FACTOID # 2: Puerto Rico has roughly the same gross state product as Montana, Wyoming and North Dakota combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Kellogg, Brown and Root
Kellogg, Brown and Root
Image:Kbrlogo.gif‎
Type Public
Founded 1998
Headquarters Houston,
Key people Dick Cheney
Jerry L. Winchester
Industry Engineering
Construction
Private military contractor

KBR (formerly Kellogg Brown and Root) NYSE: KBR is an American engineering and construction company, formerly a subsidiary of Halliburton, based in Houston. After Halliburton acquired Dresser Industries in 1998, Dresser's engineering subsidiary, M.W. Kellogg, was merged with Halliburton's construction subsidiary, Brown and Root, to form Kellogg, Brown, and Root. KBR and its predecessors have won many contracts with the U.S. military during the 2003 invasion of Iraq, as well as during World War II and the Vietnam War. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A public company usually refers to a company which is permitted to offer its securites (i. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ... Houston redirects here. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941) is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... Engineering is the design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... In large construction projects, such as skyscrapers, cranes are essential. ... A private military contractor (PMC) is a corporation that provides armed forces trained in combat, private military, for other corporations, organizations, individuals and state military forces. ... The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), nicknamed the Big Board, is a New York City-based stock exchange publicly held and listed under the symbol NYX on its own exchange. ... Halliburton Energy Services (NYSE: HAL) is a multinational corporation with operations in over 120 countries. ... Houston redirects here. ... Dresser Industries was a multinational corporation headquartered in Dallas, Texas, which provides a wide range of technology, products, and services used for developing energy and natural resources. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ... The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... Combatants Coalition Forces: United States United Kingdom South Korea Australia Poland Romania others. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


KBR is the largest non-union construction company in the United States.[citation needed] In terms of United States labor relations, an open shop is a place of employment at which one is not required to join a labor union as a condition of hiring or continued employment. ...


On April 15, 2006, Halliburton filed a registration statement with the Securities and Exchange Commission to sell up to 20 percent of its KBR stock on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). Halliburton will still own at least 80 percent of KBR should the statement be approved. Halliburton has stated in its SEC filings its intent to eventually dispose of its KBR holdings, believing the two companies would best be served by being separate from the other. April 15 is the 105th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (106th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... The Securities and Exchange Commission, commonly referred to as the SEC, is the United States governing body which has primary responsibility for overseeing the regulation of the securities industry. ... The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), nicknamed the Big Board, is a New York City-based stock exchange publicly held and listed under the symbol NYX on its own exchange. ... The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) requires a public company in the United States to file financial statements regularly so that they can be made available to the public. ...


On Thursday November 16, 2006, KBR shares were offered for the public in an Initial Public Offering with shares priced at $17. The shares closed on the first day up more than 22 percent to $20.75 a share. [1] An initial public offering (IPO) is the first sale of a corporations common shares to public investors. ...

Contents

History

Brown and Root was founded in Texas in 1919 by two brothers, George R. Brown and Herman Brown with money from their brother-in-law, Dan Root. The company began its operations by supervising the building of warships for the United States Navy. Official language(s) No Official Language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The United States Navy, also known as the USN or the U.S. Navy, is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for conducting naval operations. ...


One of its first large-scale projects, according to the book Cadillac Desert, was to build a dam on the Texas Colorado River near Austin during the Depression years. For assistance in federal payments, the company turned to the local congressman, Lyndon B. Johnson. Brown and Root was the principal source of campaign funds for Johnson's initial run for Congress in 1937 in return for persuading the Bureau of Reclamation to change its rules against paying for a dam on land the federal government did not own, a decision that had to go all the way to President Roosevelt, according to Robert A. Caro's book The Path to Power. After other very profitable construction projects for the federal government, such as building the Corpus Christi Naval Station, Brown and Root gave massive sums of cash for Johnson's first run for the U.S. Senate in 1941, a campaign so based on money that cash was literally given away at Johnson's campaign rallies. Even this money could not buy the election, because the eventually winner was even more corrupt. Brown and Root, however, violated IRS rules over campaign contributions, largely in charging off its huge donations as deductible company expenses. A subsequent IRS investigation threatened to bring criminal charges against Brown and Root as well as Johnson and others. It was not quashed until Roosevelt himself told the IRS to back off and allowed Brown and Root to settle for pennies on the dollar. Cadillac Desert by Marc Reisner is a 1986 book (ISBN 0140178244) about land development and water policy in the western United States. ... Official language(s) No Official Language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... The Colorado River as it winds through the Austin area. ... Nickname: Live Music Capital of the World Location in the state of Texas Coordinates: Country United States State Texas Counties Travis County, Williamson County Government  - Mayor Will Wynn Area  - City  296. ... The Great Depression was a global economic slump that began in 1929 and bottomed in 1933. ... A Congressman or Congresswoman (generically, Congressperson) is a politician who is a member of a Congress. ... “LBJ” redirects here. ...


During World War II, Brown & Root built the Naval Air Station Corpus Christi and a series of warships for the U.S. Government. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Naval Air Station Corpus Christi is a United States Navy base in Corpus Christi, Texas. ... USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga class cruiser. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The government of the United States of America, established by the U.S. Constitution, is...


In 1947, Brown & Root built one of the world's first offshore oil platforms. 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... The Hibernia platform is the worlds largest oil platform. ...


According to Tracy Kidder's Pulitzer prize-winning book "Mountains Beyond Mountains," Brown & Root was a contractor in the Péligre Dam project. The project was designed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and financed by the U.S. Export-Import Bank. Tracy Kidder (born November 12, 1945 in New York City) is an American author of multiple books. ... A view of Lake Peligre, as viewed from National Route 3. ... United States Army Corps of Engineers logo The United States Army Corps of Engineers, or USACE, is made up of some 34,600 civilian and 650 military men and women. ...


Following the death of Herman Brown, Halliburton acquired Brown & Root in December 1962. According to Dan Briody, who wrote a book on the subject, the company became part of a consortium of four companies that built about eighty-five per cent of the infrastructure needed by the Army during the Vietnam War. At the height of the war protesting of the 1960s, Brown & Root was derided as "Burn & Loot" by protesters. Halliburton Energy Services (NYSE: HAL) is a multinational corporation with operations in over 120 countries. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ...


In 1996, President Clinton awarded Brown & Root a contract to support U.S. and NATO troops as part of the SFOR operation in the Balkan region. This contract was extended to also include KFOR operations in Kosovo starting in 1999. The extent of their services included a vast array of logistical operations, historically under the jurisdiction of the military. Such operations included laundry services, meal services (Burger King, Subway, Papa John's), entertainment (internet and cable access), recreation (basketball courts and gym equipment). The reaction by many in the military and civilian leadership, and those on the ground was positive. The success of Brown & Root during the Clinton Administration further bolstered the opinion that the private sector could better determine how to provide deployed soldiers with adequate supplies for day to day life in a forward area. 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Order: 42nd President Term of Office: January 20, 1993–January 20, 2001 Preceded by: George H. W. Bush Succeeded by: George W. Bush Date of birth: August 19, 1946 Place of birth: Hope, Arkansas Date of death: Place of death: First Lady: Hillary Rodham Clinton Political party: Democratic Vice... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... Members of the Dutch, French, German and U.S. military watch as an Italian honour guard hoists the new Stabilisation Force flag during the Stabilisation Force (SFOR) activation ceremony in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, on the 20 of December 1996 Pocket badge of the SFOR The Stabilisation Force (SFOR) was... ... Pocket badge of the KFOR Ukrainian soldier on foot patrolling in Serbian village near Brezovica KFOR vehicle of the French Army The Kosovo Force (KFOR) is a NATO-led international force responsible for establishing and maintaining security in Kosovo. ... For uses of the name Kosova, see Kosova (disambiguation). ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ...


In September 2005, under a competitive bid contract it won in July 2005 to provide debris removal and other emergency work associated with natural disasters, KBR started assessment of the cleanup and reconstruction of Gulf Coast Marine and Navy facilities damaged in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. The facilities include: Naval Station Pascagoula, Naval Station Gulfport, the John C. Stennis Space Center in Mississippi, two smaller U.S. Navy facilities in New Orleans, Louisiana and others in the Gulf Coast region. KBR has had similar contracts for more than 15 years. 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... States that border the Gulf of Mexico are shown in red The Gulf Coast region of the United States comprises the coasts of states which border the Gulf of Mexico. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the U.S. military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces to global crises. ... The United States Navy, also known as the USN or the U.S. Navy, is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for conducting naval operations. ... Lowest pressure 902 mbar (hPa; 26. ... Naval Station Pascagoula is a base of the United States Navy, in Pascagoula, Mississippi. ... The John C. Stennis Space Center (or SSC), located in Hancock County, Mississippi at the Mississippi/Louisiana border, is NASAs largest rocket engine test facility. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Nickname: Location in the State of Louisiana and the United States Coordinates: Country United States State Louisiana Parish Orleans Founded 1718 Government  - Mayor Ray Nagin (D) Area  - City  350. ...


Activities in Afghanistan

KBR was awarded a $100 million contract in 2002 to build a new U.S. embassy in Kabul, Afghanistan, from the State Department. For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ...


KBR has also been awarded 15 LOGCAP task orders worth more than $216 million for work under Operation Enduring Freedom, the military name for operations in Afghanistan. These include establishing base camps at Kandahar and Bagram Air Base and training foreign troops from the Republic of Georgia. Combatants United States Canada Australia United Kingdom Netherlands Philippines (in the Philippines theatre only) Northern Alliance GUAM Poland Italy Visegrad Group Hungary Ethiopia Somalia Estonia Latvia Lithuania Slovakia Vilnius group Croatia Albania Macedonia Romania Bulgaria Taliban al-Qaeda Abu Sayyaf Jemaah Islamiyah Islamic Courts Union Commanders General Tommy Franks Brig. ... This article is about the city in Afghanistan. ... Bagram Air Base Bagram Air Base is located at the antique city of Bagram near Charikar in Parvan, Afghanistan. ... Georgia (Georgian: საქართველო Sakartvelo), known from 1991 to 1995 as the Republic of Georgia, is a country to the east of the Black Sea in the southern Caucasus. ...


Activities in Iraq

The United States Army hired Kellogg, Brown and Root to provide housing for approximately 100,000 soldiers in Iraq in a contract worth $200 million, based on a long-term contract signed in December 2001 under the Logistics Civil Augmentation Program (LOGCAP). Other LOGCAP orders have included a pre-invasion order to repair oil facilities in Iraq; $28.2 million to build prisoner-of-war camps; and $40.8 million to accommodate the Iraqi Survey Group, which was deployed after the war to find hidden weapons of mass destruction.


The Army's actions came under fire from Congressman Henry Waxman, who, along with John Dingell, asked the General Accounting Office - the investigative arm of Congress - to investigate whether the U.S. Agency for International Development and the Pentagon were circumventing government contracting procedures and favoring companies with ties to the Bush administration. They also accused KBR of inflating prices for importing gasoline into Iraq [2][3]. In June 2003, the Army announced that it would replace KBR's oil-infrastructure contract with two public-bid contracts worth a maximum total of $1 billion to be awarded in October. However, the Army announced in October it would expand the contract ceiling to $2 billion and the solicitation period to December. As of October 16, 2003, KBR had performed nearly $1.6 billion worth of work. In the meantime, KBR has subcontracted with two companies to work on the project: Boots & Coots, an oil field emergency-response firm that Halliburton works in partnership with (CEO Jerry L. Winchester was a former Halliburton manager) and Wild Well Control, both of Texas [4]. Henry Arnold Waxman (born September 12, 1939) is an American politician. ... October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Employee Safety

As of February 9, 2007 98 KBR employees and subcontractors have lost their lives, and more than 430 have been wounded by hostile action while performing services under the company's government contracts in Iraq, Afghanistan and Kuwait. [5]


Political connections and controversy

Brown and Root had a well-documented relationship with U.S. President Lyndon Johnson which began when he used his position as a Texas congressman to assist them in landing a lucrative dam contract. In return they gave him the funds for his 1948 Senate race against Coke R. Stevenson.[1] The relationship continued for years, with Johnson awarding military construction contracts to B&R. “LBJ” redirects here. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... Texas politician Coke Stevenson Coke Robert Stevenson (March 20, 1888–June 28, 1975) was a U.S. political figure. ...


U.S. Vice President Richard B. Cheney was chairman and chief executive officer of Halliburton from 1995 to 2000. He has been accused by political opponents of supporting the 2003 invasion of Iraq and providing work to KBR under contingency contracts to financially benefit himself and his business associates. Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941) is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... A Chairman is the presiding officer of a meeting, organization, committee, or other deliberative body. ... A Chief Executive Officer (CEO), or Chief Executive, is the highest-ranking corporate officer, administrator, corporate administrator, executive, or executive officer, in charge of total management of a corporation, company, organization or agency. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Coalition Forces: United States United Kingdom South Korea Australia Poland Romania others. ...


However, the Army contract which has been so controversial – LOGCAP (Logistical Civilian Augmentation Program) – has, since its inception, been issued under competitive solicitations; of the three LOGCAP contracts, KBR won the first, DynCorp the second, and KBR the third and current one, dubbed "LOGCAP III". LOGCAP is a contingency-based contract which is invoked at the convenience of the US Army as needed; the Task Orders under the contract are not competitively bid (as the overall contract was) and thus the reason for the confusion. DynCorp International is a U.S.-based private military contractor (PMC). ...


Although DynCorp had won LOGCAP II back in 1994, [2] President Clinton instead chose KBR and thus the Balkans Support Contract was created/awarded to KBR in February, 1999. [3] Even though the LOGCAP program is specifically for contingency operations such as the Balkans, there was no fanfare and negligible media coverage about KBR picking up that contract; however the Balkans work is sometimes mistakenly mentioned as being part of LOGCAP.


Most media controversy involves the LOGCAP III contract which KBR successfully, and competitively, bid for and won in 2001. While it is by far the most profitable of their contracts, the functions of that contract are often mixed with the RIO contract in which KBR was given in a no-bid process. RIO, (Restore Iraqi Oil), was awarded to KBR when the Department of Defense determined that KBR was "the only contractor that could satisfy the requirement for immediate execution of the plan"[4]. As of September, 2006, hearings are still being conducted into the RIO project over possible billing, management, and procurement violations. The United States Department of Defense, abbreviated DoD or DOD and sometimes called the Defense Department, is a civilian Cabinet organization of the United States government. ...


One common theme is to use the term LOGCAP while using the dollar amounts from RIO, which was using LOGCAP funding for the initial staging and startup, (see reference #4).


Another prime topic of interest is the Defense Contract Audit Agency (DCAA) report on billing-methods for meals. The auditors knew about, but disregarded, the Army's requirement whereas KBR was directed to have a varying X-amount of meals prepared at certain location regardless of how many people actually used the service. Although KBR was paying for the food, the DCAA did not believe they should be able to charge the DoD for meals prepared but not served [5].. While the DCAA's function is merely to audit and present its findings to the contracting agency, many media outlets took those findings as a writ of corruption. The Defense Contract Audit Agency (DCAA), under the authority, direction, and control of the United States Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), is responsible for performing all contract audits for the Department of Defense (DoD), and providing accounting and financial advisory services regarding contracts and subcontracts to all DoD Components responsible...


Changes to conditions of employment imposed on UK staff

Late in 2004, KBR announced that due to $1 billion in losses over the past four years, it needed to make annual savings to its cost base of $80-100 million. Despite repeated assurances that the pain would be shared world-wide, changes to staff terms and conditions (primarily longer hours for no extra pay, closing of the final salary pension scheme and removal of car allowances - the latter being effectively a salary reduction of around 8 to 10% for several mid-range grades) were imposed mainly on its UK offices, primarily in Leatherhead and Aberdeen. Staff who refused to sign the new terms and conditions were fired with effect from 31 March 2005. Although some concessions were made very late in the process when the level of discontent became clear, the strategy backfired as many key staff members left as a result, leaving some departments with severe staff shortages.[citation needed] Leatherhead is a small town in Surrey, England, on the River Mole, Surrey. ... Aberdeen (Scottish Gaelic: ) is Scotlands third largest city (48th in Britain,[5] 313th in Europe[6]) with a population of 202,370. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Many former staff remained for some time in legal dispute with the company relating to the manner in which the process was carried out. Several trade unions also responded, recruiting many new members who had not been involved in trades unions before, and assisting staff in taking legal action against the perceived contravention of employment laws.[citation needed] The matter between the company and those staff who were in dispute has since been resolved. A Trade Union (Labour union) ... is a continuous association of wage-earners for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment. ...


Legacy in Houston

Houston's convention center was named after company founder and namesake George R. Brown. Rice University's Brown College is also named for members of George Brown's wealthy family, who have made significant monetary contributions to Rice and other Houston schools. The George R. Brown Convention Center was opened on September 26, 1987 on the east side of downtown Houston. ... Lovett Hall William Marsh Rice University, commonly called Rice University and opened in 1912 as The William Marsh Rice Institute for the Advancement of Letters, Science and Art, is a private, comprehensive research university located in Houston, Texas near the Museum District and adjacent to the Texas Medical Center. ...


References

  1. ^ Bryce, Robert. "The Candidate from Brown and Root. (reprint)" Texas Observer, October 6, 2000.
  2. ^ Defenselink News "FAQ About Contracting",
  3. ^ Defenselink News "Contracts Awarded" DAAA09-99-C-0016, February 19, 1999.
  4. ^ USACE "USACE Information sheet on RIO"
  5. ^ Halliburton response"Halliburton statement"

The Texas Observer (also known as the Observer) is an American political newsmagazine published bi-weekly and based in Austin, Texas. ... October 6 is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years). ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Kellogg, Brown and Root - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1434 words)
KBR (formerly Kellogg, Brown and Root) is an American engineering and construction company, a private military contractor and a subsidiary of Halliburton.
KBR is the largest non-union construction company in the United States.
Brown and Root had a well-documented relationship with U.S. President Lyndon Johnson which began when he used his position as a Texas congressman to assist them in landing a lucrative dam contract.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m