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Encyclopedia > Kediri (historical kingdom)
This article is part of
the History of Indonesia series
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Timeline of Indonesian History
Prehistory
Early kingdoms
Srivijaya (3rd to 14th centuries)
Sailendra (8th & 9th centuries)
Kingdom of Mataram (752–1045)
Kediri (1045–1221)
Singhasari (1222–1292)
Majapahit (1293–1500)
The rise of Muslim states
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Malacca Sultanate (1400–1511)
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Mataram Sultanate (1500s to 1700s)
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The New Order (1966–1998)
Reformation Era (1998–present)
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Kediri was an Indianized kingdom based in eastern Java from 1042 to around 1222. Despite the seeming lack of archaeological remains, the age of Kediri was one which saw much development in field of classical literature. [1]. Several notable classic literature such as Mpu Sedah's Kakawin Bharatayuddha, Mpu Panuluh's Gatotkacasraya, and Mpu Dharmaja's Smaradahana were blossoming in this era. Marking Kediri as the era of Javanese literature renaissance, era of high development of culture and refinement. Indonesia is an archipelagic country of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited) stretching along the equator in South East Asia. ... Image File history File links Historyofindonesia. ... Main article: History of Indonesia This is a timeline of Indonesian history. ... Indonesia is an archipelagic country of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited) stretching along the equator in South East Asia. ... Map of Southeast Asia at end of 12th century. ... Sailendra ( meaning Lord of the Mountain in Sanskrit ) was the name of an Indonesian dynasty, emerging in Central Java at the end of the 8 th century. ... This acticle concerns the Hindu Kingdom of Mataram. ... Singhasari was a kingdom located in east Java between 1222 and 1292. ... The Majapahit Empire was based in eastern Java and ruled much of the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali from about 1293 to around 1500. ... Islam is thought to have first been adopted by Indonesians sometime during the eleventh century, although Muslims had visited Indonesia early in the Muslim era. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Sultanate of Demak was founded in the 16th century by Raden Patah (1475-1518), once a vassal of the declining Majapahit Empire. ... Aceh was a sultanate in the region of what is today Aceh Province of Indonesia. ... This article is about a historic kingdom on Java in what is now Indonesia. ... Indonesia is an archipelagic country of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited) stretching along the equator in South East Asia. ... This article is about the trading company. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The period of the Dutch Ethical Policy and Indonesian National Revival was a period in Indonesian history spanning from 1899 until the Japanese Invasion in 1942. ... The Japanese occupation of Indonesia refers to the period between 1942 and 1945, during World War II, when the Empire of Japan ruled Indonesia. ... The independece declaration announced by Sukarno The Indonesian Declaration of Independence was officially proclaimed at 10. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The era of Liberal Democracy (Indonesian: Demokrasi Liberal) was the name for the period in Indonesian history from the dissolution of the United States of Indonesia and the return to a unitary state in 1950, following the Indonesian National Revolution, to the imposition of martial law and the introduction by... Guided Democracy was the political system in place in Indonesia from 1957 until the New Order began in 1966. ... Indonesias Transition to the New Order occurred over 1965-67. ... The New Order (Indonesian: Orde Baru) is the term coined by former Indonesian President Suharto to characterize his regime as he came to power in 1966. ... The Reformation (in bahasa Indonesia Reformasi) is the name commonly used for the present era in the history of Indonesia. ... Image File history File links Acap. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... Events April 18/April 19 - Emperor Michael V of the Byzantine Empire attempts to remain sole Emperor by sending his adoptive mother and co-ruler Zoe of Byzantium to a monastery. ... Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Decades: 1170s 1180s 1190s 1200s 1210s - 1220s - 1230s 1240s 1250s 1260s 1270s Years: 1217 1218 1219 1220 1221 1222 1223 1224 1225 1226 1227 See also: 1222 state leaders Events Foundation of the University of Padua Completion of the Cistercian convent in Alcobaca... First page of Gunnings kakawin Bhāratayuddha (1903) in Javanese characters. ...

Contents

Overview

In 1045 Airlangga divided his kingdom, Kahuripan into two kingdoms, Janggala (based on contemporary Malang) and Kediri, abdicates in favour of his sons to live the life of an ascetic. He died four years later. For 50 years after the resignation of Airlangga, the fate of two kingdoms were unknown. Later only Kediri who leave historical records, while Janggala seems non existence or probably already absorbed by Kediri. Events Emperor Go-Reizei ascends the throne of Japan. ... One of the earliest and most important Javanese king, about whom anything is known, was Airlangga, who ruled over Java and Bali in the 11th century. ... The Kingdom of Janggala is one of the two Javanese kingdoms that was formed when Airlangga abdicated his throne in favour of his two sons in 1045. ... Malang is the second largest city in East Java province, Indonesia with an ancient history dating back to the Mataram Kingdom. ...


The Reign of Kediri Kings

The first king of Kediri that leave historical records was Çri Jayawarşa Digjaya Çāstaprabhu (reign 1104 - 1115). In his inscription dated 1104, just like Airlangga, he claim himself as the incarnation or avatar of Vishnu. Look up incarnation, incarnate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The ten avatars of Vishnu, copyright BBT In Hindu philosophy, an avatar (also spelt as avatara) (Sanskrit: , ), most commonly refers to the incarnation (bodily manifestation) of a higher being (deva), or the Supreme Being (God) onto planet Earth. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being (i. ...


The second king was Kameçwara (reign 1115 - 1130). His formal stylized name was Çri Maharaja Rake Sirikan çri Kameçwara Sakalabhuwanatustikarana Sarwaniwaryyawiryya Parakrama Digjayottunggadewa. Lancana (royal seal) of his reign was a skull with crescentmoon called chandrakapala, the symbol of Shiva. During his reign Mpu Dharmaja has written the book of Smaradahana. In this book the king was adored as the incarnation of Kamajaya, the god of love, and his capital city Dahana (later called Daha) was the most beautiful city admired throughout the known world. In this book, Kameçwara's wife, queen Çri Kirana the princess of Janggala was celebrated as the woman with extraordinary beauty, the incarnation of Kamaratih, goddess of love and passion. The couple Kameçwara and Kirana later is well known as the main character in the tales of Panji in Javanese literature, then spread throughout Southeast Asia as far as Siam. For other uses, see Siva (disambiguation). ... pela pali is must humanbenigs part Kāmadeva (Sanskrit: कामदेव) is the Hindu god of love. ... Detailed family tree of Kirana Gharana Kirana Gharana is one of the most prolific Hindustani khayal gharanas. ... In Hinduism, Rati is the goddess of passion and lust, and a daughter of Daksha. ... Panji (formerly Pandji) was a legendary prince in East Java, Indonesia. ... For the country formerly called Siam see Thailand SIAM is an acronym for Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. ...


The successor of Kameçwara is Jayabhaya (reign 1130 - 1160). His formal stylized name was Çri Maharaja çri Dharmmeçwara Madhusudanawataranindita Suhrtsingha Parakrama Digjayottunggadewa. Lancana (royal seal) of his reign was Narasingha. The name Jayabhaya was immortalized in mpu Sedah's Kakawin Bharatayuddha, a Javanese version of the Mahabharata written in 1157. This Kakawin later being perfected by his brother mpu Panuluh. Mpu Panuluh was also the author of the book of Hariwangsa and Gatotkacasraya. Jayabhaya's reign was considered as the golden age of Old Javanese literature. The Prelambang Joyoboyo, a prophetic book ascribed to Jayabhaya, is wellknown among Javanese as the book that predicted certain event that took place in the future of Java (and in wider sense, the future of Indonesian Archipelago). The popular prophecy was that the archipelago would be ruled by a white race for a long time, then a yellow race for a short time, then be glorious again. The Jayabhaya prophecies also mention the Ratu Adil, the Just Prince, a recurring popular figure in Javanese folklore. During the reign, Ternate was a vassal state of Kediri. First page of Gunnings kakawin Bhāratayuddha (1903) in Javanese characters. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... Javanese is a term used to describe a native of the Indonesian island of Java. ... World map depicting Malay Archipelago The Malay Archipelago is a vast archipelago located between mainland Southeastern Asia (Indochina) and Australia. ... The Ratu Adil, the Just King, is a messianc figure in Javanese folklore. ... A 1720 depiction of Ternate. ... Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Jayabhaya's successor was Sarwweçwara (reign 1160 - 1170), followed by Aryyeçwara (reign 1170 - 1180) who used Ganesha as his royal Lancana. The next monarch was king Gandra, his formal stylized name was Çri maharaja çri Kroncarryadipa Handabhuwanapalaka Parakramanindita Digjayottunggadewanama çri Gandra. An inscription from his reign (dated 1181) bears interesting fact. In this inscription we witnessed the beginning of the adoption of animal names as the name of important officials, such as Kbo Salawah, Menjangan Puguh, Lembu Agra, Gajah Kuning, Macan Putih, etc. Among these high ranked official mentioned in the inscription, there's a tittle "Senapati Sarwwajala", or laksmana, a title reserved for navy general, thus this gave the suggestion that Kediri owned navy fleet. For other uses, see Ganesha (disambiguation). ...


From 1190 to 1200 king Çrngga was the monarch of Kediri, with official name Çri maharaja çri Sarwweçwara Triwikramawataranindita Çrngga lancana Digwijayottunggadewa. He uses cangkha (winged shell) on crescent moon as royal seal.


The last king of Kediri was Kertajaya (reign 1200 - 1222). His royal seal was Garudamukha, the same as Airlangga's. On 1222 he was forced to surrender his throne to Ken Arok and lose the sovereignity of his kingdom to the new kingdom of Singhasari. This was the result of his defeat on the battle of Ganter. This event marked the end of Kediri era, and the beginning of Singhasari era. Ken Arok or Ken Angrok, (d. ... Singhasari was a kingdom located in east Java between 1222 and 1292. ... Singhasari was a kingdom located in east Java between 1222 and 1292. ...


Srivijaya and Kediri

In 1068, Virarajendra, the Chola king of Coromandel or Tamil Nadu, conquered Kedah from Srivijaya. Virarajendra’s records from his seventh year mention that he conquered Kadaram from Srivijaya on behalf of a king who had come to ask for help and protection and handed it over to him. The possible date for this occurrence is 1068 C.E. There is not any more information to be gleaned from this inscription. As yet we have no knowledge of the Srivijaya king who asked for help and the details of this naval campaign. The Cholas continued a series of raids and conquests throughout what is now Indonesia and Malaysia for the next 20 years. Although the Chola invasion was ultimately unsuccessful, it gravely weakened the Srivijayan hegemony and enabled the formation of regional kingdoms, like Kediri, based on agriculture rather than trade. And later Kediri even manage to control spice trade routes to eastern spice islands (Maluku). Events Emperor Go-Sanjo ascends the throne of Japan William the Conqueror takes Exeter after a brief siege Births Henry I of England (d. ... Virarajendra Chola (1063 – 1070 C.E.) became the Chola king succeeding his brother Rajendra Chola II. Rajamahendra, Rajendra’s son and heir apparent died before his father and Rajendra made his younger brother Virarajendra his heir. ... The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ... Coromandel can refer to several places: For the town and peninsula in New Zealand, see Coromandel, New Zealand and Coromandel Peninsula For the southeastern Indian coastline, see Coromandel Coast For the city in Minas Gerais, Brazil, see Coromandel (Minas Gerais) Coromandel, Mauritius is a community in Mauritius This is a... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... State anthem: Allah Selamatkan Sultan Mahkota Capital Alor Star Royal capital Anak Bukit Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Tuanku Abdul Halim  - Menteri Besar Mahdzir Khalid History    - British control 1909   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 9,426 km² Population  - 2003 estimate 1,778,188  - Density... Map of Southeast Asia at end of 12th century. ... State anthem: Allah Selamatkan Sultan Mahkota Capital Alor Star Royal capital Anak Bukit Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Tuanku Abdul Halim  - Menteri Besar Mahdzir Khalid History    - British control 1909   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 9,426 km² Population  - 2003 estimate 1,778,188  - Density... Map of Southeast Asia at end of 12th century. ... Events Emperor Go-Sanjo ascends the throne of Japan William the Conqueror takes Exeter after a brief siege Births Henry I of England (d. ...


According to a Chinese source in the book of Chu-fan-chi written around 1200, Chou-Ju-Kua describe that in Southeast Asia archipelago there was two most powerful and richest kingdoms; Srivijaya and Java (Kediri). In Java he founds that the people adhere two kinds of religions; buddhism and the religions of brahmins (hinduism). The people of Java are brave and short tempered, dare to put a fight. Their favourite pastimes was cockfighting and pigfighting. The curency was made from the mixture of copper, silver, and tin. Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Map of Southeast Asia at end of 12th century. ... This article is about the Java island. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... Young Indian brahmachari Brahmin A Brahmin (less often Brahman) is a member of the Hindu priestly caste. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Copper has played a significant part in the history of mankind, which has used the easily accessible uncompounded metal for nearly 10,000 years. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ...


The book of Chu-fan-chi mentioned that Java was ruled by a maharaja, that rules several colonies: Pai-hua-yuan (Pacitan), Ma-tung (Medang), Ta-pen (Tumapel), Hi-ning (Dieng), Jung-ya-lu (Hujung Galuh), Tung-ki (Jenggi, west Papua), Ta-kang (Sumba), Huang-ma-chu (Southwest Papua), Ma-li (Bali), Kulun (Gurun, identified as Gorong or Sorong in Papua or an island in Nusa Tenggara), Tan-jung-wu-lo (Tanjungpura in Borneo), Ti-wu (Timor), Pingya-i (Banggai in Sulawesi), and Wu-nu-ku (Maluku). [2]. Major-General H.H. Farzand-i-Dilband Rasikh- al-Iqtidad-i-Daulat-i-Inglishia, Raja-i-Rajagan, Maharaja Sir Jagatjit Singh, Bahadur, Maharaja of Kapurthala, GCSI , GCIE , GBE The word Mahārāja (also spelled maharajah) is Sanskrit for great king or high king (a karmadharaya from mahānt great...


About Srivijaya, Chou-Ju-Kua reported that Kien-pi (Kampe, in northern sumatra) with armed forced rebelion has liberated themself from Srivijaya, thus has coronated their own king. The same fate goes to some Srivijaya's colonies at malay peninsula that liberated themself from Srivijaya domination. However Srivijaya still the mightiest and wealthiest state in western part of archipelago. Srivijaya's colony are: Pong-fong (Pahang), Tong-ya-nong (Trengganu), Ling-ya-ssi-kia (Lengkasuka), Kilan-tan (Kelantan), Fo-lo-an (?), Ji-lo-t'ing (Jelutong), Ts'ien-mai (?), Pa-t'a (Batak), Tan-ma-ling (Tambralingga, Ligor), Kia-lo-hi (Grahi, northen part of malay peninsula), Pa-lin-fong (Palembang), Sin-t'o (Sunda), Lan-wu-li (Lamuri at Aceh), Si-lan (Sailan?). According to this source in early 13th century Srivijaya still ruled Sumatra, Malay peninsula, and western Java (Sunda). About Sunda the book describe it further that the port of Sunda (Sunda Kalapa) is really good and strategic, pepper from Sunda is among the best quality. People work on agriculture and their house are build on wooden piles (rumah panggung). However the country was invested by robbers and thieves. In sum, this chinese source from early 13th century suggested that the Indonesian archipelago was ruled by two great kingdom, western part was under Srivijaya's rule, while eastern part was under Kediri domination. Look up pepper in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... World map depicting Malay Archipelago The Malay Archipelago is a vast archipelago located between mainland Southeastern Asia (Indochina) and Australia. ...


Culture

Celebrated as the era of blossomming literature and culture, Kediri gave Javanese culture significant contributions in the field of Javanese classic literature. Next to literary works that has been mentioned earlier, there's also other important literary works, such as the book of Lubdhaka and Wrtasancaya by Mpu Tanakung, Krisnayana written by Mpu Triguna, and Sumanasantaka by Mpu Monaguna.


The book of Ling-wai-tai-ta composed by Chou K'u-fei in 1178 gave the glimpse of everyday life of Kediri that can not be found from any other sources about the goverment and the people of Kediri. [3]. According to this Chinese source, people wears clothes covered down to their legs, their hairstyle are drop and released loosely. Their houses were clean and well arranged with floor made from green or yellow cutted stones. Agriculture, animal farming, and trading flourished and gain full attention from goverment. He reported that silkworm farm to produce silk and cotton clothes production are already adopted by Javanese. There's no physical punishment (jail or torture) for criminals. The people who committed unlawful act was forced to pay fines in gold, except for thieves and robbers who straightly punished with death sentence. In marital customs, the bride's family received some ammount of gold as the bride price from the groom's family. Currency of Kediri was native silver coins. Instead of developing medical treatment, people who were sick was praying for health to gods or buddha. Binomial name Bombyx mori Linnaeus, 1758 For other senses of this word, see silkworm (disambiguation). ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... Bride price also known as bride wealth or a dower is an amount of money or property paid to the parents of a woman for the right to marry their daughter. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... This article is about monetary coins. ... Media:Example. ...


On the fifth month of the year the water festival was celebrated, people travel in boats on the river to celebrate the festival. On the 10th months, the annual festival was held at the mountain area. People gather there to have fun and perform musical festival with instruments such as flutes, drums, and wooden xylophone (ancient form of gamelan). This article pertains to the musical instrument. ... Bass drum made from wood, rope, and cowskin A drum is a musical instrument in the percussion group that can be large, technically classified as a membranophone. ... Kulintang a Kayo, a Philippine xylophone The xylophone (from the Greek meaning wooden sound) is a musical instrument in the percussion family which probably originated in Indonesia. ... Gamelan - Indonesian Embassy in Canberra A gamelan is a kind of musical ensemble of Indonesian origin typically featuring a variety of instruments such as metallophones, xylophones, drums, and gongs; bamboo flutes, bowed and plucked strings, and vocalists may also be included. ...


Still according to Chinese account, the King was wearing silk garments, wearing leather shoes and ornately golden jewelry. The king's hairstyle was arranged up high. Everyday he received state officials whom managing his kingdom. The shape of king's throne was square. After the audiency, the states official will bow three times to the king. If the king travel outside the palace, he ride an elephant, accompanied by 500 to 700 soldiers and officials, while his subjects, the people of Kediri prostrate along the sideways until the king passed the road. For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... Modern leather-working tools Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides and skins of animals, primarily cattlehide. ... shoe for right foot A shoe is a piece of footwear for humans, less than a boot and more than a slipper. ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea... Prostration is the placement of the body in a reverentially or submissively prone position. ...


Economy

Initially Kediri economy was mainly rely on agriculture, especially rice cultivation. Daha, the capital city of Kediri (suggested at the same site as modern Kediri ) is located inland, near the fertile Brantas river valley. From the predecessor kingdom of Airlangga's Kahuripan, Kediri inherited irrigation systems, including Wringin Sapta dam. According to chinese source the main occupation of Kediri people is agriculture (rice cultivation), animal farming (cattle, boar, poultry), and trading. Kediri economy was partly monetized, and silver coins currency of Kediri was issued by the royal court. RICE is a treatment method for soft tissue injury which is an abbreviation for Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation. ... Kediri is a city in East Java, Indonesia. ... Brantas is the longest river in East Java. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The wild boar (Sus scrofa) is the wild ancestor of the domestic pig. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


On later period, Kediri economy grow to also rely on trading aspect, especially spice trade. Kediri manage to have navy fleet unit, thus gave them opportunity to control spice trade routes to eastern islands. Kediri collected spices from tributaries in southern Kalimantan and the Maluku Islands, known to the West as the Spice Islands or Moluccas. Indian and Southeast Asian merchants among others then transported the spices to Mediterranean and Chinese markets by way of the Spice Route that linked a chain of ports from the Indian Ocean to southern China. Kalimantan is the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. ... Maluku redirects here. ... Spice Islands most commonly refers to the Maluku Islands (formerly the Moluccas), which lie on the equator, between Sulawesi (Celebes) and New Guinea in what is now Indonesia. ... This page is about the geography and history of the island group in Indonesia — for the political entities encompassing the islands, see Maluku (Indonesian province) and North Maluku. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Look up Market in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A trade route is the sequence of pathways and stopping places used for the commercial transport of cargo. ...


The Rulers of Kediri

  • Unknown ruler 1042 - 1104 (the era of twin kingdoms: Janggala and Kediri)
  • Çri Jayawarşa Digjaya Çāstaprabhu 1104 - 1115
  • Kameçwara 1115 - 1130
  • Jayabhaya 1130 - 1160
  • Sarwweçwara 1160 - 1170
  • Aryyeçwara 1170 - 1180
  • Gandra 1180 - 1190
  • Çrngga 1190 - 1200
  • Kertajaya 1200 - 1222

References

General

  • Soekmono, R, Drs., Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2, 2nd ed. Penerbit Kanisius, Yogyakarta, 1973, 5th reprint edition in 1988

Notes

  1. ^ Bullough, Nigel (Indonesian 50th independence day commemorative edition - 1995). Historic East Java: Remains in Stone. Jakarta: ADLine Communications, page 19. 
  2. ^ Drs. R. Soekmono, (1973, 5th reprint edition in 1988). Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2, 2nd ed.. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Kanisius, page 60. 
  3. ^ Drs. R. Soekmono, (1973, 5th reprint edition in 1988). Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2, 2nd ed.. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Kanisius, page 59. 
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