FACTOID # 10: The total number of state executions in 2005 was 60: 19 in Texas and 41 elsewhere. The racial split was 19 Black and 41 White.
 
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Encyclopedia > Kenneth Kitchen
Emeritus Professor Kenneth A. Kitchen (University of Liverpool publicity photograph, 2006).
Emeritus Professor Kenneth A. Kitchen (University of Liverpool publicity photograph, 2006).

Kenneth Anderson Kitchen (born 1932) is Personal and Brunner Professor Emeritus of Egyptology and Honorary Research Fellow at the School of Archaeology, Classics and Oriental Studies, University of Liverpool, England. Image File history File links Kitchen_Kenneth_A.jpg‎ Emeritus Professor Kenneth A Kitchen Publicity photograph from the University of Liverpool, UK. http://www. ... Image File history File links Kitchen_Kenneth_A.jpg‎ Emeritus Professor Kenneth A Kitchen Publicity photograph from the University of Liverpool, UK. http://www. ... The University of Liverpool is a university in the city of Liverpool, England in the United Kingdom. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ... Egyptology is the scientific study of Ancient Egypt and Egyptian antiquities and is a regional and thematic branch of the larger disciplines of ancient history and archaeology. ... Archaeology, archeology, or archology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech/discourse) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... The University of Liverpool is a university in the city of Liverpool, England in the United Kingdom. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2005 est. ...


Kitchen is one of the leading experts on Biblical History and the Egyptian Third Intermediate Period having written over 250 books and journal articles on these and other subjects since the mid-1950s. His book, The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (1100650 BC), is universally regarded by historians as the standard and most comprehensive treatment on this era. It noted a hitherto unknown period of coregency between Psusennes I with Amenemope and Osorkon III with Takelot III, and established that Shebitku of the 25th Dynasty was already king of Egypt by 702 BC among other revelations. However, some of its points are now slightly dated. For instance, Kitchen believes that Takelot II succeeded Osorkon II at Tanis whereas most Egyptologists today accept it was rather Shoshenq III who succeeded this king. (see Karl Jansen-Winkeln, "Historische Probleme Der 3. Zwischenzeit," JEA 81(1995) pp.129-49, Aidan Dodson in GM 137(1993), p.58 and G. Broekman, 'The Reign of Takeloth II, a Controversial Matter,' GM 205(2005), pp.21-35). Secondly, the author views king Shoshenq II as the High Priest of Amun Shoshenq C, a son of Osorkon I who predeceased his father. However, this interpretation is weakened by the fact that no objects from Shoshenq II's intact burial at Tanis bears Osorkon I's name. Finally, contra Kitchen, most Egyptologists today such as Rolf Krauss, Aidan Dodson in GM 137 and Jürgen von Beckerath--the latter in his book Chronologie des Pharaonischen Ägypten (1997)--accept Aston & Taylor's proposal that the Crown Prince Osorkon B, Takelot II's son, assumed power as Osorkon III, a king of the 'Theban Twenty-Third Dynasty' in Upper Egypt. General context: Ancient Egypt. ... The 1950s was the decade spanning the years 1950 to 1959. ... The Third Intermediate Period is a phrase used to refer the period of the history of Ancient Egypt from the death of pharaoh Rameses XI in 1070 BC to the foundation of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty by Psamtik I, following the expulsion of the Nubian rulers of the Twenty-fifth... (Redirected from 1100 BC) Centuries: 13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC Decades: 1150s BC 1140s BC 1130s BC 1120s BC 1110s BC - 1100s BC - 1090s BC 1080s BC 1070s BC 1060s BC 1050s BC Events and Trends 1100 BC - Tiglath-Pileser I of Assyria conquers the Hittites... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 700s BC 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC - 650s BC - 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC 600s BC Events and Trends Occupation begins at Maya site of Piedras Negras, Guatemala 657 BC - Cypselus becomes the... Gold burial mask of King Psusennes I, discovered 1940 by Pierre Montet. ... Usimare Setepenamun Osorkon III Si-Ese was the famous Crown Prince and High Priest of Amun Osorkon B, son of Takelot II by Queen Karomama-Merytmut. ... Usimare Setepenamun Takelot III Si-Ese was Osorkon IIIs eldest son and successor. ... Shebitku was the third king of the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt and ruled from (707/706 BC-690 BC) according to Danel Kahns most recent research. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC - 700s BC - 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC Events and Trends 708 BC - Spartan immigrants found Taras (Tarentum, the modern Taranto) colony in southern Italy. ... Hedjkheperre Setepenre Takelot II Si-Ese served as a Twenty-Third Dynasty pharaoh of Ancient Egypt in Middle and Upper Egypt (840 – 815 BC). ... Osorkons cartouche from his tomb in Tanis Usimare Setepenamun Osorkon II was a pharaoh of the Twenty-second Dynasty of Ancient Egypt and the son of Takelot I and Queen Kapes. ... or Tanis (Τάνις), the Greek name of ancient Djanet (modern صان الحجر Ṣān al-Ḥaǧar), is a city in the north-eastern Nile delta of Egypt (). It lays on the Tanitic branch of the Nile (now silted up), and it was the supposed site of some of the action in the film... King Usimare Setepenamun Shoshenq III ruled Egypts 22nd Dynasty for 39 Years according to contemporary historical records. ... Heqakheperre Shoshenq II was an Egyptian king of the 22nd dynasty. ... Shoshenq C was the eldest son of Osorkon I and served as the High Priest of Amun at Thebes during his fathers reign. ... Statue inscribed with the praenomen of Osorkon I discovered at Byblos; the statue itself is probably from Dynasty 19 The son of Shoshenq I and his chief consort, Karomat A, Sekhemkheperre Osorkon I was the second king of Egypts 22nd Dynasty and ruled around 922 BC-887 BC. He... Jürgen von Beckerath (born 19 February 1920) is a prominent German Egyptologist. ... Usimare Setepenamun Osorkon III Si-Ese was the famous Crown Prince and High Priest of Amun Osorkon B, son of Takelot II by Queen Karomama-Merytmut. ... The Twenty-third dynasty of Egypt was a separate regime of Meshwesh Libyan kings, who ruled ancient Egypt. ... Map of Upper and Lower Egypt Ancient Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, known as Upper and Lower Egypt. ...


Kenneth Kitchen is regarded as one of the foremost scholars on the Ramesside Period of the New Kingdom and published a well-respected book on Ramesses II in 1982 titled Pharaoh Triumphant: The Life and Times of Ramesses II, King of Egypt. Kitchen is a scholar who advocates a high view of the Old Testament and its inherent historicity. See his most recent 2003 book: On the Reliability of the Old Testament. The book documents several clear and indirect allusions to King David's existence as the founder of Israel based on passages in the Tel Dan ('House of David') and Mesha stelas as well as Shoshenq I's list of conquered placenames in Southern Judah among many revelations and counters the efforts of biblical minimalists who claim that the Bible is a work of fiction. Kitchen has strongly opposed the New Chronology views of David Rohl who posits that the Biblical Shishak who invaded Israel in 925 BC was actually Ramesses II rather than Shoshenq I and argues that the 21st and 22nd Dynasties of Egypt were contemporary with one another due to the absence of Dynasty 21 Apis Bull stele in the Serapeum. Kitchen observes that the word Shishak is closer philologically to Shoshenq I and that this Pharaoh records in his monuments at Thebes that he campaigned actively against Ancient Israel and Judah. Kitchen also notes that there are various contemporary non-Serapeum sources such as the Karnak Priestly Annals, the Nile Quay Texts, and various stelas which mention these Dynasty 21 and Dynasty 22 kings. The Ramesside Period encompasses the Nineteenth and Twentieth dynasties of Ancient Egypt. ... The New Kingdom is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BCE and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. ... Usermaatre-setepenre The Justice of Re is Powerful, Chosen of Re Nomen Ramesses (meryamun) Born of Re, (Beloved of Amun) Horus name Kanakht Merymaa Nebty name Mekkemetwafkhasut Golden Horus Userrenput-aanehktu Consort(s) Isetnofret, Nefertari Maathorneferure Issues Bintanath, Khaemweset, Merneptah, Amun-her-khepsef Meritamen Father Seti I Mother Queen Tuya... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... David M. Rohl is a British Egyptologist and historian who has put forth several controversial theories concerning the chronology of Ancient Egypt and Palestine. ... Centuries: 11th century BC - 10th century BC - 9th century BC Decades: 970s BC 960s BC 950s BC 940s BC 930s BC - 920s BC - 910s BC 900s BC 890s BC 880s BC 870s BC Events and Trends 925 BC - On the death of king Solomon, his son Rehoboam is unable to... nomen or birth name Hedjkheperre Setepenre Shoshenq I (Egyptian ššnq), also known as Sheshonk or Sheshonq I (for discussion of the spelling, see Shoshenq), was a Meshwesh Libyan king of Egypt and founder of the Twenty-second Dynasty. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Twenty-First Dynasty. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Twenty-Second Dynasty. ... In Egyptian mythology, Apis or Hapis (alternatively spelt Hapi-ankh), was a bull-deity worshipped in the Memphis region. ... Ancient Egyptian funerary stele Suenos Stone in Forres Scotland A stele (or stela) is a stone or wooden slab, generally taller than it is wide, erected for funerary or commemorative purposes, most usually decorated with the names and titles of the deceased or living—inscribed, carved in relief (bas... The Serapeum of Alexandria in Ptolemaic Egypt was a temple built by Ptolemy III (reigned 246–222 BC) and dedicated to Serapis, the syncretic Hellenistic-Egyptian god who was made the protector of Alexandria. ...


Professor Kitchen is an Evangelical Christian with regard to his religious beliefs. He is frequently cited by conservative Christians in relation to writings rejecting the Documentary Hypothesis, which claims that the Pentateuch is a composite work of sources labeled J, E, D, and P rather than by Moses as author. Kenneth Kitchen has raised various objections to the documentary hypothesis [1][2][3][4][5]. For example, Kitchen points to Egyptian tablets giving a biographical account in four different writing styles, yet this text (he claims) is widely accepted as having had one author. Kitchen himself, however, is not strictly traditionalist in terms of authorship of the Pentateuch, pointing out numerous places where the text demand post-Mosaic editing in the Pentateuch (See K. A. Kitchen in He Swore an Oath [ed. R. Hess, et. al.; Grand Rapids, Baker, 1994] 91). He also takes a late date of the exodus of Israel from Egypt during the time of Ramesses II in the 13th century BC, whereas most conservative evangelical Bible scholars date this event to the 15th century BC. Evangelicalism, in a strictly lexical, but rarely used sense, refers to all things that are implied in belief that Jesus is the savior. ... In studying the Hebrew Bible, some historians and academics in the fields of linguistics and source criticism have proposed the theory known as the documentary hypothesis: that the Five Books of Moses (the Torah) represent a combination of documents from different sources rather than a single text authored by one... Look up Pentateuch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Kenneth Kitchen was invited to the personal professorship due to his practical work in archaeology. He has never received a Ph.D. degree, being quite proud during his career to be "plain Mr Kitchen".


Quotation

One of Kitchen's most famous quotes is "the absence of evidence is not evidence of absence" meaning that the lack of higher dated monuments or inscriptions for a certain Pharaoh's reign does not exclude the possibility that this ruler enjoyed a longer reign than is generally assumed. The increasing number of higher dated archaeological finds in Egypt for certain Third Intermediate Period era kings such as a Year 13 stela for Takelot III at Dakhla in February 2005, a Year 7 annal document for Pami, and the discovery of a burial inscription from Vizier Padiamonet's Deir El-Bahari tomb in early 2006--which is explicitly dated to Year 27 of the Nubian king Piye--certainly validates Kitchen's contention here. Usimare Setepenamun Takelot III Si-Ese was Osorkon IIIs eldest son and successor. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pami was an Egyptian Pharaoh who ruled Egypt for 7 years. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Piye, whose name was once transliterated as Pi(ankh)y. ...


Significant Works by Kenneth A. Kitchen

  • 2003. On the Reliability of the Old Testament. Grand Rapids and Cambridge: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. ISBN 0-8028-4960-1
  • 1999. Poetry of Ancient Egypt. Jonsered: P. Aströms förlag.
  • 1996. The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (1100–650 BC). 3rd ed. Warminster: Aris & Phillips Limited
  • 1994. Documentation for Ancient Arabia. Part 1: Chronological Framework and Historical Sources. The World of Ancient Arabia 1. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press
  • 1982. Pharaoh Triumphant: The Life and Times of Ramesses II, King of Egypt. Monumenta Hannah Sheen Dedicata 2. Mississauga: Benben Publications.
  • 1977. The Bible In Its World. Exeter: Paternoster. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press 1978.
  • 1969–1990. Ramesside Inscriptions: Historical and Biographical. 8 Vols. Oxford: B. H. Blackwell Ltd.
  • 1966. Ancient Orient and Old Testament[6]. London: Tyndale Press. Chicago: InterVarsity Press.
  • 1962. Suppiluliuma and the Amarna Pharaohs; a study in relative chronology, Liverpool University Press

BAR and other Articles:

  • Kenneth A. Kitchen, Ancient Egyptian Chronology for Aegeanists, MAA 2, Dec 2002
  • Kenneth A. Kitchen, How We Know When Solomon Ruled, BAR 27:05, Sep/Oct 2001
  • Kenneth A. Kitchen, The Desert Tabernacle, BAR 16:06, Dec 2000
  • Kenneth A. Kitchen, The Patriarchal Age: Myth or History?, BAR 21:02, Mar/Apr 1995
  • Kenneth A. Kitchen, 'Genesis 12-50 In The Near Eastern World' in "He Swore an Oath: Biblical Themes from Genesis 12-50," (Wheaton, IL: Tyndale, 1993), ed: R. Hess, P. Satterthwaite and G. Wenham
  • Kenneth A. Kitchen, Where Did Solomon’s Gold Go?, BAR 15:03, May/Jun 1989
  • Kenneth A. Kitchen, Shishak’s Military Campaign in Israel Confirmed, BAR 15:03, May/Jun 1989

External links

  • Denver Journal - A Review of: Kitchen, Kenneth A. On the Reliability of the Old Testament.
  • A Review of K.A. Kitchen's The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt c.1100–650 BC, ISBN 0-85668-298-5 [7]
  • K. A. Kitchen's home page at University of Liverpool

  Results from FactBites:
 
Kenneth Kitchen - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (855 words)
Kenneth Anderson Kitchen (born 1932) is Personal and Brunner Professor Emeritus of Egyptology and Honorary Research Fellow at the School of Archaeology, Classics and Oriental Studies, University of Liverpool, England.
Kenneth Kitchen is regarded as one of the foremost scholars on the Ramesside Period of the New Kingdom and published a well-respected book on Ramesses II in 1982 titled Pharaoh Triumphant: The Life and Times of Ramesses II, King of Egypt.
Kitchen observes that the word Shishak is closer philologically to Shoshenq I and that this Pharaoh records in his monuments at Thebes that he campaigned actively against Ancient Israel and Judah.
Book Reviews (558 words)
Would that Kitchen had not sullied this magnificent apology for the historically reliable biblical record with the late date for the Exodus (i.e., 1300 B.C.), instead of the biblically authenticated 1447/46 B.C. (per 1 Kings 6:1).
Sadly, this defect skews Kitchen's presentation of the Mosaic era and its sequel, the period of the Judges.
The wealth of Kitchen's forty-plus-year career as a world-class Egyptologist (University of Liverpool, England) is reflected in a wealth of illustrations, exegetical insights, archaeological corroborations, and theological affirmations from the Patriarchal to the threshold of the Christian era.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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