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Encyclopedia > Kejawen

Javanese beliefs (Kebatinan or Kejawen) have principles embodying a "search for inner self" but at the core is the concept of Peace Of Mind.


Although Kejawen is not a religious category, it addresses ethical and spiritual values as inspired by Javanese tradition. It is not a religion in usual sense of the word, like Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, or Christianity. There are no scriptures such as the Bible or the Qur'an, nor are there prophets. There is no emphasis on eschatology (ie. life after death, heaven or hell, devils or angels). The approximately 90 million Javanese form the largest ethnic group in Indonesia. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( (help· info)), the peaceful submission to the will of God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... A replica of an ancient statue of Gautama Buddha, found from Sarnath, near Varanasi Buddhism is a religion and philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, who lived in what is now the border region of Northern India and Nepal between 563 and 483 BCE. Buddhism... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... The Bible (tanak/h in hebrew language) (sometimes The Holy Bible, The Book, Good Book, Word of God, The Word, or Scripture), from Greek (τα) βιβλια, (ta) biblia, (the) books, is the classical name for the Hebrew Bible of Judaism or the combination of the Old Testament and New Testament of Christianity... The Quran (Arabic , literally the recitation; also called or The Noble Quran; also transliterated Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... ...

Contents


Kebatinan

Kebatinan is a metaphysical search for harmony within one's inner self, connection with the universe, and with an Almighty God.


Javanese beliefs are a combination of occultism, metaphysics, mysticism and other esoteric doctrines, exemplifying a Javanese tendency for synthesis.


The Javanese system is so flexible that syncresis in all manifestations is attainable, even that which is in conflict.


Javanese ideals combine human wisdom (wicaksana), psyche (waskita) and perfection (sempurna). The follower must control his/her passions, eschewing earthly riches and comforts, so that he/she may one day reach enlightened harmony and union with the spirit of the universe.


Generally speaking, the Kebatinan follower believes in the existence of a super-consciousness in the cosmic world which is beyond humankind's comprehension, yet controls and guides humans' affairs and destiny. This Superconciousness, can be contacted via meditation.


There are several meditation techniques (tapas): tapa kalong (meditation by hanging from a tree), Tapa Geni (avoiding fire or light for a day or days), Tapa Senen (fasting on Monday), Tapa Mutih (abstention from eating anything that is salted) and Tapa Ngablek (isolating oneself in dark rooms).


Fasting is a common practice employed by javanese spiritualists in order to attain discipline of mind and body to get rid of material and emotional desires. Many Kebatinan followers meditate in their own way to seek spiritual and emotional relief. These practices are not performed in churches or mosques, but at home or in caves or mountain perches.


Evolution

Javanese spiritualism entails a never ending search for wonder and surprise. It has some foreign influences.


The Javanese mind is essentially a flexible and pragmatic one as far as a person's spiritual life is concerned. The complexity is perhaps the result of Java's complicated cultural background and its myriad cultural influences. But basically, Javanese spiritualism is individualistic in approach, something typically Javanese. The approach is person-to-person or person-to-guru. One on one.


School Of Kebatinan

The "Sumarah School:" according to this school, man and his physical and spiritual world are divided into three parts: The physical body and brain, an invisible world, and a more elusive and sublime world.


In the Brain the faculty of thinking has two functions - one to record memories, the other to serve as a means of communion with God. One section, "Sukusma," governs the passions, while the other, "The Jiwa," provides the driving forces governing thought and reason. The invisible world, which is situated within the chest, is the Jiwa, the ineffable soul. It is here that the deeper feeling (Rasa) is located. The most elusive and sublime world is hidden somewhere near the anatomical heart.


Sumarah theology maintains that humankind's soul is like the holy spirit, a spark from the Divine Essence, which means that we are in essence similar to God. In other word "One can find God within oneself," a belief similar to the "I=God" theory found in Hindu-Javanese literature.


The Sapta Dharma School: This school was product of the Indonesian Revolution. It was God's wish to provide the Indonesians with a new spiritual approach in their search for Peace Of Mind and Happiness at a Time when they were undergoing a mental and spiritual crisis.


Kebatinan Commandments

God is within you. God is everywhere. But do not think you are God.


Historical Texts

Kebatinan and kejawen practices, are extensively written about in texts that are held in the Sanabudaya library in Yogyakarta, and the main Kraton Libraries of Solo and Yogyakarta. Many of the texts are elliptical, deliberately so that those who do not work with either initiates or teachers are unable to ascertain or understand the esoteric doctrines and practices. In quite a few cases, codified texts with secret systems to "unlock" the meanings are utilised.


External links

  • Subud
  • Javanese mystical movements

  Results from FactBites:
 
AllRefer.com - Indonesia - Islam | Indonesian Information Resource (1099 words)
These historical processes gave rise to enduring tensions between orthodox Muslims and more syncretistic, locally based religion--tensions that were still visible in the early 1990s.
On Java, for instance, this tension was expressed in a contrast between santri and abangan (see Glossary), an indigenous blend of native and Hindu-Buddhist beliefs with Islamic practices sometimes also called Javanism, kejawen, agama Jawa, or kebatinan (see Glossary).
In contrast to the Mecca-oriented philosophy of most santri, there was the current of kebatinan, which is an amalgam of animism, Hindu-Buddhist, and Islamic--especially Sufi--beliefs.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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