Province User:Marmoulak/Gallery Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Vahrām or Bahrām (modern Persian, var: Behrām; middle Persian: Warahran) is the Zoroastrian concept of victory over resistance and, as the hypostasis of victory, is one of the principal figures in the Zoroastrian pantheon of yazatas. ... Vahrām or Bahrām (modern Persian, var: Behrām; middle Persian: Warahran) is the Zoroastrian concept of victory over resistance and, as the hypostasis of victory, is one of the principal figures in the Zoroastrian pantheon of yazatas. ... Frontal view of the two arches. ... Gold coin of Khosrau II. Silver coin of Khosrau II, dating to ca. ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Anahita_temple1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Anahita_temple1. ... Kangavar is the name of a small district in the province of Kermanshah in Iran, as well as of the town that is the districts administrative capital. ... Kangavar is the name of a small district in the province of Kermanshah in Iran, as well as of the town that is the districts administrative capital. ... Isidore of Charax (fl. ... Temple of Anahita: goddess of ancient Persia, Iran. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Persepolis aerial view. ...

Notable people

One of the renowned scientists and writers of this region is Al-Dinawari who was born at Dinawar north-east of Kermanshah. He lived in 9th century and has written many books in astronomy, botany and history. Notable people born in Kermansha include British author Doris Lessing (b. 1919), whose father, a British army officer, was stationed there at the time of her birth. A family of ancient viziers were living in Kermanshah, the Vaziri family. Ābu Ḥanīfah Āḥmad ibn Dawūd Dīnawārī (828 - 896) was an Kurdish botanist, historian, geographer, astronomer and mathematician [1]. He was born in Dinawar, (north-east of Kermanshah in present-day western Iran). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A giant Hubble mosaic of the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant Astronomy (also frequently referred to as astrophysics) is the scientific study of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earths atmosphere (such as the cosmic background radiation). ... Pinguicula grandiflora Example of a Cross Section of a Stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... An author is any person(s) or entity(s) that originates and assumes responsibility for an expression or communication. ... Doris Lessing, CH, OBE (born October 22, 1919), is a British writer, born Doris May Taylor in Kermanshah, Persia (Iran). ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... In military organizations, a commissioned officer is a member of the service who derives authority directly from a sovereign power, and as such holds a commission from that power. ...


Kurdish Poets of Kermanshah Province

  1. Mustafa Besarani,(1642-1701)
  2. Khana Qubadi, (1700-1760)
  3. Sarhang Almas Khan, mid 18th century
  4. Sheyda Hewramí (1784-1852)
  5. Muhammad Wali Kermashani, (1901-?)
  6. Shami Kermashani(Shamurad Mushtaq), (1927- ), Famous Kurdish Poet of Kermanshah.(see[1] and [2])

Khana Qubadi or (Xana Qubadî in Kurdish), (1700-1759), was a Kurdish poet. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Kermanshah province
  • Kirmashan website, Kurdish Culture
  • Nermewaran, Kurdish weblog in Kermanshah
  • Shemshemekurek
  • Yarsan
  • Taqwasan, Southern Kurdish Literature
  • A persian article about Giveh
  • A persian News-Report on handicrafts of Kermanshah
  • Kirmaşan Nîştimanî Xweşnîşan (Kurdish Poetry)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Kermanshah province - definition of Kermanshah province in Encyclopedia (75 words)
Kermanshah province - definition of Kermanshah province in Encyclopedia
Kermanshah is one of the 30 provinces of Iran.
Between 1979 and the 1990s, the province was known as Bakhtaran.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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