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Encyclopedia > Keir Hardie

James Keir Hardie (15 August 1856 - 26 September 1915) was a Scottish socialist and labour leader, and one of the first two Labour Party Members of Parliament (MPs) elected to the UK Parliament after the establishment of the Labour Party. is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the country. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons The Right Honourable Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, Baroness Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups (as of May 5, 2005 elections) Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats... The Labour Party is an Anti-English political party in the United Kingdom. ...

James Keir Hardie

Contents

James Keir Hardie, Leader of the Labour Party This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... James Keir Hardie, Leader of the Labour Party This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ...

Early life

Keir Hardie was born in Newhouse, North Lanarkshire in 1856, the illegitimate son of Mary Keir, a servant from Legbrannock, beside Holytown a small village/town near Motherwell. The cottage of his birth still exists on the old Edinburgh Road in Newhouse. Newhouse is a hamlet about 4 miles north east of Motherwell, North Lanarkshire, Scotland. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Holytown is a small village situated outside Motherwell in North Lanarkshire, Scotland. ... High flats in Motherwell Brandon Parade, the main shopping street in Motherwell, on a typical Saturday Motherwell (Tobar na Màthar in Gaelic) is a large town and former burgh in North Lanarkshire, Scotland, south east of Glasgow. ...


Mary Keir later married David Hardie, a carpenter. The family moved then to the industrial city of Glasgow. For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ...


Hardie grew up in poverty. From the age of eight, Keir was a delivery boy for a baker. At the time he was the only wage-earner in his family. He was fired from this job because he arrived late to work, after looking after his dying brother. With no family income, the Hardies had to move back to Lanarkshire. From the age of 11, Hardie was working down the pits of Lanarkshire. He never went to school but his mother taught him how to read using scraps of newspapers she found. Eventually, at the age of 17, he taught himself to write using a pin and a stone blackened with the smoke of his pit lamp. Lanarkshire (Siorrachd Lannraig in Gaelic) is a traditional county of Scotland. ...


Hardie married Lillie Wilson on 3 August 1879. is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Union leader

About this time, Hardie began to read newspapers and learn about trade unions. He set one up at the colliery where he worked and in 1880 led the first ever strike by Lanarkshire miners. As a result, Hardie was blacklisted by coal mine owners and became unable to find work. He subsequently moved to Cumnock in Ayrshire to become a journalist. A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... Wyoming coal mine Coal mining is the mining of coal. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Cumnock (Cumnag in Gaelic) is a burgh in East Ayrshire, Scotland. ... Ayrshire (Siorrachd Inbhir Àir in Scottish Gaelic) is a region of south-west Scotland, located on the shores of the Firth of Clyde. ...


Although raised an atheist, Hardie was converted to Christianity, and became a lay preacher at the Evangelical Union Church. Christianity was to become an important influence on his political career. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is...


In 1886, he became the organising secretary of the Ayrshire Miners Union and later the Scottish Miners Federation and he began to edit a paper called The Miner. Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The Scottish Labour Party, MP for West Ham and the ILP

Originally a supporter of the Liberal Party, Hardie became disillusioned by William Gladstone's economic policies and began to feel that the Liberals neither would nor could ever adequately represent the working classes. Hardie believed the Liberal Party merely wanted the votes of the workers but that it would not in return offer radical reform for workers - he became a socialist and decided to run for Parliament. This article is about the historic Liberal Party. ... William Ewart Gladstone (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British Liberal Party statesman and Prime Minister (1868–74, 1880–85, 1886 and 1892–94). ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ...


In April 1888, Hardie stood as an independent labour candidate in Mid Lanark. He finished last but he was not deterred and believed he would enjoy more success in the future. At a public meeting in Glasgow on 25 August 1888 the Scottish Labour Party (1888-1893) (not the same party as the modern Scottish Labour Party) was formed, with Hardie becoming the party's first secretary. The party's president was Robert Cunninghame-Graham, the first socialist MP, and later founder of the National Party of Scotland, forerunner to the Scottish National Party. is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the toll-free telephone number see Toll-free telephone number Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Scottish Labour Party was formed by Keir Hardie in 1888 when he left the Liberal Party. ... This article is about the Scottish Labour Party founded in 1976. ... Robert Bontine Cunninghame-Graham was born Robert Bontine, on May 24, 1852. ... The National Party of Scotland (NPS) was formed in 1928 after John MacCormick of the Glasgow University Scottish Nationalist Association (GUSNA) called a meeting of all those favouring the establishment of a party favouring Scottish independence. ... The Scottish National Party (SNP) (Scottish Gaelic: is a centre-left political party which campaigns for Scottish independence. ...


Hardie was invited to stand in West Ham in 1892, a working class seat in Essex (now Greater London). The Liberals decided not to field a candidate, but at the same time not to offer Hardie any assistance. Competing against the Conservative Party candidate, Hardie won by 5,268 votes to 4,036. On taking his seat on 3 August 1892 Hardie refused to wear the 'parliamentary uniform' of black frock coat, black silk top hat and starched wing collar that other working class MPs wore. Instead, Hardie wore a plain tweed suit, a red tie and a deerstalker hat. In Parliament he advocated a graduated income tax, free schooling, pensions, the abolition of the House of Lords and the women's right to vote. West Ham is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, in the London Borough of Newham. ... 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Essex is a county in the East of England. ... Greater London is the top-level administrative subdivision covering London, England. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The House of Lords is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is also commonly referred to as the Lords. The Sovereign, the House of Commons (which is the lower house of Parliament and referred to as the Commons), and the Lords together comprise the Parliament. ...


In 1893, Hardie and others formed the Independent Labour Party, an action that worried the Liberals, who were afraid that the ILP might, at some point in the future, win the working-class votes that they traditionally received. Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Independent Labour Party (ILP) was a former political party in the United Kingdom. ...


Hardie hit the headlines in 1894 when, after an explosion at a colliery in Pontypridd which killed 251 miners, he asked that a message of condolence to the relatives of the victims be added to an address of congratulations on the birth of a royal heir (the future Edward VIII). The request was refused and Hardie made a speech attacking the monarchy, which resulted in uproar in the House of Commons and, in 1895, he lost his seat. 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Pontypridd is a town in Glamorgan, Wales, in the county borough of Rhondda Cynon Taff. ... Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David; later The Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was King of Great Britain, Ireland, the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India from the death of his father, George V (1910–36), on 20... For the comic series, see Monarchy (comics). ... Type Lower House Speaker of the House of Commons Leader of the House of Commons Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Harriet Harman, QC, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader of the House of Commons Theresa May, PC, (Conservative) since December 6, 2005 Members 646 Political groups... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Hardie spent the next five years of his life building up the Labour movement and speaking at various public meetings; he was arrested at a woman's suffrage meeting in London, but the Home Secretary, concerned about arresting the leader of the ILP, ordered his release. Suffragette with banner, Washington DC, 1918 The title of suffragette (also occasionally spelled suffraget) was given to members of the womens suffrage movement in the United Kingdom. ... The Secretary of State for the Home Department, commonly known as the Home Secretary, is the minister in charge of the United Kingdom Home Office and is responsible for internal affairs in England and Wales, and for immigration and citizenship for the whole United Kingdom (including Scotland and Northern Ireland). ...


The Labour Party

In 1900, Hardie organised a meeting of various trade unions and socialist groups and they agreed to form a Labour Representation Committee, and so the Labour Party was born. Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... The Labour Representation Committee (LRC) was formed on February 27, 1900, at a conference at which representatives of the main socialist groupings in the United Kingdom were present. ... The Labour Party is an Anti-English political party in the United Kingdom. ...

Keir Hardie's Manifesto for the 1906 General Election

In 1900, Hardie, representing Labour, was elected as the junior MP for the dual constituency of Merthyr Tydfil and Aberdare in the South Wales Valleys, which he would represent for the remainder of his life. Only one other Labour MP was elected that year, but from these small beginnings the party continued to grow, winning power in 1924. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 427 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1291 × 1811 pixel, file size: 121 KB, MIME type: image/gif) Keir Hardies Manifesto from 1906, scanned in from the original held in Cardiff University Library This image is of a poster, and the copyright for... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 427 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1291 × 1811 pixel, file size: 121 KB, MIME type: image/gif) Keir Hardies Manifesto from 1906, scanned in from the original held in Cardiff University Library This image is of a poster, and the copyright for... The UK general election of 1906 was from 12th January – 8th February 1906. ...


Meanwhile the Conservative Unionist government became deeply unpopular, and Liberal leader Henry Campbell-Bannerman was worried about possible vote-splitting across the Labour and Liberal parties in the next election. A deal was struck in 1903, which became known as the Lib-Lab pact. It was engineered by Ramsay MacDonald and Herbert Gladstone (son of William Gladstone): the Liberals would not stand against Labour in 30 constituencies in the next election, in order to avoid splitting the anti-Conservative vote. Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (7 September 1836 – 22 April 1908) , also known as Andie McDowell, was a British Liberal statesman who served as Prime Minister from December 5, 1905 until resigning due to ill health on April 3, 1908. ... Lib-Lab Pact has been the term used to describe a working arrangement between the UKs political parties of the Liberals (later Liberal Democrats) and the Labour Party. ... James Ramsay MacDonald (12 October 1866 – 9 November 1937) was a British politician and three times Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... William Ewart Gladstone (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British Liberal Party statesman and Prime Minister (1868–74, 1880–85, 1886 and 1892–94). ... A constituency is any cohesive corporate unit or body bound by shared structures, goals or loyalty. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ...


In 1906, the LRC changed its name to the "Labour Party". The conservative prime minister Arthur Balfour, who stepped in for the former leader, Lord Salisbury, after ill health, called a General Election. 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The UK general election of 1906 was from 12th January – 8th February 1906. ...


The election result was one of the biggest landslide victories in British history: the Liberals swept the Conservatives (and their Liberal Unionist allies) out of previously safe seats. Balfour himself lost his seat, Manchester East, on a swing of over 20 percent. However, what would later turn out to be even more significant was the election of 29 Labour MPs. In politics, a landslide victory (or just a landslide) is the victory of a candidate or political party by an overwhelming majority in an election. ... A safe seat is a seat in a legislature which is regarded as fully secured by a certain political party with very little chance of an election upset because of the nature of the electorate in the constituency concerned. ... Manchester East was one of several Parliamentary constituencies created in 1885 from the former Manchester constituency. ...


Later career

In 1908, Hardie resigned as leader of the Labour Party and was replaced by Arthur Henderson. Hardie spent the rest of his life campaigning for votes for women and developing a closer relationship with Sylvia Pankhurst. He also campaigned for self-rule for India and an end to segregation in South Africa. During a visit to the United States in 1909, his criticism of sectarianism among American radicals caused intensified debate regarding the American Socialist Party possibly joining with the unions in a labor party. 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Right Honourable Arthur Henderson (September 13, 1863 – October 20, 1935) was a British politician and union leader. ... Sylvia Pankhurst Estelle Sylvia Pankhurst (May 5, 1882 - September 27, 1960) was a campaigner in the suffragette movement in the United Kingdom, and a prominent left communist. ... Self-governance is an abstract concept that refers to several scales of organization. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... Sectarianism refers (usually pejoratively) to a rigid adherence to a particular sect or party or religious denomination. ... The Socialist Party of America (SPA) is a socialist political party in the United States. ... The name Labour Party or Labor Party is used by several political parties around the world. ...


A pacifist, Hardie was appalled by the First World War and along with socialists in other countries he tried to organise an international general strike to stop the war. His stance was not popular, even within the Labour Party, but he continued to address anti-war demonstrations across the country and to support conscientious objectors. After a series of strokes Hardie died in hospital in Glasgow on 26 September 1915. Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes or gaining advantage. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... A general strike is a strike action by an entire labour force in a city, region or country. ... It has been suggested that Conscientious objection throughout the world be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Legacy

Keir Hardie steered the Labour movement away from what he regarded as the damaging influence of Marxism, and towards a moderate, low church and trade unionist version of socialism that was practical, flexible and helped create a socialist party that, with time, has been more electorally and politically successful than most socialist parties outside Scandinavia. Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region centered on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe which includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ...


Keir Hardie has de facto sainthood inside the Labour Party and is highly respected outside it. He also has the unusual distinction for a significant political leader of having rarely been attacked in print after his death. General definition of saint In general, the term Saint refers to someone who is exceptionally virtuous and holy. ...


On 2 December 2006 a memorial bust of Keir Hardie was unveiled by Cynon Valley MP Ann Clwyd outside council offices in Aberdare (in his former constituency). The ceremony marked a centenary since the party's birth. is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cynon Valley is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... The Rt. ...


Also he is still held in high esteem in his old home town of Holytown, where his childhood home is preserved for people to view, whilst the local sports centre was named in his own honour "The Keir Hardie Sports Centre". Holytown is a small village situated outside Motherwell in North Lanarkshire, Scotland. ...

Parliament of the United Kingdom (1801–present)
Preceded by
George Banes
Member of Parliament for West Ham South
1892–1895
Succeeded by
George Banes
Preceded by
William Pritchard Morgan
Member of Parliament for Merthyr Tydfil
1900–1915
Succeeded by
Charles Butt Stanton
Political offices
Preceded by
New office
Chairman of the Independent Labour Party
1893–1900
Succeeded by
Bruce Glasier
Preceded by
New office
Chairman of the British Labour Party
1906–1908
Succeeded by
Arthur Henderson
Preceded by
William Crawford Anderson
Chairman of the Independent Labour Party
1913–1914
Succeeded by
Frederick William Jowett
Media offices
Preceded by
New position
Editor of the Labour Leader
1888–1904
Succeeded by
John Bruce Glasier

Type Bicameral Houses House of Commons House of Lords Speaker of the House of Commons The Right Honourable Michael Martin MP Lord Speaker Hélène Hayman, Baroness Hayman, PC Members 1377 (646 Commons, 731 Peers) Political groups (as of May 5, 2005 elections) Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... West Ham South was a parliamentary constituency in the the County Borough of West Ham, in what was then Essex but is now London. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... Merthyr Tydfil was a parliamentary constituency centred on the town of Merthyr Tydfil in South Wales. ... Charles Butt Stanton (1873-1946) was a Welsh politician. ... The Independent Labour Party (ILP) was a former political party in the United Kingdom. ... John Bruce Glasier (25 March 1859 - 4 June 1920) was a Scottish socialist politician. ... The Labour Party is an Anti-English political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Right Honourable Arthur Henderson (September 13, 1863 – October 20, 1935) was a British politician and union leader. ... William Crawford Anderson (1877 - 25 February 1919) was a British socialist politician. ... The Independent Labour Party (ILP) was a former political party in the United Kingdom. ... Frederick William Fred Jowett (31 January 1864 - 1 February 1944) was a British Labour politician. ... The Labour Leader was a British socialist newspaper published for almost one hundred years. ... John Bruce Glasier (25 March 1859 - 4 June 1920) was a Scottish socialist politician. ...

References and Further Reading

  • Benn, Caroline (1992) Keir Hardie London: Hutchinson ISBN 0-09-175343-0
  • Kevin Jefferys (ed), Leading Labour: From Keir Hardie to Tony Blair IB Taurus, 1999. ISBN 1860644538
  • Kenneth O. Morgan, Keir Hardie, Radical and Socialist Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1975
  • Kenneth O. Morgan, Labour People: Leaders and Lieutenants, Hardie to Kinnock OUP, 1987.
  • Greg Rosen (ed), Dictionary of Labour Biography. Politicos Publishing, 2001. ISBN 1902301188
  • Greg Rosen, Old Labour to New, Politicos Publishing, 2005. ISBN 1842750453

Caroline Middleton Decamp Benn (13 October 1926-22 November 2000) was an educationalist and writer, and wife of British Labour politician, Tony Benn. ... Hutchinson is a book publisher, and is a division of Random House. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Keir Hardie (311 words)
James Keir Hardie (1836-1915) was a Scottish born socialist and labour leader, the first Labour MP to be elected to the UK parliament.
Hardie caused a stir when he first arrived at parliament as he was attired in workers clothes rather than the formal day suit and silk hat then thought necessary for the smooth conduct of parliamentary business.
Hardie died in 1915, his health and heart broken by the outbreak of World War I, which he had bitterly opposed but had been helpless to stop.
Keir Hardie at AllExperts (1359 words)
Keir Hardie was born in Newhouse, North Lanarkshire in 1856, the illegitimate son of Mary Keir, a servant from Legbrannock, near Motherwell, Scotland.
Hardie hit the headlines in 1894 when after an explosion at a colliery in Pontypridd which killed 251 miners, he asked that a message of condolence to the relatives of the victims be added to an address of congratulations on the birth of a royal heir (the future Edward VIII).
Keir Hardie steered the Labour movement away from what he regarded as the damaging influence of Marxism, and towards a moderate, low church and trade unionist version of socialism that was practical, flexible and with time, helped create a socialist party that has been more electorally and politically successful than most socialist parties outside Scandinavia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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