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Encyclopedia > Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island from space
Raoul Island from space

The Kermadec Islands are an island arc in the South Pacific Ocean. The islands have been part of New Zealand since 1887. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (640x640, 360 KB) STS008-36-1403 Raoul Island, Kermadec Islands September 1983 The most active volcanic island of all of the Kermadec Islands, Raoul can be seen in this south-looking view. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (640x640, 360 KB) STS008-36-1403 Raoul Island, Kermadec Islands September 1983 The most active volcanic island of all of the Kermadec Islands, Raoul can be seen in this south-looking view. ... An island arc is a type of archipelago formed by plate tectonics as one oceanic tectonic plate subducts under another and produces magma. ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ...


The islands lie within 29° to 31.5° south latitude and 178° to 179° west longitude, 800 – 1000 km northeast of New Zealand's North Island, and a similar distance southwest of Tonga. The centre of the Kermadec Islands group is located at approximately 29°16′37″S 177°55′24″W / -29.27694, -177.92333. North Island The North Island is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, the other being the South Island. ...


The group includes four main islands (three of them might be considered island groups, because the respective main islands have smaller islands close by) and some isolated rocks, which are, from North to South:

  • Raoul or Sunday Island is by far the largest of the Kermadec Islands. Raoul Island is located at 29°15′60″S 177°55′10″W / -29.26667, -177.91944, 900 km SSW of 'Ata, the southernmost island of Tonga, and 1100 km NNE of New Zealand, area 29.38 km² with numerous smaller satellite islands, Moumoukai peak, 516 m high)
  • Macauley Island, the second largest (located at 30°14′S 178°26′W / -30.233, -178.433, 110 km SSE of Raoul Island, Mount Haszard with an elevation of 238 m, area 3.06 km² with neighboring island: Haszard Island)
    • Macdonald Rock, about 10 km north of Macauley Island at 30°09′S 178°22′W / -30.15, -178.367
  • Curtis Island, the third largest (located at 30°32′32″S 178°33′39″W / -30.54222, -178.56083, 35 km SSE of Macauley Island, area 0.59 km² with neighboring Cheeseman Island, about 130 m high)
  • L'Esperance Rock, formerly French Rock (80 km SSE of Curtis Island at 31°26′S 178°54′W / -31.433, -178.9, 250 m in diameter, 0.05 km² in area, 70 m high)
    • Havre Rock, about 8 km NWW of L'Esperance Rock at 31°21′S 17°9′W / -31.35, -17.15 (submerged, barely above water during low tide)

Seamounts North and South of the Kermadec Islands are an extension of the ridge running from Tonga to New Zealand (see Geology). Raoul Island as seen by STS-8 in 1983 Orthographic projection over Raoul Island Wikinews has news related to: New Zealand Department of Conservation leaves Raoul Island, minus one Remote New Zealand island evacuated as volcano erupts Anvil-shaped Raoul Island (Sunday Island), the largest and northernmost of the Kermadec... Raoul Island as seen by STS-8 in 1983 Orthographic projection over Raoul Island Wikinews has news related to: New Zealand Department of Conservation leaves Raoul Island, minus one Remote New Zealand island evacuated as volcano erupts Anvil-shaped Raoul Island (Sunday Island), the largest and northernmost of the Kermadec... Ê»Ata island Ê»Ata is a small, rocky island in the far south of the Tonga archipelago, situated on . ... Macauley Island SW Pacific (located at 30°14′ S 178°26′ W, Elevation 238 m (caldera) - belongs to the Kermadec Islands. ... Curtis Island Crater Map Curtis Island is an island in the southwest pacific (located at . ... A seamount is a mountain rising from the seafloor that does not reach to the surface of the ocean. ... Raoul Island from space The Kermadec Islands are an island arc in the South Pacific Ocean. ...

  • Star of Bengal Bank, 103 km SSW of L'Esperance Rock, with a least depth of 48 meters

The total area of the islands is 33.08 km². The islands are uninhabited, except for the permanently manned Raoul Island Station, a government meteorological and radio station and hostel for Department of Conservation officers and volunteers that has been maintained since 1937 on the northern terraces of Raoul Island, about 50 m in elevation above the cliffs of Fleetwood Bluff. Raoul Island Station represents the northernmost outpost of New Zealand.


The climate of the islands is subtropical, with a mean monthly temperature of 22.4 °C in February and a mean monthly temperature of 16.0 °C in August. Rainfall is approximately 1,500 mm annually, with lower rainfall from October through January. Subtropical (or semitropical) areas are those adjacent to the tropics, usually roughly defined as the ranges 23. ...

Contents

Geology

The islands are a volcanic island arc, formed at the convergent boundary where the Pacific Plate subducts under the Indo-Australian Plate. The subducting Pacific Plate created the Kermadec Trench, an 8 km deep submarine trench, to the east of the islands. The islands lie along the undersea Kermadec Ridge, which runs southwest from the islands towards the North Island of New Zealand and northeast towards Tonga (Kermadec-Tonga Arc). The four main islands are the peaks of volcanoes that rise high enough from the seabed to rise above sea level. There are numerous other volcanoes, active or inactive or extinct, that do not reach sea level, but form seamounts with between 65 and 1500 m above their peaks. Monowai Seamount, with a depth of 120 m over its peak, is midway between Raoul Island and Tonga. 100 km south of L'Esperance Rock is the little-explored Star of Bengal Bank, probably with submarine volcanoes. Further south are the South Kermadec Ridge Seamounts, the southernmost of which, Rumble IV Seamount, is just 150 km North of North Island of New Zealand. The ridge eventually connects to White Island in New Zealand's Bay of Plenty. The islands experience many earthquakes from plate movement and volcanism. For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... An island arc is a type of archipelago formed by plate tectonics as one oceanic tectonic plate subducts under another and produces magma. ... In plate tectonics, a convergent boundary (convergent fault boundary, convergent plate boundary, or active margin) is where two tectonic plates slide towards each other and usually collide forming either a subduction zone with its associated island arc or an orogenic belt and associated mountain range. ...  The Pacific plate, shown in pale yellow The Pacific Plate is an oceanic tectonic plate beneath the Pacific Ocean. ...  The Indo-Australian plate, shown in dull orange The Indo-Australian Plate is an overarching name for two tectonic plates that include the continent of Australia and surrounding ocean extending northwest to include the Indian subcontinent and adjacent waters. ... The Kermadec trench is one of the deepest parts of the Pacific Ocean. ... Categories: Stub | Plate tectonics | Earth sciences | Landforms | Oceanic trenches ... North Island The North Island is one of the two main islands of New Zealand, the other being the South Island. ... A seamount is a mountain rising from the seafloor that does not reach to the surface of the ocean. ... Monowai is a volcanic seamount to the north of New Zealand, located at 25°53 S, 177°11 E. The last recorded eruption was in 1999. ... Whakaari/White Island is one of two New Zealand islands known as White Island. ... The Bay of Plenty, often abbreviated to BoP, is a region in the North Island of New Zealand situated around the body of water of the same name. ... An earthquake is the result from the sudden release of stored energy in the Earths crust that creates seismic waves. ...


Raoul and Curtis are both active volcanoes. The volcanoes on the other islands are currently inactive, and the smaller islands are the eroded remnants of extinct volcanoes. For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ...


Kermadec Islands subtropical moist forests

The Kermadec scalyfin - part of a rich marine biota at the Kermadecs
The Kermadec scalyfin - part of a rich marine biota at the Kermadecs

The islands are recognized by ecologists as a distinct ecoregion, the Kermadec Islands subtropical moist forests. They are a tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests ecoregion, part of the Oceania ecozone. The forests are dominated by the red-flowering Metrosideros kermadecensis, related to the Pōhutukawa (M. excelsa) of New Zealand. The islands have no native land mammals, but were home to vast numbers of seabirds which nested among the forests. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 757 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1268 pixel, file size: 442 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Parma kermadecensis (Kermadec scalyfin) . A copy of the relevant permissions is available here: Category talk:Photographs by Ian Skipworth. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 757 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1268 pixel, file size: 442 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Parma kermadecensis (Kermadec scalyfin) . A copy of the relevant permissions is available here: Category talk:Photographs by Ian Skipworth. ... An ecoregion, sometimes called a bioregion, is a relatively large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities. ... Tropic wet forests in the World Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, also known as tropical wet forests, are a tropical and subtropical forest biome. ... Oceania is the smallest of the worlds terrestrial ecozones, and unique in not including any continental land mass. ... Binomial name Metrosideros kermadecensis Metrosideros kermadecensis, commonly called the (Kermadec Pōhutukawa) is an evergreen tree of the myrtle family which is endemic to the volcanic Kermadec Islands about 900 km north-east of New Zealand. ... Binomial name Metrosideros excelsa Gaertn. ... The Sooty Tern is highly aerial and marine and will spend years flying at sea without returning to land. ...

Flora

Kermadec islands are home to 113 native species of vascular plants, of which 23 are endemic, along with mosses (52 native species), lichens and fungi (89 native species). Most of the plant species are derived from New Zealand, with others from the tropical Pacific. Divisions Non-seed-bearing plants Equisetophyta Lycopodiophyta Psilotophyta Pteridophyta Superdivision Spermatophyta Pinophyta Cycadophyta Ginkgophyta Gnetophyta Magnoliophyta The vascular plants are plants in the Kingdom Plantae (also called Viridiplantae) that have specialized tissues for conducting water. ... In biology and ecology endemic means exclusively native to a place or biota, in contrast to cosmopolitan or introduced. ...


Dense subtropical forests cover most of Raoul, and formerly covered Macauley. Metrosideros kermadecensis is the dominant forest tree, forming a 10 – 15 meter high canopy. An endemic Nikau Palm (Rhopalostylis cheesemanii) is another important canopy tree. The forests had a rich understory of smaller trees, shrubs, ferns, and herbs, including Myrsine kermadecensis; Lobelia anceps, Poa polyphylla, Coprosma acutifolia, and Coriaria arborea. Two endemic tree ferns, Cyathea milnei and the rare and endangered Cyathea kermadecensis, are also found in the forests. Species R. sapida Rhopalostylis is a genus of palms native to the South Pacific. ... Species R. sapida Rhopalostylis is a genus of palms native to the South Pacific. ... Species = Matipo (or Māpou in Māori) are New Zealand native members of the Myrsine genus. ... Species See text Lobelia Lobelia, also known as Indian Tobacco, is a genus in the family Lobeliaceae, comprising some 200 species, some of which are cultivated in gardens. ... Species About 500 species, including: Poa abbreviata - Short Bluegrass Poa alpigena - Northern Meadow-grass Poa alpina - Alpine Meadow-grass Poa alsodes - Grove Bluegrass Poa angustifolia - Narrow-leaved Meadow-grass Poa annua - Annual Meadow-grass Poa arachnifera - Texas Bluegrass Poa arctica - Arctic Meadow-grass Poa badensis Poa bulbosa - Bulbous Meadow-grass... Species Coprosma acerosa Coprosma antipoda Coprosma brunnea Coprosma cheesmanii Coprosma crassifolia Coprosma crenulata Coprosma elatirioides Coprosma ernodeoides Coprosma fauriei Coprosma intertexta Coprosma montana Coprosma nivalis Coprosma persicifolia Coprosma petriei Coprosma pumila Coprosma quadrifida Coprosma robusta Coprosma rugosa Coprosma waimeae Coprosma is a genus of plants that are found primarily in... Species About 30 species, including: Coriaria angustissima Coriaria arborea Coriaria japonica Coriaria kingiana Coriaria lurida Coriaria microphylla Coriaria myrtifolia Coriaria napalensis Coriaria plumosa Coriaria pteridoides Coriaria ruscifolia Coriaria sarmentosa Coriaria sinica Coriaria terminalis Coriaria thymifolia Coriaria is the sole genus in the family Coriariaceae. ... Tree Fern refers to any fern that grows with a trunk elevating the fronds above ground level. ... Binomial name Cyathea kermadecensis W. R. B. Oliver, 1910 Synonyms Alsophila kermadecensis (W. R. B. Oliver) Tryon, 1970 Cyathea kermadecensis is a species of tree fern endemic to Raoul Island in the Kermadec Islands, where it is locally common in damp, and sometimes drier, forest and scrub. ...


Areas near the seashore and exposed to salt spray are covered by a distinct community of shrubs and ferns, notably Myosporum obscurum, Coprosma petiolata, Asplenium obtusatum, Cyperus ustulatus, Disphyma australe, and Scirpus nodosus. Species See text. ... Species About 600 species; see text Cyperus is a large genus of about 600 species of sedges, distributed throughout all continents in both tropical and temperate regions. ...


152 non-native species of plants introduced by humans have become established on the islands.


History

Polynesian people settled the Kermadec Islands in around the fourteenth century (and perhaps previously in the tenth century), but when Europeans reached the area in 1788 they found no inhabitants. The islands were named for the French captain Jean-Michel Huon de Kermadec, who visited the islands as part of the d'Entrecasteaux expedition in the 1790s. European settlers and whalers lived on the islands from the early nineteenth century until 1937. Since then, a government meteorological and radio station and hostel for Department of Conservation officers and volunteers have been maintained on Raoul Island. Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... (13th century - 14th century - 15th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was that century which lasted from 1301 to 1400. ... ( 9th century - 10th century - 11th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Jean-Michel Huon de Kermadec was an 18th century French navigator. ... Antoine Raymond Joseph de Bruni DEntrecasteaux Antoine Raymond Joseph de Bruni DEntrecasteaux Antoine Raymond Joseph de Bruni DEntrecasteaux (1739–1793) was a French navigator who explored the Australian coast in 1792 while seeking traces of the lost expedition of La Pérouse. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Conservation

Introduced cats, rats, and goats devastated the forests and seabirds. Overgrazing by goats eliminated the forests of Macauley Island, leaving open grasslands, and altered the understory of Raoul Island. Predation by rats and cats reduced the seabird colonies on the main islands from millions of birds to tens of thousands. The New Zealand government has been working for the last few decades to restore the islands. New Zealand declared the islands a nature reserve in 1937, and the sea around them a marine reserve in 1990. Goats were removed from Macauley in 1970 and from Raoul in 1984, and the forests have begun to recover. The islands are still known for their bird life, and seabird colonies presently inhabit offshore islets, which are safe from introduced rats and cats. Efforts are currently underway to remove the rats and cats from the islands, as well as some of the invasive exotic plants. Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ... Species 50 species; see text *Several subfamilies of Muroids include animals called rats. ... Species See Species and subspecies The goat is a mammal in the genus Capra, which consists of nine species: the Ibex, the West Caucasian Tur, the East Caucasian Tur, the Markhor, and the Wild Goat. ... A nature reserve (natural reserve, nature preserve, natural preserve) is an area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research. ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... New Zealand has a total of nineteen marine reserves spread around the North and South Islands, and two on outlying island groups. ... MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ...


Visits to the islands are restricted by the Department of Conservation. The Department allows visits to Raoul by volunteers assisting in environmental restoration or monitoring projects, and other visitors engaged in nature study. Visits to the other islands are generally restricted to those engaged in scientific study of the islands.


2006 Earthquake

On May 16, 2006 at 22:39 hours, NZDT, a 7.6 earthquake hit the region and was felt as far away as Christchurch. May 16 is the 136th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (137th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... New Zealand has two time zones. ... An earthquake is the result from the sudden release of stored energy in the Earths crust that creates seismic waves. ...


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
KERMADEC ISLANDS : Encyclopedia Entry (1267 words)
The Kermadec Islands are an island arc in the Pacific Ocean.
The islands are recognized by ecologists as a distinct ecoregion, the Kermadec Islands subtropical moist forests.
Kermadec islands are home to 113 native species of vascular plants, of which 23 are endemic, along with mosses (52 native species), lichens and fungi (89 native species).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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