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Encyclopedia > Kendo
Kendo
(剣道 kendō)

Style Weaponry
Hardness Semi-contact
Country of origin Flag of Japan Japan
Creator Naganuma Sirōzaemon Kunisato (長沼 四郎左衛門 国郷), attributed
Parenthood Kenjutsu
Olympic Sport No

Kendo (剣道 kendō?), or "way of the sword", is the martial art of Japanese fencing. Kendo developed from traditional techniques of Japanese swordsmanship known as kenjutsu. Image File history File links Gtk-dialog-info. ... University of Washington Taikai 2005. ... A weapon is a tool used to kill or incapacitate a person or animal, or destroy a military target. ... Tackles like this one (Womens Australian rules football) are used in contact sports like Football (with the exception of Association Football). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... Fencing advertisement for the 1900 Summer Olympic Games This article is about the sport, which is distinguished from stage fencing and academic fencing (mensur). ... Swordsmanship refers to the skills of a swordsman, a person versed in the art of the sword. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


Kendo is a physically and mentally challenging activity that combines strong martial arts values with sporting-like physical elements. Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ...


Practitioners of kendo are called kendoka (one who practices kendo) or kenshi (swordsman).


Kendo is "played" by kendoka, wearing traditionally styled clothing and protective armour (bogu), using a shinai or two as weapons. Kendo may be seen as a Japanese style of fencing. The movements in kendo are different from European fencing because the design of the sword is different, as is the way it is used. Kendo training is quite noisy in comparison to other martial arts or sports. This is because kendoka use a shout, or kiai, to express their spirit and when a strike or cut is performed, the front foot contacts the floor in a motion similar to stamping. Kendo Bogu The Bogu ), special protective armor in the kendo and naginata martial arts, consists of: men: helmet do: trunk protector kote: hand and forearm protector tare: hip protector sune-ate: shin protectors worn only by naginata practitioners The men protects the neck and face. ... A Shinai made from bamboo A shinai (Japanese: ) is a practice weapon used primarily in kendo and is used as if it were a sword. ... Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Around eight million people world-wide practice kendo with approximately seven million in Japan.


Kendo is one of the Japanese budo and embodies the essence of Japanese fighting arts. Budo (武道) is a term for Japanese martial arts. ...

Contents

The Concept and Purpose of Kendo

In 1975 the All Japan Kendo Federation (AJKF) published and developed an explanation of the concept and purpose of studying kendo.[1] The All Japan Kendo Federation (AJKF) or Zen Nihon Kendo Renmei was founded in 1952. ...


The Concept of Kendo

Kendo is a way to discipline the human character through the application of the principles of the Katana (sword). This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Purpose of practicing Kendo

To mold the mind and body.
To cultivate a vigorous spirit,
And through correct and rigid training,
To strive for improvement in the art of Kendo.
To hold in esteem human courtesy and honor.
To associate with others with sincerity.
And to forever pursue the cultivation of oneself.
This will make one be able:
To love his/her country and society.
To contribute to the development of culture
And to promote peace and prosperity among all peoples.

Equipment and clothing

Kendo is practiced using a shinai (竹刀 しない?) as a weapon.[2] One, or more rarely two shinai, are used. The shinai is the practice "sword" and is made up of four bamboo staves, which are held together by leather fittings. Kendoka also use bokken/bokuto (wooden swords) to practice more formal, set forms known as kata. A Shinai made from bamboo A shinai (Japanese: ) is a practice weapon used primarily in kendo and is used as if it were a sword. ... Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Diversity Around 91 genera and 1,000 species Subtribes Arthrostylidiinae Arundinariinae Bambusinae Chusqueinae Guaduinae Melocanninae Nastinae Racemobambodinae Shibataeinae See the full Taxonomy of the Bambuseae. ... A pair of bokken A bokken (, bok(u), wood, and ken, sword), is a wooden Japanese sword used for training, usually the size and shape of a katana, but sometimes shaped like other swords. ... Kata (åž‹ or å½¢) (literally: form) is a Japanese word describing detailed patterns of defense-and-attack movements practiced either solo or in pairs. ...


Protective armour bōgu (防具 ぼうぐ?), is worn to protect specified target areas on the head, arms and body.[3] The head is protected by the helmet-like men ( めん?), the forearms and hand by gauntlets called kote (小手 こて?), and the body by the ( どう?) and tare (垂れ たれ?). The clothing worn under the bogu comprises a jacket, or kendogi/keikogi and a hakama, which is a trouser-like garment with wide legs. Kendo Bogu The Bogu ), special protective armor in the kendo and naginata martial arts, consists of: men: helmet do: trunk protector kote: hand and forearm protector tare: hip protector sune-ate: shin protectors worn only by naginata practitioners The men protects the neck and face. ... Keikogi (稽古着 or 稽古衣) is a Japanese word which means uniform for training (keiko means practice, gi means dress or clothes), another posibility is to use the word Dogi which means the uniform you wear on the path that you have been chosen, if you put the name of the sport itself... Hakama worn by an aikidoka (left of the picture) An Edo-era kamishimo outfit, consisting of a kataginu (a sleeveless jacket with exaggerated shoulders) (left) and hakama (centre). ...


History

Since the earliest samurai government in Japan, during the Kamakura period (1185-1233), sword fencing, together with horse riding and archery, were the main martial pursuits of the military clans. In this period kendo developed under the strong influence of Zen Buddhism. The samurai could equate the disregard for his own life in the heat of battle, which was considered necessary for victory in individual combat, to the Buddhist concept of the illusory nature of the distinction between life and death. For other uses, see Samurai (disambiguation). ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Kamakura Period. ... horse, see Horse (disambiguation). ... A full draw, called kai. Kyūdō ), literally meaning way of the bow, is the Japanese art of archery. ... A woodblock print by Yoshitoshi, (Japan, 1887) depicting Bodhidharma the founder of Chinese Zen. ...

Kendō at an agricultural school in Japan around 1920
Kendō at an agricultural school in Japan around 1920

Those swordsmen established schools of kendo training which continued for centuries, and which form the basis of kendo practice today. The names of the schools reflect the essence of the originator’s enlightenment. Thus the Ittō-ryū (Single sword school) indicates the founder’s illumination that all possible cuts with the sword emanate from and are contained in one original essential cut. The Mutō (swordless school) expresses the comprehension of the originator Yamaoka Tesshu, that "There is no sword outside the mind". The 'Munen Musō-ryū’ (No Intent, no preconception) similarly expresses the understanding that the essence of kendo transcends the reflective thought process. The formal kendo exercises known as kata, were developed several centuries ago and are still studied today.-1... -1... Enlightenment (or brightening) broadly means the acquisition of new wisdom or understanding enabling clarity of perception. ... Yamaoka Tesshu was a famous samurai living the peiod known as the Meiji Restoration. ...


The introduction of bamboo practice swords (shinai) and armour (bogu) to kendo training is attributed to Naganuma Sirozaemon Kunisato (長沼四郎左衛門国郷 1688-1767).[4] This is believed to be the foundation of modern kendo. Kendo began to make its modern appearance during the late 18th century. Use of the shinai and armour (bogu) made possible the full force delivery of strikes and thrusts without inflicting injury on the opponent. These advances, along with practice formats, set the foundations of modern kendo.


Concepts such as mushin, or "empty mind" as professed by exponents of Zen, are an essential attainment for high level kendo. Fudoshin, or "unmoving mind", is a conceptual attribute of the deity Fudo Myo-O, one of the five "Kings of Light" of Shingon Buddhism. Fudoshin, implies that the kendoka cannot be led astray by delusions of anger, doubt, fear, or surprise arising from the opponent’s actions. Thus today it is possible to embark on a similar quest for spiritual enlightenment as followed by the samurai of old. Mushin redirects here. ... A state of equanimity or imperturbability (literally and metaphorically immovable mind) - a philosophical/mental dimension to a (commonly Japanese) martial art which contributes to the effectiveness of the advanced practitioner. ... Also known as Ä€calanātha, Ä€ryācalanātha, Ä€cala-vidyā-rāja and Caṇḍamahāroá¹£aṇa. ...


The Dai Nippon Butoku Kai was established in 1895 to solidify, promote, and standardise all martial disciplines and systems in Japan. The DNBK changed the name of Gekiken (Kyūjitai: 擊劍; Shinjitai: 撃剣, "hitting sword") to kendo in 1920. The Great Japan Martial Arts Virtues Association was founded between 780 and 806 C.E. by Kanmu, the 50th Emperor of Japan. ... Look up KyÅ«jitai in Wiktionary, the free dictionary KyÅ«jitai (旧字体, きゅうじたい) is the traditional form of the Japanese kanji used before 1947. ... Shinjitai (in Shinjitai: ; in KyÅ«jitai: æ–°å­—é«”; meaning new character form), are the forms of Kanji used in Japan since the promulgation of the Tōyō Kanji List in 1946. ...


Modern kendo

Kendo is ideally practiced in a purpose-built dōjō, though standard sports halls and other venues are often used instead. An appropriate venue has a clean and well-sprung wooden floor, suitable for the distinctive stamping footwork used by the bare-footed practitioners. A dojo ) is a Japanese term which literally means place of the Way. Initially, Dojo were adjunct to temples. ...


In modern kendo, there are strikes (or cuts) and thrusts. Strikes are allowed only to be made on specified target areas, or datotsu-bui on the wrists, head or body, all of which are protected by bogu. The targets are men (top of the head), sayu-men or yoko-men (upper left and right side of the head), the right kote, or wrist at any time, the left kote when it is in a raised position (such as jōdan-no-kamae also known as jōdan) and the left or right side of the or torso. Thrusts are only allowed to the throat (tsuki). However, since an incorrectly performed thrust could injure the neck, thrusting techniques in free practice and competition are often restricted to senior dan graded kendoka. Two kenjutsu practitioners face off, both in jōdan-no-kamae, at the Devonian Botanical Garden at the University of Alberta, Devon, Alberta, Canada (June 5, 2005). ...

Competition[5]

In shiai, or competition, a point is only awarded when the attack is made firmly and properly to a target point with ki-ken-tai-ichi, or spirit, sword and body as one. This means that for an attack to be successful, the shinai must strike the specified target, the contact by the shinai must happen simultaneously with the attacker's front foot contacting with floor and the kendoka must vocalise an expression of kiai that displays good spirit. Additionally, the top third of the shinai must make contact with the target and direction of movement (hasuji) by the shinai must also be correct. Finally, zanshin, or continuation of awareness, must be present and shown before, during and after the strike, then the player must be ready to attack again. Kiai is a compound of ki meaning mind, will, turn-of-mind, spirit. ...


In a tournament, there are usually three referees, or shinpan. Each holds a red flag and a white flag in opposite hands. To signal a point, the shinpan raise the flag corresponding to the colour of the ribbon worn by the scoring competitor. Generally, at least two shinpan must agree, for a point to be awarded. The match continues until a pronouncement of the point that has been scored.


The first competitor to score two points wins the match. If the time limit is reached and only one competitor has a point, that competitor wins.


In the case of a tie, there are several options:

  • The match may be declared a draw.
  • The match may be extended (encho), and the first competitor to score a point wins.
  • The winner may be chosen by a decision made by the shinpan, or hantei, in which the three referees vote for their choice. This is done simultaneously, by show of flags.

Grades[6]

Technical achievement in kendo is measured by advancement in grade, rank or level. The kyu and dan grading system is used to assess the level of one's skill in kendo. The dan levels are from sho-dan (1) to ju-dan (10). There are usually 6 grades below sho-dan known as kyu. The kyu numbering is in reverse order with ikkyu (1) being the grade immediately below sho-dan. Kyu (ç´š) is a Japanese term used in martial arts, chado, ikebana, go and in other similar activities to designate various degrees or levels of proficiency or experience. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


In the AJKF the grades of kyu-dan (9) and ju-dan (10) are no longer awarded. However, FIK grading rules allow national kendo organisations to establish a special committee to consider the award of those grades.


There are no visible differences between kendo grades; beginners may dress the same as higher-ranking yudansha.


All candidates for examination face a panel of examiners. A larger, more qualified panel is usually assembled to assess the higher dan grades.


Kendo examinations typically consist of a demonstration of the applicants skill and for some dan grades, also a written exam. The hachi-dan (8 dan) kendo exam is extremely difficult, with a reported pass rate of less than 1 percent.


Kata[7]

There are 10 nihon kendo kata (Japanese kendo forms). These are performed with wooden swords (bokken/bokuto), the kata include fundamental techniques of attacking and counter-attacking, and have useful practical application in general kendo. Occasionally, real swords or swords with a blunt edge, called kata-yo or habiki, may be used for a display of kata. Categories: Weapon stubs | East Asian swords ...

Nihon Kendo Kata

Kata 1–7 are performed with both partners using a daitō or tachi (long sword) style bokutoh of around 102 cm. Kata 8–10 are performed with one partner using a daitō and the other using a kodachi or shoto (short sword), style bokutoh of around 55cm. During kata practice, the participants take the roles of either uchidachi (teacher) or shidachi (student). The uchidachi makes the first move or attack in each kata. As this is a teaching role, the uchidachi is always the 'losing' side, thus allowing the shidachi or student to learn and gain confidence. Image File history File linksMetadata Wikikendo2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Wikikendo2. ... Kata (åž‹ or å½¢) (literally: form) is a Japanese word describing detailed patterns of defense-and-attack movements practiced either solo or in pairs. ... A kodachi ), literally translating into small or short tachi (sword), is a Japanese sword that is too short to be considered a short sword but too long to be a dagger. ...


Nihon kendo kata were drawn from representative kenjutsu schools and tend to be quite deep and advanced. In some areas the regular training curriculum does not include nihon kendo kata.


In 2003, the introduction of Bokuto Ni Yoru Kendo Kihon-waza Keiko-ho, a set of basic exercises using a bokuto, attempted to bridge this gap. This form of practice, is intended primarily for kendoka up to ni-dan (2), but is very useful for all kendo students.


Kendo outside Japan

Kendoka at the 2006 World Fencing Championships in Turin, Italy.

The International Kendo Federation (FIK) was established in 1970 and in December 2006 admitted their 47th national or regional federation as an affiliate. The World Kendo Championships have been held every three years since 1970. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3456x2304, 1009 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kendo Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3456x2304, 1009 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kendo Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... “Torino” redirects here. ... The International Kendo Federation (IKF) was founded in 1970. ... World Kendo Championship is an international kendo competition contested by the member nations of International Kendo Federation (FIK), the sports global governing body. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Kendo

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Notes and references

  1. ^ Sato, Noriaki (July 1995). Kendo Fundamentals. Tokyo, Japan: All Japan Kendo Federation, Vol.1, 60 pages. Vol.2, 124 pages. 
  2. ^ Sasamori, Junzo; Gordon Warner (1965). This is Kendo. Japan: Charles E. Tuttle, 70. 
  3. ^ Sasamori, Junzo; Gordon Warner (1965). This is Kendo. Japan: Charles E. Tuttle, 71-76. 
  4. ^ The History of Kendo. All Japan Kendo Federation. www.kendo-fik.org (2006). Retrieved on 2007-09-06.
  5. ^ (December 2006) The Regulations of Kendo Shiai and Shinpan. Tokyo, Japan: International Kendo Federation. 
  6. ^ (December 2006) Standard Rules for Dan/Kyu Examination. Tokyo, Japan: International Kendo Federation. 
  7. ^ (29 March 2002) Nippon Kendo Kata Instruction Manual. Tokyo, Japan: All Japan Kendo Federation. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • All Japan Kendo Federation (AJKF)
  • International Kendo Federation (FIK)


  Results from FactBites:
 
Kendo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2026 words)
Kendo is practiced using "swords" made of split bamboo called shinai and extensive protective armour (bogu) is worn to protect specified target areas on the head and body.
The Australian Kendo Renmei grew from the beginning of kendo in Australia in the 1960's and is a founding member of the FIK (formerly the IKF).
Kendo was introduced in the mid sixties as a part of judo practice.
Kendo (413 words)
Kendo is a martial art who’s origin is from the combat techniques of the old Japanese warriors.
Such as in fencing, and putting it in a very simplified manner, a fight of Kendo (shiai) consists in the confrontation between two practitioners (kendoists), who’s objective is to mark points, made through the use of the technique to reach the adversary in one of the four allowed points.
In fact, Kendo is a versatile modality being able to be done by people of any age since children of five, six years to old people, as it is the case of the great masters (sensei).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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