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Encyclopedia > Kennedy assassination theories
President Kennedy, Jackie Kennedy, Nellie Connally and Governor John Connally, shortly before the assassination.

There exist a vast array of conspiracy theories regarding the assassination of U.S. President John F. Kennedy. Such theories began to be generated soon after his death and continue to be proposed today. Many of these theories propose a criminal conspiracy involving parties such as the Federal Reserve, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the KGB, the Mafia, Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) director J. Edgar Hoover, Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson, Richard Nixon, Fidel Castro, Cuban exile groups opposed to the Castro government and the military and/or government interests of the United States. Image File history File links JFKmotorcade. ... Image File history File links JFKmotorcade. ... First official White House portrait. ... President Kennedy, with his wife Jackie Kennedy, and the Connallys in the Presidential limousine shortly before the assassination Idanell Brill Nellie Connally (24 February 1919 – 1 September 2006) was the First Lady of Texas from 1963 to 1969. ... John Bowden Connally, Jr. ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... A conspiracy theory is a theory that defies common historical or current understanding of events, under the claim that those events are the result of manipulations by two or more individuals or various secretive powers or conspiracies. ... President Kennedy with his wife, Jacqueline, and Texas Governor John Connally in the presidential limousine just moments before his assassination The assassination of John F. Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States, took place on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, USA at 12:30 p. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... In the criminal law, a conspiracy is an agreement between natural persons to break the law at some time in the future, and, in some cases, with at least one overt act in furtherance of that agreement. ... The Federal Reserve System is headquartered in the Eccles Building on Constitution Avenue in Washington, DC. The Federal Reserve System (also the Federal Reserve; informally The Fed) is the central banking system of the United States. ... CIA redirects here. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... This article is about the criminal society. ... F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ... John Edgar Hoover (January 1, 1895 – May 2, 1972) was the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) of the United States. ... LBJ redirects here. ... Nixon redirects here. ... Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ...

Contents

Background

Handbill circulated on November 21, 1963, one day before the assassination of John F. Kennedy.
Handbill circulated on November 21, 1963, one day before the assassination of John F. Kennedy.

In 1964, the Warren Commission concluded that there was no persuasive evidence Lee Harvey Oswald was in a conspiracy to assassinate the President. Almost immediately, critics began to question the official government conclusions and wrote books attacking the Commission and its findings. Among them was Mark Lane — a lawyer who briefly represented Oswald's mother and who authored the critical book Rush to Judgment. Image File history File linksMetadata Wanted_for_treason. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Wanted_for_treason. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... John F. Kennedy The assassination of John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States, took place on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, USA at 12:30 PM Central Standard Time (18:30 UTC). ... Warren Commission report cover page The Presidents Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, known unofficially as The Warren Commission, was established on November 29, 1963, by Lyndon B. Johnson to investigate the assassination of U.S. President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963. ... Lee Harvey Oswald (October 18, 1939 – November 24, 1963) was, according to four United States government investigations, the assassin of U.S. President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963 in Dallas, Texas. ... Mark Lane is the author of the book Rush to Judgment. ...


Evidence

Below are among the most often suggested and heavily researched explanations as to who/why/how President Kennedy was assassinated.


Lone gunman

Further information: Single bullet theory

The Single Bullet Theory (pejoratively referred to as the magic bullet theory by critics and conspiracy theorists) is thought to be an essential element of the Warren Commission theory that only one assassin was responsible for the assassination of United States President John F. Kennedy. ...

Witnesses

Howard Brennan, a 45-year-old steamfitter, while waiting across the street from the Texas School Book Depository for the presidential motorcade, noticed a man at the southeast corner window of the sixth floor of the Depository. Just after the President's car passed, he heard what he thought was a firecracker or an explosion. He looked up at the window again and saw the man with a gun, aiming and taking a final shot. Within minutes of the assassination, Brennan described the man to the police. He later testified that Lee Harvey Oswald, who he viewed in a police lineup on the night of the assassination, was the man he saw fire the shot.[1] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1818x1228, 1068 KB) Summary Dealey Plaza in 2003. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1818x1228, 1068 KB) Summary Dealey Plaza in 2003. ... Dealey Plaza (Warren Commission exhibit #876) Dealey Plaza (IPA pronunciation: ), in the historic West End district of downtown Dallas, Texas (USA), is infamous as the location of the John F. Kennedy assassination on November 22, 1963. ... Howard Leslie Brennan (Oklahoma, March 20, 1919 – Kaufman, Texas, December 22, 1983) was a witness to the assassination of U.S. President John F. Kennedy in Dallas, Texas on November 22, 1963. ... Texas School Book Depository The Texas School Book Depository is the former name of a seven-floor building located on Dealey Plaza in downtown Dallas, Texas. ...


Bonnie Ray Williams and two co-workers watching the motorcade from fifth floor windows of the Depository heard three shots come from the floor above, and reverberations shook plaster from the ceiling onto his head.[2]


Governor John Connally, Mrs. Connally, and the two Secret Service agents in the presidential limousine all testified that the shots came from the direction of the Texas School Book Depository.[3] John Bowden Connally, Jr. ... President Kennedy, with his wife Jackie Kennedy, and the Connallys in the Presidential limousine shortly before the assassination Idanell Brill Nellie Connally (24 February 1919 – 1 September 2006) was the First Lady of Texas from 1963 to 1969. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Counter Assault Team. ...


Charles Hester, Emmett Hudson and Marilyn Sitzman, the only witnesses on the Grassy Knoll who gave testimony about the direction of the shots, all said the shots came from the direction of the Texas School Book Depository.[4] Emmett Joseph Hudson (21 May 1905, Arkansas – 23 June 1991, Dallas, Texas)[1] [2] [3] was a witness to the assassination of U.S. President John F. Kennedy in Dallas, Texas, on 22 November 1963. ... Marilyn Sitzman (14 December 1939 – 11 August 1993, Dallas, Texas) was a witness to the assassination of U.S. President John F. Kennedy in Dallas, Texas on November 22, 1963. ...


Marilyn Sitzman was standing on a 4-foot (1.2 m) high retaining wall 15 yards (14 m) east of the 5-foot (1.5 m) high picket fence on the grassy knoll.[5] (View from Sitzman's position.) She stated that she saw no gunman firing from behind the picket fence: "The blast of a high-powered rifle would have blown me off that wall."[6]


Of the earwitnesses, 99 believed that all the shots came from one direction, and only 5 believed they came from two directions.[7]


Findings and analysis

The Warren Commission, and the HSCA both concluded that the shots which killed President Kennedy and wounded Governor Connally were fired from above and behind the Presidential limousine.[8]


Shortly after the assassination, a rifle was found partially-hidden between some boxes on the sixth floor of the Depository, and the improvised paper wrapper/bag that covered the rifle was found close to the window from which the shots were fired.[9]


Fiber analysis of President Kennedy's clothing showed that he was hit by a bullet from the rear, which passed out the front of his clothing.[10]


The Zapruder film shows blood sprays moving forward from the front right-hand side of Kennedy's temple. Riding behind Kennedy on his left, motorcycle policeman Bobby Hargis was struck with blood and brain matter at the instant of the head shot, suggesting a shot from the front right. Hargis, however, insists that he saw "a splash [of brain matter] come out the other side" and that "we were moving at the time, and when he got hit all that stuff went like this, and of course I run through it."[11] The motion of his head—a violent jerk back and to the left is consistent with this same scenario. The so-called "forward motion" is really a small downward motion that instigates the backward-left motion, consistent with a shooter perched on the grassy knoll, forward and to the right, but also some 10 feet above street level. Frame 150 from the Zapruder Film The Zapruder film is a silent, 8 mm color home movie, shot by a private citizen named Abraham Zapruder, of the presidential motorcade of John F. Kennedy through Dealey Plaza in Dallas, Texas, on November 22, 1963. ...


A rifle bullet from the grassy knoll, to President Kennedy's right front, would have exited the rear of his head. Numerous medical witnesses, both at Parkland Memorial Hospital in Dallas and at the Bethesda autopsy said the large wound to the head was in the "back of the head" or was "occipital." Dallas ER doctor Charies Crenshaw stated, "along with many of my Parkland colleagues, I believed at the time that President Kennedy had been hit twice from the front." However, the medical testimony is quite mixed and imprecise, and the autopsy photos and x-rays show a wound to the right top of the head.[12] Parkland Memorial Hospital is a hospital located at 5201 Harry Hines Boulevard in Dallas, Texas. ...


A bullet was found on the stretcher next to Governor Connally's stretcher at Parkland Memorial Hospital. Its condition showed no signs of disfiguration that would have been expected from breaking bones in Connally's and Kennedy's bodies. It also was missing no fragments and had no traces of blood. But, this bullet and the two bullet fragments found in the front seat of the Presidential limousine were matched to the same lot of ammunition. The bullet found on the stretcher was a ballistic match to the 6.5-millimeter Mannlicher-Carcano rifle that was found in the 6th floor of the Depository. No other bullet fragments from any other rifle were found.[13] Parkland Memorial Hospital is a hospital located at 5201 Harry Hines Boulevard in Dallas, Texas. ... Categories: Stub | Bolt-action rifles | World War II Italian infantry weapons | JFK assassination | World War I guns ...


The windshield in the Presidential limousine was struck by a bullet fragment on the inside surface of the glass, meaning that these fragments came from behind, and not in front, of the President.[14]


The Mannlicher-Carcano 6.5-millimeter Italian rifle — from which the shots were fired — was ordered in the name of A. Hidell and sent to Oswald's P.O. Box in Dallas. Alek was the name Oswald used in the Soviet Union and was a pet name his wife Marina had for him, and Alek James Hidell was the name on the false I.D. Oswald was carrying when arrested on the day of the assassination. The FBI found Oswald's palm print on the rifle barrel between the barrel and the stock, which could have been put there only when the rifle was disassembled.[15]


Oswald was seen with a paper bag/wrapper in a car on the way to the Depository. He said, when he was asked, that it was full of "curtain-rods". He said they were for the rooming-house he was living in (while he was living away from his wife) although his rooming house already had curtains and rods, and Oswald had never discussed the matter with his landlady.[16] The paper bag was found on the sixth floor, near the rifle, but the "curtain-rods" were never found at the Depository.[17]


Three separate photographs of Oswald holding a Mannlicher-Carcano rifle and wearing a pistol are known.[18] His wife Marina Oswald testified in 1964 and 1978 that she took the photographs at his request.[19] Two were found at Oswald's residence when he was in custody, and a third later turned up from Dallas police officer Roscoe White's collection after he died.[20] Two photos may be viewed as a stereo pair as they were taken from slightly different angles. The original negative of one is available for study. These photos were closely studied by the HSCA, which found them to be authentic.[21] The HSCA did not believe that the technology existed in 1963 to fake an original film emulsion or a stereo pair. Any fake would have needed access to the literature which Oswald was known to be reading in March 1963, as well as copies of the weapons he is known to have been shipped in that month.


In 1967, all three physicians who performed the autopsy of President Kennedy examined the photographic and X-ray materials from the autopsy at the National Archives, and certified their authenticity. "It was then and is now our opinion that the two missiles which struck the President causing the neck wound and the head wound were fired from a point behind and somewhat above the level of the deceased."[22] This article is about the medical procedure. ... The National Archives building in Washington, DC The United States National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States federal government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records. ...


In 1988, four of the Parkland Hospital physicians — including Robert McClelland — examined the Kennedy autopsy photographs at the National Archives, and each confirmed the photos represented what they remembered seeing that day, including a picture of the rear of the President's head, which shows no defect.[23]


Two separate computer analyses have asserted that the bullet trajectory is consistent with the single bullet theory and that the weapon could only have been fired from a high position behind Kennedy.[24] The Single Bullet Theory (pejoratively referred to as the magic bullet theory by critics and conspiracy theorists) is thought to be an essential element of the Warren Commission theory that only one assassin was responsible for the assassination of United States President John F. Kennedy. ...


In the ABC documentary Beyond Conspiracy, using a close-up frame-by-frame analysis, computer analyst Dale K. Myers points out an incident on the Zapruder film. As the limousine carrying Kennedy and Connally emerges from behind a road sign in Dealey Plaza, the lapel of Connally's suit coat appears to "pop out" as if pushed from within by an unseen force.[25] Myers theorizes that this is the moment when the bullet from Oswald's rifle struck Connally in the back and exited through his chest. A moment later, as Kennedy emerges from behind the road sign, his hands move up to his throat, indicating that he has been hit. Myers points out that both Kennedy and Connally react simultaneously to being wounded.


More than one gunman

Main article: Single bullet theory
The wooden fence on the grassy knoll.
The wooden fence on the grassy knoll.

The Warren Commission findings and the single bullet theory are implausible according to conspiracy theorists. Oswald's rifle, through testing by the FBI, could only be fired three times within the five to eight seconds of the assassination. The Warren Commission, through earwitnesses, determined that only three bullets were fired as well: one of the three bullets missed the vehicle entirely; one hit Kennedy and passed through Governor John Connally, and the final shot was fatal to the President. The weight of the bullet fragments taken from Connally and those remaining in his body supposedly totaled more than could have been missing from the bullet found on Connally's stretcher, known as the "pristine bullet". However, witness testimony seems to indicate that only tiny fragments, of less total mass than was missing from the bullet, were left in Connally.[26] In addition, the trajectory of the bullet, which hit Kennedy above the right shoulder blade and passed through his neck (according to the autopsy) supposedly would have had to change course to pass through Connally's chest and wrist.[citation needed] Hence, the conclusion by conspiracy theorists is that more than three shots were fired and that more than one gunman had to be involved. This third and final shot did travel through JFK and Connally, because Connally was sitting about three inches lower then JFK. The Single Bullet Theory (pejoratively referred to as the magic bullet theory by critics and conspiracy theorists) is thought to be an essential element of the Warren Commission theory that only one assassin was responsible for the assassination of United States President John F. Kennedy. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1151 KB) Summary I took this 8/16/2005 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Dealey Plaza ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1151 KB) Summary I took this 8/16/2005 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Dealey Plaza ...


Witnesses

Nellie Connally was sitting in the presidential car next to her husband, Governor John Connally. In her book From Love Field: Our Final Hours, Mrs. Connally was adamant that her husband was hit by a bullet that was separate from the two that hit Kennedy.[27] President Kennedy, with his wife Jackie Kennedy, and the Connallys in the Presidential limousine shortly before the assassination Idanell Brill Nellie Connally (24 February 1919 – 1 September 2006) was the First Lady of Texas from 1963 to 1969. ...


Roy Kellerman, a U.S. Secret Service Agent, testified that, "Now, in the seconds that I talked just now, a flurry of shells come into the car." Kellerman said that he saw a 5-inch diameter hole in the back right-hand side of the President’s head.[28] Roy Kellerman was a U.S. Secret Service Agent and witness to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963. ...


Lee Bowers was operating a railroad interlocking tower, overlooking the parking lot just north of the grassy knoll and west of the Texas School Book Depository. He reported that he saw two men behind the picket fence at the top of the grassy knoll at the time of the shootings and he also claimed to see a puff of smoke from that direction.[29] Lee Bowers (1925 - August 9, 1966) was a witness to the assassination of John F. Kennedy in 1963. ...


Thirty-five earwitnesses who were present at the shooting thought that shots were fired from in front of the President — from the area of the Grassy Knoll or Triple Underpass — while 56 earwitnesses thought the shots came from the Depository, or at least in that direction, behind the President, and 5 earwitnesses thought that the shots came from two directions.[30]


Clint Hill, the Secret Service Agent who was sheltering the President with his body on the way to the hospital, described "The right rear portion of his head was missing. It was lying in the rear seat of the car."[31] Later, to a National Geographic documentary film crew, he described the large defect in the skull as "gaping hole above his right ear, about the size of my palm."[32] Secret Service agent Clint Hill riding behind the presidents limousine moments before Kennedy was shot. ...


Dr. Robert McClelland, a physician in the emergency room who observed the head wound, testified that the back right part of the head was blown out with posterior cerebral tissue and some of the cerebellar tissue was missing. The size of the back head wound, according to his description, indicated it was an exit wound, and that a second shooter from the front delivered the fatal head shot.[33] Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Figure 1a: A human brain, with the cerebellum in purple. ...


Analysis

Apart from shots hitting Kennedy and Connally, the limousine was struck in the windshield — in the chrome above the windshield and the chrome around the ashtray on the back of the front seat. Some witnesses say the windshield had a definite hole through it and not just a crack, as was claimed by the Warren Commission. Frank Cormier, Dr. Evalea Glanges, Dallas Police Officer Stavis Ellis, and Dallas Police Officer H.R. Freeman all saw a 'hole'.[34] The windshield was claimed to be replaced and "redamaged", according to the testimony of William Hess of the Ford Motor Co.[citation needed] This was supposedly done to eliminate the possibility of a shot coming from the front.


Former U.S. Marine snipers, Craig Roberts, and Gunnery Sergeant Carlos Hathcock, (who was the senior instructor for the U.S. Marine Corps Sniper Instructor School at Quantico, Virginia) both said it could not be done as described by the FBI investigators. “Let me tell you what we did at Quantico,” Hathcock said. “We reconstructed the whole thing: the angle, the range, the moving target, the time limit, the obstacles, everything. I don’t know how many times we tried it, but we couldn’t duplicate what the Warren Commission said Oswald did. Now if I can’t do it, how in the world could a guy who was a non-qual on the rifle range and later only qualified 'marksman' do it?”[35] The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces. ... For other uses, see Sniper (disambiguation). ... Gunnery Sergeant Carlos Norman Hathcock II (May 20, 1942 – February 23, 1999) was a United States Marine Corps sniper with a service record of 93 confirmed kills and more than 300 probable kills during the Vietnam War. ... Quantico, Virginia is in Prince William County, 23 miles north-northeast of Fredericksburg, Virginia, near Dumfries and Stafford along Highway 619. ...


Kennedy's death certificate located the bullet at the third thoracic vertebra — which is too low to have exited his throat.[36] Moreover, the bullet was travelling downward, since the shooter was by a sixth floor window. The autopsy cover sheet had a diagram of a body showing this same low placement at the third thoracic vertebra. The hole in back of Kennedy's shirt and jacket are also claimed to support a wound too low to be consistent with the Single Bullet Theory.[37][38]


Conspiracy theorists claim that Oswald could not have fired his rifle at a rate better than one bullet per 2.3 seconds. The Warren Commission demonstrated that Oswald could in fact have theoretically fired as often as one bullet per 1.4 seconds because his rifle was equipped with iron sights which allowed him to manage the rifle efficiently.[39]


More than one Oswald

Claims that Oswald was impersonated by a political decoy appeared very early in the assassination controversy. Professor Richard H Popkin's 1966 work The Second Oswald set out a case for an impersonation of the alleged assassin. Much of this was based on eyewitness testimony, but Popkin did have a "star witness" in the person of FBI director J Edgar Hoover, who wrote a memo predating the assassination in which he warned that an impostor could be using Oswald's personal details.[40] A political decoy is a person employed to impersonate a politician, in order to draw attention away from the real person or to take risks on their behalf. ...


More recently, the work of John Armstrong has purportedly identified the "two Oswalds" as part of an intelligence operation which originally had no connection to the assassination.[41]


One problem with theories like Armstrong's, however, is that expert analysis by the House Select Committee on Assassinations found that both "Oswalds" had identical handwriting.[42] Further, the House Select Committee on Assassinations had forensic anthropologists examine photos of Oswald (included in the set were photos that purportedly showed two different "Oswalds"), and all were consistent with a single individual.[43] The U.S. House of Representatives Select Committee on Assassinations was established in 1976 to investigate the John F. Kennedy assassination and the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ... The U.S. House of Representatives Select Committee on Assassinations was established in 1976 to investigate the John F. Kennedy assassination and the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ...


Conspiracy theories

The three tramps

Nearly a dozen people were taken into custody in and around Dealey Plaza in the minutes following the assassination.[44] In most of these instances, no records were kept of the identities of those detained.[45] The most famous of those taken into custody have come to be known as the “tramps,” three men discovered in a boxcar in the rail yard west of the grassy knoll. Speculation regarding the identities of the three and their possible involvement in the assassination became widespread in the ensuing years. Photographs of the three at their time of arrest fueled this speculation, as the three “tramps” appeared to be well-dressed and clean-shaven, seemingly unlikely for hobos riding the rails. Some researchers also thought it suspicious that the Dallas police had quickly released the tramps from custody apparently without investigating whether they might have witnessed anything significant related to the assassination,[46] and by the fact that Dallas police claimed to have lost the records of their arrests[47] as well as their mugshots and fingerprints.[48]


In 1989, the Dallas police department released a large collection of files that contained the arrest records of the "three tramps," whose names were Harold Doyle of Red Jacket, West Virginia; John F. Gredney, with no listed home address; and Gus W. Abrams, also with no listed home address. The brief report described the men as "all passing through [Dallas]. They have no jobs, etc." and were known to be rail-riders in the area. The previous evening they had slept in a homeless shelter where they were able to get showered and shaved, explaining their clean appearance on the day of the assassination. The three were released on the morning of November 26.[49]


When asked in a 1992 interview, Doyle said that he had deliberately avoided revealing himself to the public limelight, saying, "I am a plain guy, a simple country boy, and that's the way I want to stay. I wouldn't be a celebrity for $10 million."[50] Gedney independently confirmed Doyle's sentiment. Abrams had since died (in Ohio in 1987), but his sister also corroborated the events of that day and noted that Abrams "was always on the go, hopping trains and drinking wine." [51] The three were evidently not involved in the assassination in any way.


A list of the better known "identifications" of the three tramps alleged by conspiracy theorists includes:


Charles Harrelson, the father of actor Woody Harrelson, has been alleged to be the tallest of the three tramps in the photographs. Harrelson at various times before his death boasted about his role as one of the tramps,[52] however, in a 1988 interview, he denied being in Dallas on the day of the assassination.[6] Charles Voyde Harrelson (July 23, 1938[1] - March 15, 2007[1]) was an American freelance hitman connected with organized crime, who was convicted of assassinating a federal judge. ... Woodrow Woody Tracy Harrelson (born July 23, 1961) is an American Emmy Award winning and Academy Award nominated actor. ...


E. Howard Hunt, the CIA station chief who was instrumental in the Bay of Pigs invasion, and who later worked as one of President Richard Nixon's “plumbers,” was alleged by some to be the oldest of the tramps. At the time of his death, Hunt's son released taped and written confessions of supposed government complicity in the assassination.[53] Everette Howard Hunt, Jr. ...


Frank Sturgis is thought by some to be the tall tramp in the photographs. Like Hunt, Sturgis was involved both in the Bay of Pigs invasion and the Watergate burglary. In 1959, Sturgis became involved with Marita Lorenz, who later identified Sturgis as a gunman in the assassination.[54] Hunt's confessions before his death similarly implicates Sturgis. Frank Anthony Sturgis , born as Frank Angelo Fiorini, (December 9, 1924 - December 4, 1993) was one of the Watergate burglars. ... Marita Lorenz (born August 18, 1939 in Bremen) is a German woman who at the age of 19 in 1959 had an affair with Fidel Castro and in January 1960 was involved in an assassination attempt by CIA on Castros life. ...


Chauncey Holt, also alleged by some to be the oldest of the tramps, claims to have been a double agent for the CIA and the Mafia, and has claimed that his assignment in Dallas was to provide fake Secret Service credentials to people in the vicinity.[55] Witness reports state that there were one or more unidentified men in the area claiming to be Secret Service agents.[56]


Even before the Dallas police records were discovered and made public, the House Select Committee on Assassinations had forensic anthropologists study the photographic evidence. They were able to rule out E. Howard Hunt, Frank Sturgis, Dan Carswell, Fred Lee Chapman, and other popular suspects in 1978.[57] The Rockefeller Commission concluded that neither Hunt nor Frank Sturgis was in Dallas on the day of the assassination.[58] The U.S. House of Representatives Select Committee on Assassinations was established in 1976 to investigate the John F. Kennedy assassination and the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ...


Despite these positive identifications of the tramps and the lack of any connection between them and the assassination, some researchers have maintained their identifications of the three as persons other than Doyle, Gedney and Abrams and have continued to theorize that they may have been connected to the crime.[59][60]


CIA and anti-Castro Cuban exile conspiracy

Original sign with seal from the CIA's first building on E Street in Washington, D.C.
Original sign with seal from the CIA's first building on E Street in Washington, D.C.

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) was frequently mentioned in theories during the 1960s and 1970s, and it was rumoured then that the CIA was involved in plots to assassinate foreign leaders. The CIA was banned from assassinating anyone abroad 25 years ago, but that ban is currently under pressure to be lifted.[61] Kennedy said to his collaborator Clark Clifford (shortly after the failed Bay of Pigs invasion) that, "Something very bad is going on within the CIA and I want to know what it is. I want to shred the CIA into a thousand pieces and scatter them to the four winds."[62][63] Original sign with seal from the CIAs first building - 2430 E Street, Washington, DC. Reformatted from http://www. ... Original sign with seal from the CIAs first building - 2430 E Street, Washington, DC. Reformatted from http://www. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Clark McAdams Clifford (December 25, 1906 – October 10, 1998) was a highly influential American lawyer who served Presidents Truman, Kennedy, Johnson and Carter, serving as Secretary of Defense for Johnson. ... Combatants Cubans trained by Soviet advisors Cuban exiles trained by United States Commanders Fidel Castro José Ramón Fernández Ernesto Che Guevara Francisco Ciutat de Miguel Grayston Lynch Pepe San Roman Erneido Oliva Strength 51,000 1,500 Casualties various estimates; over 1,600 dead[1] to 5,000...


Allen Dulles was the head of the CIA during the disastrous Bay of Pigs Invasion of Cuba by a small army of Cuban nationals in April 1961. The assassination policy of the CIA had been created under Allen Dulles. Robert Kennedy had been working as Attorney General, and was running the intelligence agency through the White House Spatial Group. The embarrassment of the U.S. government and the CIA due to the failed invasion turned the Kennedy brothers against Richard Bissell and Allen Dulles resulting in the firing of both Bissell and Dulles. To make matters worse Allen Dulles decided to volunteer to help investigate President Kennedy’s murder. According to William Corson, Allen Dulles “lobbied hard for the job” as he was not in the prestigious group appointed by Lyndon Johnson. Lyndon Johnson finally appointed him.[64].[65] Congress began investigating the intelligence agencies by way of the Church Committee. In the weeks following the assassination, major changes were done to the CIA. Allen Welsh Dulles (April 23, 1893 – January 29, 1969) was an influential director of the Central Intelligence Agency from 1953 to 1961 and a member of the Warren Commission. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... The Church Committee is the common term referring to the United States Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, a U.S. Senate committee chaired by Senator Frank Church (D-ID) in 1975. ...


CIA assassinations

In 1975 and 1976, the Church Committee published fourteen reports on the formation of U.S. intelligence agencies, their operations, and the alleged abuses of law and of power that they had committed. Among the matters the Church Committee investigated was the involvement by U.S. intelligence agencies to assassinate foreign leaders, including Patrice Lumumba of the Democratic Republic of the Congo[66] and Fidel Castro. The Church Committee is the common term referring to the United States Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, a U.S. Senate committee chaired by Senator Frank Church (D-ID) in 1975. ... Patrice Émery Lumumba (2 July 1925 – 17 January 1961) was an African anti-colonial leader and the first legally elected Prime Minister of the Republic of the Congo after he helped to win its independence from Belgium in June 1960. ...


The CIA provided $42,000 in immediate support money to the plotters on the morning of the assassination of President Diem of Vietnam, which was carried out by Lucien Conein,[67] although Robert S. McNamara and historian Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., (who was a participant as a White House historian) both stated that President Kennedy went pale when he heard the news about the coup and was shocked that Diem had been murdered.[68]   «ngoh dihn zih-ehm» (January 3, 1901 – November 2, 1963) was the first President of South Vietnam (1955–1963). ... Lt. ... Robert McNamara in 1964 Robert Strange McNamara (born June 9, 1916), American businessman and politician, was United States Secretary of Defense from 1961 to 1968. ... This article is about the elder Arthur M. Schlesinger (1888-1965). ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ...


Kennedy and the CIA had a strained relationship following the Bay of Pigs disaster, with Kennedy remarking that he wanted "to splinter the CIA into a thousand pieces and scatter it to the winds."[69] However, that animosity was evidently short-lived, as CIA deputy director for intelligence John L. Hegerson would later write that "the [CIA's] relationship with Kennedy was not only a distinct improvement over the more formal relationship with Eisenhower, but would only rarely be matched in future administrations."[70] While the CIA's budget has always been classified, ranking CIA official William Colby made it clear when he wrote, "the fact of the matter is that the CIA could not have had a better friend in a President than John F. Kennedy. He understood the Agency and used it effectively, exploiting its intellectual abilities to help him analyze a complex world, and its paramilitary and covert political talents to react to it in a low key way."[71] John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Map showing the location of the Bay of Pigs. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... William Egan Colby (January 4, 1920 – April 27, 1996) became Director of Central Intelligence on September 4, 1973, after James R. Schlesinger. ...


The House Select Committee on Assassinations concluded in 1979 that although Oswald assassinated Kennedy, a conspiracy was probable but that the conspiracy did not implicate any U.S Intelligence agencies. This conclusion was based almost entirely on the analysis of a police dictabelt which supposedly recorded the sound of a fourth bullet being fired in Dealey Plaza.[72] The HSCA also said that President Kennedy did not receive adequate protection in Dallas, and the Secret Service possessed information that was not properly analyzed, investigated or used by the Secret Service in connection with the President's trip to Dallas; in addition, Secret Service agents in the motorcade were inadequately prepared to protect the President from a sniper.[73] This supposed lack of protection occurred because Kennedy himself had specifically asked that the Secret Service make itself discreet during the Dallas visit,[74] undermining claims that the Secret Service "let it happen." The U.S. House of Representatives Select Committee on Assassinations was established in 1976 to investigate the John F. Kennedy assassination and the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ... In the criminal law, a conspiracy is an agreement between natural persons to break the law at some time in the future, and, in some cases, with at least one overt act in furtherance of that agreement. ...


Cuban exiles

Richard Helms, director of the CIA's Office of Special Operations, had reason to be hostile to Kennedy since when first elected, Kennedy supported invading Cuba and then only later changed his mind about how to approach the matter. After the disastrous Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba sponsored by the CIA, Kennedy changed his mind about an invasion, earning the hatred of the Cuban exile community. Thus, Helms was immediately put under pressure from President Kennedy and his brother Robert (the Attorney General) to increase American efforts to get rid of the Castro regime. Operation Mongoose had nearly 4,000 operators involved in attacks on Cuban economic targets. Richard Helms, Director of Central Intelligence, 1966-1973 Richard McGarrah Helms (March 30, 1913 – October 23, 2002) was the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) from 1966 to 1973. ... Combatants Cubans trained by Soviet advisors Cuban exiles trained by United States Commanders Fidel Castro José Ramón Fernández Ernesto Che Guevara Francisco Ciutat de Miguel Grayston Lynch Pepe San Roman Erneido Oliva Strength 51,000 1,500 Casualties various estimates; over 1,600 dead[1] to 5,000... Robert Kennedy Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy, also called RFK (November 20, 1925–June 6, 1968) was the younger brother of President John F. Kennedy, and was appointed by his brother as Attorney General for his administration. ... Seal of the United States Department of Justice The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see 28 U.S.C. Â§ 503) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... [1] first page of a meeting report on Operation Mongoose, October 4th 1962. ...


The House Select Committee on Assassinations believed evidence existed implicating certain violent Cuban exiles may have participated in Kennedy's murder. These exiles worked closely with CIA operatives in violent activities against Castro's Cuba. In 1979, the committee reported this:

President Kennedy's popularity among the Cuban exiles had plunged deeply by 1963. Their bitterness is illustrated in a tape recording of a meeting of anti-Castro Cubans and right-wing Americans in the Dallas suburb of Farmer's Branch on October 1, 1963. (37) is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ...

Holding a copy of the September 26 edition of The Dallas Morning News, featuring a front-page account of the President's planned trip to Texas in November, the Cuban exile vented his hostility: is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Dallas Morning News is the major daily newspaper serving the Dallas, Texas area. ...

"CASTELLANOS. ...we're waiting for Kennedy the 22d, [the day Kennedy was murdered] buddy. We're going to see him in one way or the other. We're going to give him the works when he gets in Dallas. Mr. good ol' Kennedy. I wouldn't even call him President Kennedy. He stinks."[75]

Author Joan Didion explored the Miami anti-Castro Cuban theory in her 1987 non-fiction book "Miami."[76][77] Joan Didion (born December 5, 1934) is an American writer, known as a journalist, essayist, and novelist. ...


Deathbed confession

Former CIA and Watergate figure E. Howard Hunt wrote a book just before his death[78] implicating Johnson in the assassination. Hunt stated that Johnson may have orchestrated the killing with the help of CIA agents who had been angered by Kennedy's actions in the past,[79] which included an affair that Kennedy had with a wife of one of the agents. An article published in Rolling Stone magazine about the death of E. Howard Hunt reveals his deathbed confessions to his son which names Johnson, CIA agents Cord Meyer, Bill Harvey and David Sánchez Morales, as well as a "French" gunman named Lucien Sarti, who claims to have shot at Kennedy from the grassy knoll: Watergate redirects here. ... Everette Howard Hunt, Jr. ... This article is about the magazine. ... Cord Meyer, Jr. ... William Bill Harvey was an English football (soccer) manager. ... David Morales, Porter Goss, Felix Rodriguez, Barry Seal, and other members of Operation 40 David Sánchez Morales (August 26, 1925 - May 8th, 1978) was a CIA agent that worked in Cuba. ... Lucien Sarti (born circa 1931[1] in Corsica, died April 27, 1972 in Mexico City) was a drug trafficker and killer-for-hire involved in the infamous French Connection heroin network. ... Dealey Plaza (Warren Commission exhibit #876) Dealey Plaza, (pronounced deal-ee) in Dallas, Texas, United States, is famous as the location of the John F. Kennedy assassination on November 22, 1963. ...

E. Howard scribbled the initials "LBJ," standing for Kennedy's ambitious vice president, Lyndon Johnson. Under "LBJ," connected by a line, he wrote the name Cord Meyer. Meyer was a CIA agent whose wife had an affair with JFK; later she was murdered, a case that's never been solved. Next his father connected to Meyer's name the name Bill Harvey, another CIA agent; also connected to Meyer's name was the name David Morales, yet another CIA man and a well-known, particularly vicious black-op specialist. And then his father connected to Morales' name, with a line, the framed words "French Gunman Grassy Knoll." So there it was, according to E. Howard Hunt. LBJ had Kennedy killed. It had long been speculated upon. But now E. Howard was saying that's the way it was. And that Lee Harvey Oswald wasn't the only shooter in Dallas. There was also, on the grassy knoll, a French gunman, presumably the Corsican Mafia assassin Lucien Sarti, who has figured prominently in other assassination theories.[80] Everette Howard Hunt, Jr. ...

It is unlikely that Cord Meyer would have sought revenge against Kennedy for the affair because Cord and his wife Mary had divorced in 1958, while Mary's and Kennedy's affair began in 1962.[81] The Rolling Stone article states that the case of her murder had never been solved, based on the fact that Ray Crump, the man accused of her murder, was found not guilty. Though Crump was found not guilty, he was found near the scene with blood on his hands, torn jeans, and an unzipped pants fly. The jacket found near the scene was identified by Crump's wife as belonging to him.[82] There is no record connecting either Harvey or Morales to the assassination. A gunman put two bullets into her two days before her 44th birth day. Her diary and letters related with her affair with JFK were kept by James Angleton, chief of the CIA’s counter-intelligence group, for safekeeping with the intention, according to him, to be returned to her children. This letter were never burned as Angleton initially stated.[83] James Jesus Angleton (December 9, 1917–May 12, 1987), known to friends and colleagues as Jim and nicknamed the Kingfisher, was the long-serving director of the CIAs counter-intelligence division, an occasional poetry aficionado, and an avid fly-fisherman and orchid-grower. ...


The supposed "Corsican assassin" told his story on the British documentary The Men Who Killed Kennedy, discussed elsewhere in this article as a hoax.


Since 1974 it had been speculated that Hunt and CIA agent Frank Sturgis were among the "Three Tramps" who were photographed in Dealey Plaza, and held by the Dallas Police, shortly after the assassination.[84] This theory has fared badly, first as the result of the work of forensic anthropologists working for the House Select Committee on Assassinations who ruled out Hunt and Sturgis in an analysis of the photographic evidence,[85] and then as the result of the release of Dallas Municipal Archives documents that identify the tramps as Harold Doyle, John F. Gedney, and Gus W. Abrams.[86] Frank Anthony Sturgis , born as Frank Angelo Fiorini, (December 9, 1924 - December 4, 1993) was one of the Watergate burglars. ... The U.S. House of Representatives Select Committee on Assassinations was established in 1976 to investigate the John F. Kennedy assassination and the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ...


Alternatively, other researchers propose to identify Hunt as a figure crossing Dealey Plaza in a raincoat and fedora immediately after the assassination.[87]


Organized crime and the CIA conspiracy

Another possible culprit was the Mafia, in retaliation for the increasing pressure put upon them by Robert Kennedy (who had increased by 12 times the number of prosecutions under President Dwight Eisenhower). Documents never seen by the Warren Commission have revealed that the Mafia was working very closely with the CIA on several assassination attempts of Fidel Castro.[88] Frank Sinatra has been accused of being a "go-between" for the Mafia and the Kennedys.[89] In addition, allegedly the Mafia had funneled thousands of dollars to the Kennedy presidential campaign through back channels, supposedly in exchange for influence in the White House; in one instance, the money was supposedly used to pay off county sheriffs in the state of West Virginia so that the published slate of local candidates included Kennedy for the West Virginia primary,[90][91] despite the fact that the White House does not have direct and immediate authority over sheriffs in West Virginia. It is also theorized that the Chicago mob helped fix the election returns in the city so that Kennedy would win Illinois' electoral votes, partly as a favor to JFK's father, Joseph Kennedy, and that they later felt betrayed by the pressure put upon the Mob by the Kennedy Administration. Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... Sinatra redirects here. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about Electoral Colleges in general. ... Joseph Joe Patrick Kennedy, Sr. ...


Judith Campbell Exner, as described in her book My Story in 1977, was having an affair with Jack Kennedy and Sam Giancana and was used to send money back and forth between the mob and the campaign.[91] This biographical article needs to be wikified. ... Sam Momo Giancana ((born Salvatore Guingano) June 15, 1908 — June 19, 1975) was a famous and powerful mafioso and boss of the Chicago Outfit from 1956-66. ...


Teamsters Union president Jimmy Hoffa, and mobsters Carlos Marcello, Sam Giancana, Johnny Roselli, Charles Nicoletti and Santo Trafficante Jr. (all of whom say Hoffa worked with the CIA on the Castro assassination plots) top the list of House Select Committee on Assassinations Mafia suspects.[92] For other uses, see Hoffa (disambiguation). ... Carlos Marcello (born Calogero Minacore Tunis 6 February 1910 – Metairie 3 March 1993) was born to Sicilian parents in Tunis. ... Sam Momo Giancana ((born Salvatore Guingano) June 15, 1908 — June 19, 1975) was a famous and powerful mafioso and boss of the Chicago Outfit from 1956-66. ... John Handsome Johnny Roselli (sometimes spelled Rosselli), aka John F. Stewart [1] (July 4, 1905 to sometime between July 28 and August 9, 1976) was an influential mobster for the Chicago Outfit who helped them control Hollywood and the Las Vegas Strip. ... Charles Chuckie Nicoletti (1916 - March 29, 1977) was one of the top hit men for Chicago mafioso Sam Giancana. ... Santo Trafficante, Jr. ...


Carlos Marcello believed it was necessary to assassinate the President to short-circuit his younger brother Bobby, who was serving as attorney general and leading the administration's anti-Mafia crusade.[citation needed]


In a documentary titled, "The Murder of JFK: Confession of an Assassin" (1996) (ASIN 6304138458) James Files claims that he assassinated Kennedy and that Johnny Roselli and Charles Nicoletti were also present at the assassination on the orders of Sam Giancana.[93] He is currently serving a 30-year jail sentence for the attempted murder of a policeman. President Kennedy, Jackie Kennedy, Nellie Connally, and Governor John Connally, shortly before the assassination. ...


LBJ conspiracy

Vice-President Lyndon Johnson became President as a result of the assassination after JFK's death. Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ...


Kennedy's selection of Johnson as running mate in 1960 was largely an attempt to provide a ´regional balance´ to the party's ticket.[94] It was rumored, however, that Kennedy was considering dropping LBJ in the 1964 election. Richard Nixon, who was in Dallas on November 20, 1963 until just an hour before Kennedy arrived, was quoted in the November 22, 1963 Dallas Morning News as saying he believed Kennedy would drop Johnson from the 1964 Democratic ticket because Johnson was embroiled in several high-profile political scandals.[95] Evelyn Lincoln, JFK's secretary, in 1968 wrote that just days before the assassination, she asked President Kennedy who his running mate in 1964 would be. He answered: "It will not be Lyndon." Jackie Kennedy denied that her husband ever considered removing LBJ from the 1964 ticket.[96] is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... Evelyn Maurine Norton Lincoln (June 25, 1909 - May 11, 1995) was the personal secretary for John F. Kennedy from his election to the United States Senate in 1953 until his 1963 assassination in Dallas. ...


Madeleine Duncan Brown claims to have had a 21 year relationship with Johnson, one that produced a son, though LBJ never acknowledged him publicly.[97] According to Brown, Johnson told her the night prior to the assassination that "after tomorrow, those goddamned Kennedys are never going to embarrass me again; that's not a threat, that's a promise", and that following New Year's Eve, stated to her that "the oil people and the CIA" were behind the assassination. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Brown, however, had several issues related to her own credibility.[98]

The odd moment, in which Thomas winks at Johnson aboard Air Force One.
The odd moment, in which Thomas winks at Johnson aboard Air Force One.

In his book Death of a President, William Manchester describes an odd scene. On the morning of the assassination, word reached Johnson that a new seating arrangement in the motorcade would place his friend, Texas Governor John Connally, in the limousine with Kennedy. The previous seating arrangement had put Johnson's bitter enemy Senator Ralph Yarborough in the President's car, with Connally riding further behind with LBJ. Upon learning of the seating change, Johnson, furious, stormed into Kennedy's suite. Loud arguing could be heard from outside, the word "Yarborough" shouted more than once. Johnson finally stormed out "like a pistol." He did not get his way. The next day, John Connally was seriously wounded in the assassination of John F. Kennedy. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ...


At the moment of Kennedy's death, Johnson legally became President of the United States. However, he insisted upon being sworn in on Air Force One, even asking the photographer "where he wanted them."[99] A second or so after the famous swearing-in shot, the photographer also captured an odd moment: Texas congressman Albert Thomas winking at LBJ.[100] The photos were taken by Cecil W. Stoughton. [101]


Jack Ruby, Oswald's assassin, implicitly and explicitly implicated Lyndon Johnson in the death of John F. Kennedy.[102] However, Ruby denied he had any role in any conspiracy, and his opinion appears to have been based on things he read.


At the time of Kennedy's death, Johnson was the subject of four major criminal investigations involving government contract violations, misappropriation of funds, money laundering and bribery.[103] All these investigations were terminated upon LBJ's accession to the Presidency.[citation needed]


Mac Wallace

Johnson was linked professionally and personally to a convicted murderer, Malcolm 'Mac' Wallace, who in turn was linked to the JFK assassination by testimony and forensic evidence, including a palm print; however, both of the forms of evidence are disputed.[104] Conspiracy theorists have incorrectly identified the print as a finger print when in fact the only unidentified forensic trace on Oswald's rifle was a palm print. The source of the claim of the print identification, latent print examiner Nathan Darby, claimed that conspiracy authors had given him "two fingerprints...It was all blind...I didn't know and wasn't told who they belonged to,"[105] seeming to imply that he had been lied to. Wallace, who was studying at Columbia University in the 1940s, while teaching at Long Island University, the University of Texas and the University of North Carolina, met Johnson through a mutual acquaintance, Edward Clark, and took a job at the US Department of Agriculture in October 1950. Wallace began an affair with LBJ's sister, Josefa, who was also having a relationship with Texan golf course owner John Kinser. Kinser is believed to have attempted to blackmail Johnson through his connection with Josefa. This is in dispute. On October 22, 1951, Wallace killed Kinser in his golf shop and escaped by vehicle. An eyewitness to the shooting made a note of Wallace's license plate, and Wallace was arrested and charged with murder. Wallace was released on bail after Edward Clark arranged for two financial supporters of LBJ (M. E. Ruby and Bill Carroll) to stand bail for him. LBJ's personal attorney John Cofer agreed to represent Wallace at his trial, which began in February 1952. Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... Long Island University (LIU) is a private university located on Long Island in the U.S. state of New York. ... The University of Texas System comprises fifteen educational institutions in Texas, of which nine are general academic universities, and six are health institutions. ... The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is a public, coeducational, research university located in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States. ... This article concerns the Confederate governor of Texas. ... The U.S. Department of Agriculture, also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA, is a Cabinet department of the United States Federal Government. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article concerns the Confederate governor of Texas. ...


The jury found Wallace guilty of "murder with malice aforethought", eleven of the jurors urging the death penalty. Judge Charles O. Betts overruled the jury and announced a suspended sentence of five years imprisonment. Wallace immediately walked free. Other deaths were linked to him, especially some relating to the Billie Sol Estes fraud. On August 9, 1984, Estes' lawyer, Douglas Caddy, wrote to the U.S. Department of Justice, claiming that Wallace, Billie Sol Estes, Lyndon B. Johnson and Cliff Carter had been involved in eight murders, including that of John F. Kennedy. Caddy stated: "Mr. Estes is willing to testify that LBJ ordered these killings, and that he transmitted his orders through Cliff Carter to Mac Wallace, who executed the murders." Fourteen years later, in May 1998, Texan assassination researcher Walt Brown called a press conference to discuss a previously unidentified fingerprint at the "sniper's nest" in the Depository. According to Brown this fingerprint had been identified as belonging to Wallace. Initially, the match was a 14-point match made by a certified expert in latent prints. Twelve points is the threshold for court admissible evidence in Texas. Faced with hostile comment, the fingerprint expert in question went away and subjected the print to greater scrutiny, returning with a 32-point match.[106] Billie Sol Estes (born 1924) was a scandal-ridden Texas-based financier best known for his association with US President Lyndon B. Johnson and for accusing Johnson of a variety of crimes, including the assassination of John F. Kennedy. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Walter Frederick Brown (born July 28, 1926) was the presidential candidate of the Socialist Party USA in 2004. ...


In 2003 Barr McClellan published Blood, Money & Power: How LBJ Killed JFK. In the book McClellan argues that Lyndon B. Johnson and attorney Edward Clark were involved in the planning and cover-up of the assassination of John F. Kennedy. He states that LBJ, using an intermediary, sent an envelope to his attorney in 1961 with documents that detailed security protection of the President, along with the statement "see what you can do with it." McClellan also named Wallace as one of the assassins. The book states that the killing of Kennedy was paid for by oil millionaires such as Clint Murchison and Haroldson L. Hunt, and that Clark received $6 million for this work. In addition, McClellan noted that LBJ was treated and counseled by a psychiatrist for severe depression following his presidency at his ranch in Texas, and that the records of the treatment were received by Clark and were in his possession in a safe in his offices in Austin, Texas. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Austin is the capital of the U.S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County. ...


Mafia and Hoover conspiracy

Hoover in 1961
Hoover in 1961

J. Edgar Hoover was the long-time director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (1924-1972), and close friend of Lyndon Johnson. Download high resolution version (430x640, 46 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: J. Edgar Hoover Categories: U.S. history images ... Download high resolution version (430x640, 46 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: J. Edgar Hoover Categories: U.S. history images ... John Edgar Hoover (January 1, 1895 – May 2, 1972) was the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) of the United States. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ...


It is well-documented that before President Kennedy was elected, Hoover rarely acknowledged the existence of the Mafia. Jack Anderson reported on J. Edgar Hoover's apparent ties to the Mafia, and also the reluctance of the FBI to prosecute it. The Mafia's financial genius Meyer Lansky had allegedly blackmailed Hoover over his homosexuality as early as 1935.[107] Another probable reason for Hoover's failure to prosecute the Mob was his preference of easy targets to boost the FBI's image. jack donald anderson (september 156, 1995 and wasted himself with a gun; december19, 1999) was an American newspaper columnist and is considered one of the fathers of modern investigative journalism. ... Meyer Lansky (born Majer Suchowliński, July 4, 1902 – January 15, 1983) was an American gangster who, with Charles Lucky Luciano, was instrumental in the development of the National Crime Syndicate in the United States. ...


After Kennedy became President, the prosecutions of the Mafia by the Justice Department (of which the FBI is a part) increased elevenfold. The Mafia war that started in the late 1950s encouraged Attorney General Robert Kennedy to prosecute the Mafia heavily after 1960. His attacks focused on Teamsters Union boss Jimmy Hoffa and the Mafia bosses of Chicago, Tampa and New Orleans.[108] On May 8, 1964, just days before Hoover was due to give testimony to the Warren Commission, Lyndon Johnson announced he had exempted Hoover from compulsory retirement and appointed him Director of the FBI "for life" at seventy years of age. In the White House Rose Garden, Johnson said, “The nation cannot afford to lose you.”[109] Since Hoover's death in May 1972, the tenure of the FBI director is, by law, limited to a single 10-year term. The International Brotherhood of Teamsters (IBT), formerly known by the name International Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and Helpers of America, is one of the largest labor unions in the United States. ... For other uses, see Hoffa (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City 234. ... Tampas skyline For alternate meanings, see Tampa (disambiguation) Tampa is a city located in Hillsborough County on the west coast of Florida. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ...


Other theories

Soviet Bloc conspiracy

The perception of a conspiracy was widespread, even in the immediate aftermath of the assassination. A source considered reliable by the FBI related that Colonel Boris Ivanov, Chief of the Soviet Committee for State Security (KGB), who resided in New York City at the time of the assassination, stated that it was his personal feeling that the assassination of President Kennedy had been planned by an organized group rather than being the act of one individual assassin.[110] New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


Much later, the highest-ranking Soviet Bloc intelligence defector, Lt. Gen. Ion Mihai Pacepa described his conversation with Nicolae Ceauşescu who told him about "ten international leaders the Kremlin killed or tried to kill": "László Rajk and Imre Nagy of Hungary; Lucreţiu Pătrăşcanu and Gheorghiu-Dej in Romania; Rudolf Slánský, the head of Czechoslovakia, and Jan Masaryk, that country’s chief diplomat; the shah of Iran; Palmiro Togliatti of Italy; American President John F. Kennedy; and Mao Zedong." Pacepa provided some additional details, such as a plot to kill Mao Zedong with the help of Lin Biao organized by KGB and noted that "among the leaders of Moscow’s satellite intelligence services there was unanimous agreement that the KGB had been involved in the assassination of President Kennedy."[111] A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ... Ion Mihai Pacepa Ion Mihai Pacepa (born 28 October 1928 in Bucharest, Romania) is the highest-ranking intelligence official ever to have defected from the former Eastern bloc. ... Nicolae CeauÅŸescu (IPA , in English, sometimes (and erroneously) ) (January 26, 1918–December 25, 1989) was the leader of Romania from 1965 until December 1989, when a revolution and coup removed him from power. ... This article is about Russian citadels. ... László Rajk László Rajk (May 8, 1909-October 15, 1949) was a Hungarian Communist; politician, home secretary. ... Imre Nagy. ... LucreÅ£iu Pătrăşcanu, (November 4, 1900, Bacău–April 17, 1954) was a leading member of the Communist Party of Romania, a lawyer, sociologist and economist. ... Gheorghiu-Dej (center) and CeauÅŸescu (left) Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej (November 8, 1901, Bârlad - March 19, 1965, Bucharest) was the Communist leader of Romania from 1948 until his death in 1965. ... Rudolf Slánský (July 31, 1901, NezvÄ›stice near Kladno – December 2, 1952) was a Czech Communist politician and the partys General Secretary after the World War II. Later he fell into disfavour with the regime and was executed after a show trial. ... Jan Masaryk (September 14, 1886 – March 10, 1948) was a Czechoslovak diplomat and politician. ... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (Persian: ) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shahanshah (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans), was the monarch of Iran from September 16, 1941 until the Iranian Revolution on February... // Born in Genoa to a middle class family, Togliatti began his political life in the Italian Socialist Party prior to the First World War. ... Mao redirects here. ... An artistic rendition of Mao Zedong and Lin Biao as his heir apparent in the style of socialist realism in the prime of the Cultural Revolution. ...


New information regarding the murder of John F. Kennedy confidante Mary Pinchot Meyer has led to a reinterpretation of a statement by retired senior CIA official Cord Meyer shortly before his death in 2001. Meyer's statement seems to suggest that CIA learned many years ago, possibly from a defector, that the KGB organized the assassination of Kennedy, most likely as revenge for the humiliation of the Cuban missile crisis.[112]


Cuban conspiracy

This theory is succinctly expressed in the following reported remark of Lyndon Johnson: "Kennedy was trying to kill Castro. Castro got him first",[113][114] and in purported incidents.


On September 7, 1963, Castro entered the Brazilian embassy in Havana and granted an unusual interview to an American reporter. Castro stated that the leaders of the U.S. government would not be safe if they continued their efforts to kill Cuban leaders. Castro's remarks were widely reported in the American press.[114] is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... A diplomatic mission is a group of people from one nation state present in another nation state to represent the sending state in the receiving State. ... This article is about the capital of Cuba. ...


In some variations this theory is compounded with the Organized Crime theory; they both had reasons to hate JFK, and Castro is supposed to have paid the Mafia off by allowing them to use Cuban ports to smuggle drugs into the United States.


Another theory of the involvement of a Cuban secret service was recently published by an investigation of German journalists Wilfried Huismann and Heribert Blondiau. In their documentary "Rendezvous with Death" (Rendezvous mit dem Tod) for public German television station ARD, they present various sources formerly within the FBI, KGB and Cuban service G-2, which state the following: Rendezvous with Death is a German documentary film that claims that G2, a secret service organization of the Cuban government, organized the assassination of U.S. President John F. Kennedy. ... ARD (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der öffentlich-rechtlichen Rundfunkanstalten der Bundesrepublik Deutschland – the Consortium of public-law broadcasting institutions of the Federal Republic of Germany), is a joint organization of Germanys regional public broadcasting agencies. ...


Oswald entered the Cuban embassy in Mexico City in September 1963 with the stated desire to emigrate to Cuba and work for Fidel Castro, whom he admired greatly (the last part of his pseudonym, Hidell, probably came from "Fidel."[115] However it is not quite clear whether this was really Oswald's initiative or a Cuban idea. Following this, the Cuban intelligence Service G-2 keeps contact. Fidel Castro, enraged about the multiple assassination plots against him supported by the American CIA and the President's brother Robert F. Kennedy, had already sent out multiple warnings to the U.S. government to stop these plots. Frustrated by their futility, the Cuban leadership decides to support Oswald by sending him money through a high-ranking G-2 official acting as courier. Oswald then returns to the U.S. and carries out the assassination successfully. He is allegedly left to believe there is an escape plan for him prepared by Cuba, although there is not. Mexico City (in Spanish: Ciudad de México, México, D.F. or simply México) is the capital city of Mexico. ...


The FBI investigation following the assassination then traces back Oswald's contact to the Cuban embassy in Mexico and, supported by Mexican authorities, finds out about Oswald's contacts to G-2, and reports this back. The presidential bureau of Lyndon Johnson however, does not want this information to become public out of the following political considerations:

  • A feared right-wing and anti-Castro uprising in the U.S. which would mean probable defeat to the Democrats in the next election;
  • Fear of a possible and probable nuclear war between the U.S. and the Soviet Bloc following a retaliatory invasion of Cuba by U.S. forces.

Thus, the U.S. government orders the stop of the Mexican investigation and keeps the findings to themselves. Following this theory, tragically, unknowingly and unwillingly, Robert Kennedy is in a way responsible for his brother's death, through his efforts to support an assassination of Fidel Castro. He was said to have found out about this and be devastated. Nuclear War is a card game designed by Douglas Malewicki, and originally published in 1966. ...


Doubts as to the credibility of this theory were expressed by the German magazine "Focus". However, they were rejected by ARD and the authors of the documentary.[116]


Roscoe White

Ricky White (the son of Roscoe White, who was a Dallas policeman) forged a series of records that claims that his father’s diary clearly showed that he was part of a three-man assassination team in Kennedy’s murder.[117] The diary stated that there were six shots fired — two by his father. Roscoe White was behind the wooden fence on top of the grassy knoll and had the code-name Mandarin. His first shot hit the President in the throat. His second shot hit the President in the head. Of the other two assassins, one was located in the Dallas County Records Building and used the code name Saul. The third assassin was located in the Texas School Book Depository Building and used the code-name Lebanon. The diary also said that Mauser rifles were used in the assassination. Ricky White remembers his father giving him two rifles after the assassination in Dallas. One was an Argentinian rifle and the other was a 7.65 Mauser.


Ricky White claims that the diary showed that Oswald knew of the assassination plot but did not fire any shots. Oswald was told to bring his rifle to work on November 22, 1963, and to build a sniper's nest with boxes by the sixth floor window. All three of the assassins had an assistant whose job was to disassemble the rifles and take them away.[118] is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ...


The diary also states that Roscoe White and Oswald had plans to escape together after the assassination and go to Red Bird Airport in south Dallas. Their driver was J.D. Tippit, who did not know anything concerning the plot. Whilst driving the two in south Dallas, Tippit heard radio reports of the assassination and suspected that his two passengers were involved. Oswald became agitated and jumped out of the car. White got out of the car and shot Tippit with a pistol when Tippit told him he would have to take White downtown for questioning. Ricky White says that the diary (which he claims is no longer in his possession) states: "I killed an officer at Tenth and Patton."[119]


After two photos of Oswald had been found, the Senate Intelligence Committee located (in 1976) a third photograph of Oswald with a backyard pose that was different (CE 133-C, with newspapers held in his right hand away from his body). This photo was found by the widow of Dallas police officer Roscoe White, amongst his belongings.[120] The United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence is a select committee of the United States Senate dedicated to overseeing the American Intelligence Community—the agencies and bureaus of the U.S. federal government who provide information and analysis for leaders of the executive and legislative branches. ...


The claims of Ricky White were dealt a severe blow, however, when forensic testing showed that "cables" White produced — supposedly to his father ordering the assassination — had been forged.[121]


Israeli conspiracy

This theory alleges that the Israeli government was displeased with Kennedy for his pressure against their pursuit of a top-secret nuclear program or the Israelis were angry over Kennedy's sympathies with Arabs and his use of men formerly under the employment of the Nazis in their rocket program, such as Wernher von Braun. Gangster Meyer Lansky and Lyndon B. Johnson often play pivotal roles in this conspiracy theory as organizing and preparing the hit, thus bleeding into and possibly catalyzing many of the other conspiracies as well.[122] For other uses of von Braun, see von Braun (disambiguation). ... Meyer Lansky (born Majer Suchowliński, July 4, 1902 – January 15, 1983) was an American gangster who, with Charles Lucky Luciano, was instrumental in the development of the National Crime Syndicate in the United States. ...

Further information: Negev Nuclear Research Center  and Mordechai Vanunu

Institute 2, Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC), Dimona, photographed by Mordechai Vanunu The Negev Nuclear Research Center is an Israeli nuclear installation located in the Negev desert, near the city of Dimona, at . ... Mordechai Vanunu in the garden of St. ...

Federal Reserve conspiracy

Jim Marrs in his book Crossfire: The Plot That Killed Kennedy has alleged that the assassination of Kennedy occurred from fallout over the issuance of Executive Order 11110. Jim Marrs (December 5, 1943) is a news reporter, college teacher, and author of books and articles on conspiracy theories. ... Executive Order 11110 was issued by president John F. Kennedy on June 4, 1963. ...


This executive order enabled the Treasury to print silver certificates, bypassing the Federal Reserve System. Executive Order 11110 was not officially repealed until the Ronald Reagan Administration. Official explanations claim that the executive order was simply an attempt to drain the silver reserves[123][124] A picture of a Silver Certificate (top image is the obverse of the certificate, bottom image is the reverse of the certificate). ... The Fed redirects here. ... Reagan redirects here. ...


No evidence has ever been produced to identify a single actor in the debacle over Executive Order 11110 in any conspiracy to kill Kennedy. Executive Order 11110 was issued by president John F. Kennedy on June 4, 1963. ...


Decoy hearse and wound alteration

David S. Lifton and others have theorized that the coffin removed from Air Force One and placed in a waiting ambulance at Andrews Air Force Base on the evening of November 22, 1963 was empty. The president's body was taken off the jet out of the television camera's view. This portion of Lifton's theory comes from a House Select Committee on Assassinations report of an interview of Lt. Richard A. Lipsey on January 18, 1978 by committee staff members Donald Andrew Purdy Jr. and T. Mark Flanagan Jr. in which Lipsey said in that his capacity as aide to General Wehle, he had met President Kennedy's body at Andrews Air Force Base. The report stated that Lipsey "placed [the casket] in a hearse to be transported to Bethesda Naval Hospital. Lipsey mentioned that he and Whele then flew by helicopter to Bethesda and took the President's body into the back of Bethesda. A decoy hearse had been driven to the front." A decoy hearse carrying an empty casket.[125] David S. Lifton David S. Lifton is known as one of the foremost researcher/authors on the topic of the assassination of John F. Kennedy. ... For the current aircraft, see Boeing VC-25. ... Emblem of the AFDW Andrews Air Force Base (ICAO code KADW) is a United States Air Force base near Washington, DC and the home base of the U.S. presidential aircraft, Air Force One. ... The U.S. House of Representatives Select Committee on Assassinations was established in 1976 to investigate the John F. Kennedy assassination and the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ...


Labroratory Technologist Paul Kelly O'Connor[126] was one of the major witnesses supporting David Lifton's theory that somewhere between Parkland and Bethesda the President's body was made to appear as if it had been shot only from the rear. O'Connor says that President Kennedy's body arrived at Bethesda in a commercial shipping casket which differed from the sheet it was wrapped in at Parkland Hospital. He stated the brain had already been removed by the time it got to Bethesda, and that there was only "half of a handful" of brain matter left inside the skull.


According to Nigel Turner, director of the 1988 British television documentary The Men Who Killed Kennedy. "There were mysterious men in civilian clothes at the autopsy. They seemed to command a lot of respect and look over my shoulder or over Dr. J. Thornton Boswell's shoulder, then they'd go back and have a conference in the corner. Then one of them would say 'Stop what you're doing and go on to another procedure.' We jumped back and forth, back and forth. There was no smooth flow of procedure at all." The Men Who Killed Kennedy is a video documentary series by Nigel Turner that originally aired in 1988 in England with two one-hour segments about the John F. Kennedy assassination. ...


One portion of The Men Who Killed Kennedy has since been exposed as a hoax based on the false claims of three self-confessed Kennedy assassins who were in jail in France at the time of the assassination.[127] The Men Who Killed Kennedy is a video documentary series by Nigel Turner that originally aired in 1988 in England with two one-hour segments about the John F. Kennedy assassination. ...


As done with all cargo on airplanes for safety, the coffin and lid were held by steel wrapping cables to prevent shifting during takeoff and landing and in case of air disturbances in flight. The casket was also under ample armed guard at all times, a fact that Lifton neglects to mention. In addition, the plane was watched by thousands of people that bathed the far side of the plane in lights and provided a very public stage for any body snatchers.[128] However, the Dallas casket, slightly damaged in transit, was switched before Kennedy's internment at Arlington National Cemetery. The original casket was dumped into the Atlantic Ocean in 1966.[129]


Other Published Theories

  • The Gemstone File: A Memoir (2006),[130] by Stephanie Caruana, posits that Oswald was part of a 28-man assassination team which included three U.S. Mafia hitmen (Jimmy Fratianno, John Roselli, and Eugene Brading). Oswald's role was to shoot John Connally. Bruce Roberts, author of the Gemstone file papers, claimed that the JFK assassination scenario was modeled after a supposed attempted assassination of President F.D. Roosevelt. Roosevelt was riding in an open car with Mayor Anton Cermak of Chicago. Cermak was shot and killed by Giuseppe Zangara. In Dallas, JFK was the real target, and Connally was a secondary target. The JFK assassination is only a small part of the Gemstone File's account. ISBN 1-4120-6137-7.
  • Appointment in Dallas (1975) by Hugh McDonald suggests that Oswald was lured into a plot that he was told was a staged fake attempt to kill JFK to embarrass the Secret Service and to alert the government of the necessity for beefed-up Secret Service security. Oswald’s role was to shoot at the motorcade but deliberately miss the target. The plotters then killed JFK themselves and framed Oswald for the crime. McDonald claims that, after being told the "truth" about JFK's death by CIA agent Herman Kimsey in 1964, he spent years trying to locate a man known as “Saul.” Saul was supposedly the unidentified man who was photographed exiting the Russian embassy in Mexico City in September 1963, whose photos were subsequently sent to the FBI in Dallas on the morning of November 22, 1963 (before the assassination), and mislabelled “Lee Harvey Oswald.” McDonald claims to have finally tracked Saul down in London in 1972 at which time Saul revealed the details of the plot to him. ISBN 0-8217-3893-3.
  • Passport to Assassination (1993) by Oleg M. Nechiporenko, the Soviet consular official (and highly placed KGB officer) who met with Oswald in Mexico City in 1963. He was afforded the unique opportunity to interview Oswald about his goals including his genuine desire for a Cuban visa. His conclusions were (1) that Oswald killed Kennedy due to extreme feelings of inadequacy versus his wife’s professed admiration for JFK, and (2) that the KGB never sought intelligence information from Oswald during his time in the USSR as they did not trust his motivations. ISBN 1-55972-210-X.
  • Reasonable Doubt (1985) by Henry Hurt, who writes about his Warren Commission doubts. Mr. Hurt pins the plot on professional crook Robert Easterling,[131] along with Texas oilmen and the supposed Ferrie/Shaw alliance. ISBN 0030040590.
  • The Kennedy Mutiny (2002) by Will Fritz (not the same as police captain J. Will Fritz), claims that the whole plot was carried out by General Edwin Walker, and that he framed Oswald. ISBN 0-9721635-0-6.
  • David Wrone's The Zapruder Film (2003) puts the head shot from the front, and JFK's throat and back wounds were also caused by an in-and-through from the grassy knoll. Three shots were fired from three different angles, none of them from Lee Harvey Oswald's window at the Texas Book Depository. Wrone is a professor of history (emeritus) at the University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point. ISBN 0-7006-1291-2.
  • Norman Mailer's Oswald's Tale: An American Mystery (1995) concludes that Oswald was guilty, but holds that the evidence may point to a second gunman on the grassy knoll, who, purely by coincidence, was attempting to kill JFK at the same time as Oswald. "If there was indeed another shot, it was not necessarily fired by a conspirator of Oswald's. Such a gun could have belonged to another lone killer or to a conspirator working for some other group altogether."[132] ISBN 0-679-42535-7.
  • Who Shot JFK? : A Guide to the Major Conspiracy Theories (1993) by Bob Callahan and Mark Zingarelli explores some of the more obscure theories regarding JFK's murder, such as "The Coca-Cola Theory." According this theory, suggested by the editor of an organic gardening magazine, Oswald killed JFK due to mental impairment stemming from an addiction to refined sugar, as evidenced by his need for his favorite beverage immediately after the assassination. ISBN 0-671-79494-9.
  • Mortal Error: The Shot That Killed JFK (1992) by Bonar Menninger (ISBN 0-312-08074-3) alleges that while Oswald did attempt to assassinate JFK and did succeed in wounding him, the fatal shot was accidentally fired by Secret Service agent George Hickey, who was riding in the Secret Service follow-up car directly behind the Presidential Limousine. The theory alleges that after the first two shots were fired the motorcade sped up while Hickey was attempting to respond to Oswald's shots and he lost his balance and accidentally pulled the trigger of his AR-15 and shot JFK.

    Hickey's testimony says otherwise: "At the end of the last report (shot) I reached to the bottom of the car and picked up the AR 15 rifle, cocked and loaded it, and turned to the rear." (italics added) George Hickey´s Warren Commission testimony. George Hickey sued Menninger in April 1995 for what he had written in his book Mortal Error. The judge in Baltimore said that the suit by Hickey was filed too long after publication of the book. John Bowden Connally, Jr. ... Anton Cermak Anton Cermak, in Czech Antonín ÄŒermák, (May 9, 1873 – March 6, 1933) was the mayor of Chicago, Illinois, from 1931 until his death in 1933. ... Giuseppe Zangara (September 7, 1900 – March 20, 1933) attempted to kill United States President-elect Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1933. ... Warren Commission report cover page The Presidents Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, known unofficially as The Warren Commission, was established on November 29, 1963, by Lyndon B. Johnson to investigate the assassination of U.S. President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963. ... Major General Edwin Anderson Walker (November 10, 1909 - October 31, 1993) was a member of the U.S. Army known for his right wing political views and for being a target of Lee Harvey Oswald. ... Norman Kingsley Mailer (January 31, 1923 – November 10, 2007) was an American novelist, journalist, playwright, screenwriter, and film director. ... Mortal Error: The Shot That Killed JFK is a non-fiction book by Bonar Menninger describing a theory by sharpshooter, gunsmith and ballistics expert Howard Donahue that a secret serviceman accidentally fired one of the shots that struck and killed President John F. Kennedy. ... The AR-15 is a lightweight, air-cooled, magazine fed, autoloading, centerfire rifle. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Warren Commission: Testimony of Howard Leslie Brennan.
  2. ^ Warren Commission: Testimony of Bonnie Ray Williams.
  3. ^ Warren Commission: Testimony of John B. Connally; Warren Commission: Testimony of Mrs. John B. Connally; Warren Commission: Testimony of Rufus W. Youngblood; Warren Commission: Testimony of Roy H. Kellerman; Warren Commission: Testimony of William R. Greer.
  4. ^ 216 Witnesses to the Assassination of President John F. Kennedy.
  5. ^ Marilyn Sitzman, interviewed by Josiah Thompson in 1966
  6. ^ R.I.P.: The Black Dog Man
  7. ^ Dealey Plaza Earwitnesses.
  8. ^ Warren Commission Report, Chapter 3: The Shots from the Texas School Book Depository — Conclusion; Report of the Select Committee on Assassinations, U.S. House of Representatives, 95th Congress, 2d Session (House Report No. 95-1828, Part 2), p. 41-63.
  9. ^ archives.gov
  10. ^ Warren Commission Report, Chapter 3: The Shots from the Texas School Book Depository — The President's Neck Wounds
  11. ^ Motorcycle Cop Struck by the President's Brain Matter
  12. ^ The Head Wound
  13. ^ archives.gov
  14. ^ archives.gov
  15. ^ archives.gov
  16. ^ The Long Brown Bag
  17. ^ Warren Commission Report, Chapter 4: The Assassin — The Curtain Rod Story
  18. ^ Warren Commission Report: Chapter 4: The Assassin — Photograph of Oswald With Rifle
  19. ^ Warren Commission: Testimony of Mrs. Lee Harvey Oswald; HSCA: Testimony of Marina Oswald Porter.
  20. ^ Findings of the Select Committee on Assassination, Volume VI — Photograph Authentication: The Oswald Backyard Photographs
  21. ^ HSCA Final Assassinations Report, p. 54-56.
  22. ^ Affidavit of autopsy physicans.
  23. ^ Gerald Posner, Case Closed: Lee Harvey Oswald and the Assassination of JFK, p. 309. ISBN 1-4000-3462-0. Parkland Doctors Confront the Autopsy Evidence. This testimony was refuted by Charles Crenshaw, M.D. in his book Trauma Room One: The JFK Medical Coverup Exposed in 2001. Crenshaw was one of the physicians who examined the President after the shooting.
  24. ^ Frontline: Who Was Lee Harvey Oswald?; Dale Meyers: Secrets of a Homicide — Summary of Conclusions
  25. ^ "Lapel Flip," Shot on Elm: Zapruder Film.
  26. ^ Josiah Thompson, Six Seconds in Dallas, pages 147-151
  27. ^ Nellie Connally’s statement bbc.co.uk: September 3, 2006
  28. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, Roy Kellerman’s testimony Retrieved November 27, 2006
  29. ^ Dale K. Myers, Secrets of a Homicide: Badge ManThe Testimony of Lee Bowers, Jr.
  30. ^ Dealey Plaza Earwitnesses; Earwitness Tabulation. However, none of the earwitnesses actually on the Triple Underpass believed that any shots came from the Triple Underpass, and none of the earwitnesses actually on the Grassy Knoll believed that any shots came from the Grassy Knoll. Tip O'Neill, in his 1987 memoir Man of the House, ISBN 0-394-55201-6, says that presidential aide Kenny O'Donnell, who was riding in the motorcade, told him in 1968 that he heard two of the three shots come from behind the fence on the grassy knoll but was pressured by the FBI to testify that he did not. If so, that would change the earwitness summaries to 35, 55 and 6.
  31. ^ Warren Commission Hearings, Testiony of Clint Hill. Retrieved Nov. 27, 2006.
  32. ^ Clint Hill Was Not a Back of the Head Witness
  33. ^ Drawing of back head wound by Dr. McClelland Retrieved November 27, 2006.
  34. ^ assassinationresearch.com chronology about the hole in the windshield Retrieved November 27, 2006.
  35. ^ Quotes from “Kill Zone” – Craig Roberts Retrieved December 3, 2006.
  36. ^ [1]
  37. ^ Kennedy’s shirt. Retrieved Dec. 3, 2006.
  38. ^ Kennedy’s jacket Retrieved December 3, 2006
  39. ^ http://www.archives.gov/research/jfk/warren-commission-report/chapter-4.html
  40. ^ The Second Oswald, by Richard H. Popkin. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
  41. ^ Tom DeVries, Review of John Armstrong's Presentation, "Harvey and Lee"
  42. ^ The Handwriting is on the Wall
  43. ^ Photographic Evidence of Two Oswalds?
  44. ^ Hurt, Henry. Reasonable Doubt: An Investigation into the Assassination of John F. Kennedy. New York: Holt, Rinhart, and Winston, 1985. ISBN 0805003606.
  45. ^ ibid, p. 121.
  46. ^ Author Henry Hurt notes, "They had been in a potentially good location to see activities that could have helped in an investigation." Reasonable Doubt, Henry Holt & Co (May 1988). ISBN-10: 0030040590
  47. ^ Ray and Mary La Fontaine, The Fourth Tramp, Washington Post, 8/94.
  48. ^ Groden, Robert J., The Killing of a President. Studio, 1994. ISBN-10: 0140240039.
  49. ^ Bugliosi, Vincent. Reclaiming History: The Assassination of President John F. Kennedy. New York, New York: W.W. Norton and Company. 2007. p.933
  50. ^ Bugliosi, Vincent. Reclaiming History: The Assassination of President John F. Kennedy. New York, New York: W.W. Norton and Company. 2007. p.933
  51. ^ ibid, 934
  52. ^ Secrets of Woody’s hitman father, The Times, April 8, 2007
  53. ^ Hedegaard, Erik, The Last Confessions of E. Howard Hunt, Rolling Stone, 4/5/07, and audio tape broadcast on 4/28/07 on the syndicate radio program 'Coast to Coast Live'.
  54. ^ Lane, Mark. Plausible Denial: Was the CIA Involved in the Assassination of JFK? Thunder's Mouth Press 1992. ISBN-10: 1560250488.
  55. ^ Video interview with Chauncey Holt by John Craig, Phillip Rogers, and Gary Shaw 10/19/91.
  56. ^ Both Dallas police officer Joe Smith and Army veteran Gordon Arnold have claimed to have met a man on or near the grassy knoll who showed them credentials identifying him as a Secret Service agent. Summers, Anthony. "Not in Your Lifetime." Warner Books 1998. ISBN-10: 0751518409.
  57. ^ Three Tramps Photos Examined by Experts
  58. ^ Were Watergate Conspirators Also JFK Assassins?
  59. ^ Fetzer, James H. Assassination Science : Experts Speak Out on the Death of JFK Open Court 1998. ISBN-10: 0812693663 .
  60. ^ Presentation by Mary Holt at the November In Dallas Research Conference 2000.[2]
  61. ^ guardian.co.uk
  62. ^ mcadams.posc.mu.edu
  63. ^ cubaminrex.co.cu
  64. ^ The Secret History of the CIA, by Joseph J. Trento, ISBN-9-780786-715008, pags: 204, 268-269
  65. ^ cnn.com
  66. ^ guardian.co.uk
  67. ^ gwu.edu (Document 17)
  68. ^ gwu.edu (Note 10)
  69. ^ [[New York Times]], April 25, 1966, p.20.
  70. ^ John L. Helgerson, Getting to Know the President, CIA Briefings of Presidential Candidates, 1952–1992, CIA Center for the Study of Intelligence, May 22, 1996, p.26, http://www.cia.gov/csi/books/briefing/cia-6.htm.
  71. ^ 4. Colby and Forbath, Honorable Men, p.221.]]
  72. ^ THE CONCLUSIONS AND RESEARCH OF THE HOUSE SELECT COMMITTEE ON ASSASSINATIONS: WHOSE SIDE DO THEY SUPPORT?
  73. ^ spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk
  74. ^ Bugliosi, Vincent. "Reclaiming History: The Assassination of President John F. Kennedy." 2007, Norton: New York, New York. p. 29, 38.
  75. ^ Report of the Select Committee on Assassinations of the U.S. House of Representatives Page 132
  76. ^ James Chace, "Betrayals and Obsession", NY Times, Octover 25, 1987, on Joan Didion's book MIAMI
  77. ^ Joan Didion, "MIAMI", New York, Simon & Schuster, 238pp. 1987
  78. ^ Hunt, E. Howard, American Spy: My Secret History in the CIA, Watergate and Beyond, Wiley, 2007. ISBN-10: 0471789828
  79. ^ Hunt Blames Jfk Hit On Lbj
  80. ^ Rolling Stone : New Clues to JFK’s Murder?
  81. ^ Bugliosi, Vincent. Reclaiming History: The Assassination of President John. F Kennedy: Endnotes. New York, New York: W.W. Norton, 2007. p.706n.
  82. ^ The Death of Mary Pinchot Meyer
  83. ^ The Secret History of the CIA, by Joseph J. Trento, ISBN-9-780786-715008, pags: 204, 280-282
  84. ^ [3].
  85. ^ Three Tramps Photos Examined by Experts
  86. ^ The Three Tramps
  87. ^ "If This Is Hunt Are There Any Other Photos?"— Discussion of proposal identifying Hunt in photographs of Dealey Plaza
  88. ^ CIA offered money to Mafia Retrieved December 3, 2006
  89. ^ Sinatra was ‘go-between’ guardian.co.uk - October 7, 2000
  90. ^ It Didn't Start With Watergate Victor Lasky
  91. ^ a b The Dark Side of Camelot Seymour Hersh]
  92. ^ The Assassination of John Fitzgerald Kennedy - The Crime library
  93. ^ James Files – JFK Murder Solved.com Retrieved December 3, 2006
  94. ^ Robert L. Dudley & Ronald B. Rapoport, "Vice-Presidential Candidates and the Home State Advantage: Playing Second Banana at Home and on the Road" American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 33, No. 2 (May, 1989), pp. 537-540. "Despite a lack of empirical support, the notion that a vice-president must add balance to the ticket maintains a strong hold. Moreover, although strategic considerations regarding the vice-presidential selection extend to candidate ideology, religion, and type of government experience, the dominant factor has been region."
  95. ^ Nightmare on Elm; Dark Day in Dealey. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
  96. ^ time.com
  97. ^ spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk
  98. ^ Texas in the Imagination
  99. ^ americanheritage.com
  100. ^ archive.dailypicture.net
  101. ^ [4]
  102. ^ jfkmurdersolved.com
  103. ^ rense.com
  104. ^ spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk
  105. ^ Bugliosi, Vincent. Reclaiming History: The Assassination of President John F. Kennedy. p.922
  106. ^ [5]
  107. ^ Blackmailed Hoover guardian.co.uk - April 22, 2006
  108. ^ film.guardian.co.uk
  109. ^ aia.lackland.af.mil
  110. ^ JFK Assassination Records Review Board Releases Top Secret Records
  111. ^ "The Kremlin’s Killing Ways", Ion Mihai Pacepa, National Review Online, November 28, 2006
  112. ^ Did the KGB Arrange the Assassination of John F. Kennedy?
  113. ^ The Assassination Tapes, by Max Holland The Atlantic Monthly, June 2004
  114. ^ a b Kennedy Assassination And Cuba Revisited - Update: Oswald Paid By Cuban Agents, by Juan Paxety January 6, 2006
  115. ^ Bugliosi, Vincent. Reclaiming History: The Assassination of President John F. Kennedy. p.708
  116. ^ German documentary authors reject criticism of their theory (German)
  117. ^ Roscoe White - Spartacus Retrieved December 3, 2006
  118. ^ CIA involvement? Retrieved December 3, 2006
  119. ^ JFK Assassination Information Center Retrieved December 3, 2006
  120. ^ Roscoe White bio - Spartacus Retrieved: December 3, 2006
  121. ^ Who Speaks for Roscoe White?
  122. ^ see Michael Collins Piper's book Final Judgement ISBN 0974548405
  123. ^ The JFK Myth RealityZone
  124. ^ Debunking the Federal Reserve Conspiracy Theories (and other financial myths)
  125. ^ Testimony of David Lifton
  126. ^ Paul K. O'Connor
  127. ^ Bugliosi, Vincent. Reclaiming History: The Assassination of President John F. Kennedy. p.904
  128. ^ David Lifton’s Body Alteration Theory
  129. ^ CNN - New documents reveal first JFK casket dumped at sea - June 1, 1999
  130. ^ Gemstone-File-Memoir.com
  131. ^ spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk
  132. ^ pbs.org

Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... National Review Online is the online presence of the prominent conservative political magazine National Review. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Michael Collins Piper is a political writer for the American Free Press and talk radio host living in Washington D.C.. He is the author of books such as The High Priests of War, in which he discusses the Neoconservatives in the Bush administration, and Final Judgment where he describes...

References

  • Connally, Nellie (October 28, 2003). From Love Field: Our Final Hours with President John F. Kennedy. Rugged Land. ISBN 0-316-86032-8. 
  • Hurt, Henry. Reasonable Doubt: An Investigation into the Assassination of John F. Kennedy. New York: Holt, Rinhart, and Winston, 1985. (ISBN 0805003606)
  • Lane, Mark. Rush to Judgement: A critique of the Warren Commission's inquiry in the murders of John F. Kennedy, Officer J.D. Tippit and Lee Harvey Oswald. Holt Rhinehart. 1966 (ISBN needed)
  • Thompson, Josiah. Six Seconds in Dallas: A Micro-Study of the Kennedy Assassination. New York: Bernard Geis Associates, 1967. ISBN 978-0394445717
  • Who's Who in the JFK Assassination: An A-to-Z Encyclopedia by Michael Benson Citadel Press, ISBN 0-8065-1444-2
  • Marrs, Jim. Crossfire: The Plot that Killed Kennedy, New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, 1989 (ISBN 0881846481).
  • Benson, Michael (2002). Encyclopedia Of The JFK Assassination. Checkmark Books. ISBN 978-0816044771. 

President Kennedy, with his wife Jackie Kennedy, and the Connallys in the Presidential limousine shortly before the assassination Idanell Brill Nellie Connally (24 February 1919 – 1 September 2006) was the First Lady of Texas from 1963 to 1969. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jim Marrs (December 5, 1943) is a news reporter, college teacher, and author of books and articles on conspiracy theories. ... Michael Benson is an American filmmaker and writer who has lived in Ljubljana, Slovenia since the early-1990s, when he filmed a documentary there, Predictions of Fire, on the Neue Slowenische Kunst (NSK), or New Slovenian Art movement. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...

External links

  • JFK II: The Bush Connection Trailer – A thorough, documented, criminal indictment of George Herbert Walker Bush in the conspiracy to assassinate President John F. Kennedy
  • spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk – Spartacus' collection of excerpts from Fetzer's books on conspiracy and the CIA
  • BBC News – German documentary about the assassination
  • Frontline: Who was L.H. Oswald – PBS documentary focuses on the man and his life
  • PBS News 2003 – Public's belief that a conspiracy existed
  • The Kennedys and the underworld; documents (JFKUnderworld.com).
  • The Last Confessions of E. Howard Hunt
  • "Oswald's Ghost", an episode of PBS series American Experience, which aired January 14, 2008
President Kennedy with his wife, Jacqueline, and Texas Governor John Connally in the presidential limousine just moments before his assassination The assassination of John F. Kennedy, the thirty-fifth President of the United States, took place on Friday, November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, USA at 12:30 p. ... John F. Kennedy This article considers the detailed timeline of events before, during, and after the assassination of John F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... John F. Kennedy Around the world, there was a stunned reaction to the assassination of John F. Kennedy, the President of the United States, on November 22, 1963 in Dallas, Texas. ... An aerial view of the casket of JFK during his funeral at St. ... Lee Harvey Oswald (October 18, 1939 – November 24, 1963) was, according to four United States government investigations, the assassin of U.S. President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963 in Dallas, Texas. ... Warren Commission report cover page The Presidents Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, known unofficially as The Warren Commission, was established on November 29, 1963, by Lyndon B. Johnson to investigate the assassination of U.S. President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963. ... The United States House of Representatives Select Committee on Assassinations was established in 1976 to investigate the John F. Kennedy assassination and the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ... John F. Kennedy This article examines the dictabelt evidence relating to the assassination of John F. Kennedy. ... Frame 150 from the Zapruder Film The Zapruder film is a silent, 8 mm color home movie, shot by a private citizen named Abraham Zapruder, of the presidential motorcade of John F. Kennedy through Dealey Plaza in Dallas, Texas, on November 22, 1963. ... The Single Bullet Theory (pejoratively referred to as the magic bullet theory by critics and conspiracy theorists) is thought to be an essential element of the Warren Commission theory that only one assassin was responsible for the assassination of United States President John F. Kennedy. ... The assassination of President John F. Kennedy has been referenced or recreated in popular culture several times. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Central Intelligence Agency - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (7572 words)
Hastening the Agency's fall from grace were the involvement of ex-CIA agents in the Watergate break-in and President Nixon's subsequent attempts to use the CIA to stop the FBI investigation of Watergate.
Documents obtained and disclosed by the Assassination Records Review Board indicate that the CIA concealed documents for over 30 years regarding its knowledge that someone was impersonating Lee Oswald and tried to contact a "hit man" in Mexico City at the Cuban Consulate less than two months before Kennedy was assassinated.
However, several legal experts argue that this cannot be considered an assassination attempt as al-Zawahiri is named as terrorist and an enemy combatant by the United States, and therefore this targeted killing is not covered under Executive Order 12333, which banned assassinations.
John F. Kennedy Assassination Homepage :: FAQ (3383 words)
But Kennedy set other accents during his Presidency: He denied Air Force help for the invasion in Cuba (Bay of Pigs), declined the suggestion to throw bombs on Cuba and to occupy during the rocket crisis, and signed memorandums to withdraw from Vietnam in 1963.
The reason why Kennedy was killed is obvious in the the actions by the new Government after the assassination.
Kennedy had enemies in the highest circles of the CIA and FBI.
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COMMENTARY     

SusannaBray25
23rd July 2010
I guess that to receive the loans from creditors you ought to present a great motivation. However, one time I have got a term loan, just because I was willing to buy a car.

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