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Encyclopedia > Kerbela
Shrine of Karbala

Karbala (Arabic: كربلاء; BGN: Karbalā’; also spelled Kerbala, Kerbela, Karbila) is a city in Iraq, located about 100 km southwest of Baghdad at 32.61°N, 44.08°E. In the time of Hussayn ibn ˤAlī's life, the place was also known as al-Ghadiriya, Nainawa, and Shathi'ul-Furat. The estimated population in 2003 was 572,300 people. It is the capital of Al Karbala Province. Shīˤa Muslims consider Karbala to be one of their holiest cities. Sunni Islam itself regardes the city as its fourth holiest site, after Mecca, Medina and Najaf. Image File history File links Karbala_shrineofhusain_(PD). ... Image File history File links Karbala_shrineofhusain_(PD). ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) is an American federal body whose purpose is to establish and maintain uniform usage of geographic names throughout the U.S. government. ... Baghdad ( translit: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... HÌ£usayn ibn ‘AlÄ« ibn AbÄ« Ṭālib ()‎ 28th August (626 – 680) ( Shaban 3 , 4 - Muharram 10 , 61 A.H.)was the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad. ... Categories: Stub | Provinces of Iraq ... Shia Islam, also Shiite Islam, or Shiism (Arabic:شيعة, Persian:شیعه translit: ) is a denomination of the Islamic faith. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Mecca IPA: or Makkah IPA: (in full: Makkah al-Mukarramah; Arabic: ‎, Turkish: Mekke) is the capital city of Saudi Arabias Makkah province, in the historic Hejaz region. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Najaf (Arabic: ) is a city in Iraq, about 160 km south of Baghdad, located at 31. ...


The city is best known as the location of the Battle of Karbala. Combatants Umayyads Banu Hashim Commanders Umar ibn Saad Husayn ibn Ali Strength 4,000 - 4,500 72 Casualties unknown 72 The Battle of Karbala was a military engagement that took place on 10 Muharram, 61 AH (October 10, 680) in Karbala, in present day Iraq, between the Islamic prophet...

Contents

Etymology

There are many theories as to the meaning of the name Karbala. Many believe its origin is Assyrian, composing two syllables: "Karb"; meaning "near", and "ala" (corrupted from "Iyle" an Aramaic word) standing for "God." [1] [2] [3][4] Others, like geographer Yaqut al-Hamawi believe the name to be derived from the Arabic language, meaning "soft earth" (corrupted from karbalat.) [5] Some also believe the origin may be Persian formed from the words Kaar, meaning "work", and bolo, meaning "the higher". Akkadian (lišānum akkadītum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... A geographer is a crazy psycho whose area of study is geocrap, the pseudoscientific study of Earths physical environment and human habitat and the study of boring students to death. ... The Arabic language ( ), or simply Arabic ( ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew, Amharic and Aramaic. ... Persian, (local name: Fārsī or Pārsī), is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ...


About the city

The city is one of Iraq's wealthiest, profiting both from religious visitors and agricultural produce, especially dates. It is made up of two districts, "Old Karbala," the religious centre, and "New Karbala," the residential district containing Islamic schools and government buildings. Binomial name Phoenix dactylifera L. The Date Palm Phoenix dactylifera is a palm, extensively cultivated for its edible fruit. ...

At the centre of the old city is the Masjidu l-Hussayn, the tomb of Hussayn ibn ˤAlī, grandson of the Prophet Muħammad by his daughter Fatima az-Zahra and ˤAlī ibn Abī Tālib. Hussayn's tomb is a place of pilgrimage for many Shīˤa Muslims, especially on the anniversary of the battle, the Day of Āshūrā. Many elderly pilgrims travel there to await death, as they believe the tomb to be one of the gates to paradise. Another focal point of the Shīˤa pilgrimage to Karbala is al-Makhayam, traditionally believed to be the location of Hussayn's camp, where the martyrdom of Hussayn and his followers is publicly commemorated. province of Iraq File links The following pages link to this file: Karbala Karbala Governorate Categories: GFDL images ... This article refers to the shrine of Imam Hussain also spelled as Hussain ibn Ali | Hussein | Hussein. ... HÌ£usayn ibn ‘AlÄ« ibn AbÄ« Ṭālib ()‎ 28th August (626 – 680) ( Shaban 3 , 4 - Muharram 10 , 61 A.H.)was the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad. ... Muhammad (Arabic ; also Mohammed, Mohamet, and other variants[1] [2] [3]), 570-632 C.E.,[4] [5] was an Arab religious and political leader who established Islam and the Muslim community (Ummah, Arabic: أمة) to whom he preached. ... This article is about Muhammads daughter. ... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... This article refers to the Islamic remembrance. ...


The city's association with Shīˤa Islām have made it a centre of religious instruction as well as worship; it has more than 100 mosques and 23 religious schools, of which possibly the most famous is that of Ibn Fahid, constructed some 440 years ago.


History

The city is extremely ancient and it was in use as a Christian graveyard prior to the Islamic conquest. Here lies the ruin of the oldest Church in Iraq, called Al-Qusair. A Christian is a follower of Jesus of Nazareth, referred to as Christ. ...


Karbala's prominence in Shīˤī is the result of the Battle of Karbala, fought on the site of the modern city on the Tenth of Muħarram in 61 A.H. (October 10, 680). Both Hussayn and his half-brother ˤAbbās ibn ˤAlī were buried by the local Banī Asad tribe at what later became known as the Mashadu l-Hussayn. The city grew up around the tombs, though the date of construction of the first sanctuary is not known. Combatants Umayyads Banu Hashim Commanders Umar ibn Saad Husayn ibn Ali Strength 4,000 - 4,500 72 Casualties unknown 72 The Battle of Karbala was a military engagement that took place on 10 Muharram, 61 AH (October 10, 680) in Karbala, in present day Iraq, between the Islamic prophet... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: تقویم هجری قمری Gāhshomāri-ye Hejri; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate Islamic... October 10 is the 283rd day of the year (284th in Leap years). ... Events October 10 - Battle of Kerbela November 12 - The Sixth Ecumenical Council opens in Constantinople The Bulgars subjugate the country of current-day Bulgaria Pippin of Herstal becomes Mayor of the Palace Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I succeeded by Yazid I ibn Muawiyah Erwig deposes Wamba to become king of the... Abbas ibn Ali (Arabic: عباس بن علی) was the son of the first Shi’a Imam, and fourth Caliph, Ali ibn Abu Talib and Fatima binte Hizam, commonly known as Ummul Baneen. ...


The city and tombs were greatly expanded by successive Muslim rulers, but suffered repeated destruction from attacking armies. The original shrine was destroyed by the Abbasid Caliph al-Mutawakkil in 235 AH (850 CE) but was rebuilt in its present form around 369 AH (979 CE), only to be partly destroyed by fire in 1086 CE and rebuilt yet again. Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid (Arabic: العبّاسيّون, Abbāsīyūn) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... Al-Mutawakkil Ala Allah Jafar bin al-Mutasim (821–861) (Arabic: المتوكل على الله جعفر بن المعتصم) was an Abbasid caliph who reigned (in Samarra) from 847 until 861. ...


Like Najaf, the city suffered from severe water shortages that were only resolved in the early 18th century by building a dam at the head of the Hussayniyya Canal. In 1737 CE, the city replaced Isfahan in Iran as the main centre of Shīˤa scholarship. It suffered severe damage in 1801 CE when an invading Wahhabi army sacked the city. Following the Wahhabi invasion, the city's sheikhs established a self-governing republic which was ended by a reimposition of Ottoman rule in 1843. This prompted many students and scholars to move to Najaf, which became the main Shīˤa religious centre. Najaf (Arabic: ) is a city in Iraq, about 160 km south of Baghdad, located at 31. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ... Wahhabism (sometimes spelled Wahabbism or Wahabism) is a movement of Islam named after Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab (1703–1792). ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem At the height of its power (1683) Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Kostantiniyye (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... Najaf (Arabic: ) is a city in Iraq, about 160 km south of Baghdad, located at 31. ...

Mosque in Karbala (1932)
Mosque in Karbala (1932)

Karbala's development was strongly influenced by the Persians, who were the dominant community for many years (making up 75% of the city's population by the early 20th century). The Kammuna family, relatives of the Shah of Iran, were custodians of the shrines for many years and effectively ran the city until it fell under the control of the British Empire in 1915. The Persian influence was deliberately reduced under British rule, with a series of nationality laws (such as a prohibition on foreigners occupying government posts) being introduced to squeeze out the Persian community. By 1957, they accounted for only 12% of the city's population. They were subsequently assimilated into the Iraqi population, accepting Iraqi nationality. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2000x1507, 1083 KB) Mosque in Karbala (1932) Source: G. Eric and Edith Matson Photograph Collection / Library of Congress CALL NUMBER: LC-M31- 14369 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2000x1507, 1083 KB) Mosque in Karbala (1932) Source: G. Eric and Edith Matson Photograph Collection / Library of Congress CALL NUMBER: LC-M31- 14369 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... One of the worlds longest-lasting monarchies, the Iranian monarchy went through many transformations over the centuries, from the days of Persia to the creation of what is now modern day Iran. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...


The association of the city with Shīˤa religious traditions led to it being treated with suspicion by Iraq's Sunni rulers. Under Saddam Hussein's rule, Shīˤa religious observances in the city were greatly restricted and many non-Iraqi Shīˤa were not permitted to travel there at all. Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majidida al-Tikriti (Arabic: ‎ [1]; born April 28, 1937[2]), was the President and dictator of Iraq from July 16, 1979 until April 9, 2003, when he was deposed during the United States-led 2003 invasion of Iraq. ...


In 1991, the city was badly damaged and many killed when a rebellion by local Shīˤa was put down with great brutality by Saddam's regime. The 2004 pilgrimage was the largest for decades, with over a million people attending. It was marred by bomb attacks on March 2, 2004 (10 Muħarram 1425 AH), now known as the Ashoura massacre, which killed and wounded hundreds despite tight security in the city. Nonetheless, some conspiracy theorists believe that it was a remote-type bombing probably done by a foreign intelligence agency. Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majidida al-Tikriti (Arabic: ‎ [1]; born April 28, 1937[2]), was the President and dictator of Iraq from July 16, 1979 until April 9, 2003, when he was deposed during the United States-led 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... March 2 is the 61st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (62nd in leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Ashoura Massacre was a series of planned terrorist explosions, that killed 170 and injured 500 Iraqi Shiite Muslims commemorating the Ashoura festival. ...


Worshippers heard SCIRI leader Abdul-Aziz al-Hakim repeat demands for legislation to let mainly Shia regions of the oil-rich south merge into an autonomous federal region that would neighbour Iran.


A big Shia festival passed off peacefully amid fears of possible violence that brought thousands of troops and police into the city. Hundreds of thousands of Shia pilgrims who had come together to celebrate the Shaabaniya ritual began leaving the southern city after September 9, 2006 climax ended days of chanting, praying and feasting. Heavy presence by police and Iraqi troops seemed to have kept out Sunni Al-Qaeda suicide bombers who have disrupted previous rituals. Three million people attended. Worshippers heard SCIRI leader Abd al-Aziz al-Hakim repeat demands for legislation to let mainly Shia regions of the oil-rich south merge into an autonomous federal region that would neighbour Iran. [6] Shia Islam, also Shiite Islam, or Shiism (Arabic:شيعة, Persian:شیعه translit: ) is a denomination of the Islamic faith. ... September 9 is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ...


See also

Combatants Umayyads Banu Hashim Commanders Umar ibn Saad Husayn ibn Ali Strength 4,000 - 4,500 72 Casualties unknown 72 The Battle of Karbala was a military engagement that took place on 10 Muharram, 61 AH (October 10, 680) in Karbala, in present day Iraq, between the Islamic prophet... This is a list of places in Iraq. ... // This is a list of cities that various groups regard as holy. ...

References

  1. ^ http://english.bayynat.org.lb/occasions/karbala.htm
  2. ^ http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/iraq/karbala.htm
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ http://www.islamicdigest.net/v61/index2.php?option=com_content&do_pdf=1&id=1672
  5. ^ http://www.uga.edu/islam/iraq.html
  6. ^ "Iraq prime minister to visit Iran", Al Jazeera, Sep 9 2006.

Al Jazeera logo Al Jazeera (الجزيرة), meaning The Island or The (Arabian) Peninsula (whence also Algiers) is an Arabic television channel based in Qatar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Coordinates: 32°37′N 44°02′E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


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